VIENNA, 5 and 6 JULY 2004
Carole Després
Guido Francescato
Sigrun Kabish
Maria Nordstrom
Andrew Seidel
Esther Wiesenfeld
31 MARCH 2004
# 185
Ms Claire Henderson-Wilson
School of Health and Social Development
Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, Deakin University
221 Burwood Highway,
Burwood, Victoria
[email protected]
PhD Program:
Full-time student undertaking three year PhD candidature. Examination is by submission of a
100,00 word thesis titled “Living High but Healthy: Impacts of access to nature on inner city
highrise residents’ health, wellbeing and effective functioning”. Estimated date of submission is
February 2006.
Supervisors: Dr Mardie Townsend and Associate Professor Lawrie St Leger.
Inner city highrise apartment living in Australia: Can access to nature make it healthier?
There is a growing body of research which suggests that life in the inner city may be detrimental
to human health (Parsons, 1991; Rohde & Kendle, 1994). Highrise apartment living has been
found to impact negatively on residents, being associated with lower physical activity,
behavioural problems, respiratory problems and social isolation (Evans, Wells & Moch, 2003;
Jackson, 2002). Despite this awareness, highrise apartment living in the major cities of Australia
is increasing rapidly.
Since 1996, the growth in Australia’s urbanisation has accelerated, with the City of Melbourne
estimating that between 1996 and 2000, the number of inner city apartment dwellers increased
almost three-fold (City of Melbourne, 2000). Similarly, Sydney’s Central Business District
population tripled between 1991 and 1997 (Dean, 2000). Such trends are expected to continue in
Australia’s major cities.
Contact with nature, for example, parks, gardens, pets and bodies of water (ie. lakes, rivers, the
sea), has been shown to alleviate some of the negative effects of living in the inner city.
Research suggests that nearby nature (eg. ‘green’ common spaces) can result in positive human
health benefits ranging from: enhancement of mental wellbeing (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Wells,
2000), to improved social integration (Kuo, Sullivan, Coley & Brunson, 1998) to reduction of
crime (Kuo & Sullivan, 2001), and to promotion of individuals’ ability to deal effectively with
daily life challenges (Kuo, 2001).
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Recent research conducted by Kuo (2001) in the United States of America demonstrates a
positive link between ‘green environments’ in highrise developments and the effective
management of challenging life events. In addition, Kuo (2001) has also found a connection
between contact with nature for highrise residents and their strengthened ability to cope with
poverty and the hardships of life in public housing.
The present study investigates the association between differing levels of access to natural
environments (parks, gardens, pets and bodies of water) and the health, wellbeing and effective
functioning of highrise residents in inner city Melbourne and Sydney. This study is the first of
its kind to be conducted in Australia and extends the work by Kuo (2001), to include participants
who vary in socioeconomic status, tenure and geographic location.
The study hypothesises that ‘inner city highrise residents with good access to ‘green spaces and
bodies of water’ will report better effectiveness regarding everyday functioning and higher levels
of health and wellbeing than those reported by inner city highrise residents with poor access to
‘green spaces and bodies of water’. Good and poor access to ‘green spaces and bodies of water’
is defined through utilisation of Kuo’s (2001) Photo Rating Technique.
In order to determine the hypothesis, the study employs two methods of data collection:
distribution of a self-completed questionnaire comprised of psychometrically validated selfreport measures to a sample of 600 highrise residents and semi-structured face-to-face interviews
with a sub-sample of 300 residents.
Being one year into the PhD candidature, to date the theoretical framework and literature review
have been developed, and the pilot study conducted. Large scale administration of the
questionnaire has begun and this paper will report on the preliminary results.
Results of this study should provide urban planners, park managers, and government bodies with
evidence to ensure future Australian urban development enhances inner city public health and
wellbeing, particularly inner city populations under stress (eg. public housing).
City of Melbourne. 2000. Housing survey- new inner city residents, Melbourne.
Dean, P. 2000. Sydney: A city gone global. In Archis, (The Dutch on-line journal of
Architecture, City and Visual Culture).
Evans, G. W., Wells, N. M., & Moch, A. (2003). Housing and Mental Health: A review of the
evidence and a methodological and conceptual critique. Journal of Social Issues, 59(3),
Jackson, L. E. (2002). The relationship of urban design to human health and condition.
Landscapes and Urban Planning, 993, 1-10.
Johnston, J. (1990). Gaining Public Support for Wildlife in the City. In Green Cities Ecologically Sound Approaches To Urban Space (Ed. by Gordon, D.) Canada: Black
Rose Books Ltd.
Kaplan, R. & Kaplan, S. 1989. The experience of nature: A psychological perspective.
Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Kuo, F. E. (2001). Coping With Poverty: Impacts of Environment and Attention in the Inner
City. Environment and Behavior, 33(1), 5-34.
Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2001). Environment And Crime In The Inner City: Does
Vegetation Reduce Crime? Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 343-367.
Kuo, F. E., Sullivan, W. C., Coley, R. L., & Brunson, L. (1998). Fertile Ground for Community:
Inner-City Neighborhood Common Spaces. American Journal of Community Psychology,
26(6), 823-851.
Parsons, R. 1991. The potential influences of environmental perception on human
health. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 1-23.
Rohde, C.L.E. & Kendle, A.D. 1994. Report to English nature- human wellbeing,
natural landscapes and wildlife in urban areas: A review. Bath: University of Reading,
Department of Horticulture and Landscape and the Research Institute for the Care of the
Wells, N. M. (2000). At Home With Nature: Effects of 'Greenness' on Children's Cognitive
Functioning. Environment and Behavior, 32(6), 775-795.
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Ms Cecily Maller
School of Health & Social Development, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences
Deakin University, Australia
[email protected]
PhD Program
Status - Full time, on-campus.
Requirements - Submission of a thesis, up to 100,000 words (due August, 2005).
Supervisors : Dr Mardie Townsend & Associate Professor Lawrence St Leger.
Nature in the Schoolyard: Investigations into the Potential of ‘Hands-on’ Contact with
Nature to Improve the Mental Health & Wellbeing of Primary School Children.
Recent work on the health and wellbeing benefits of contact with animals and/or plants indicates
the natural environment may have significant psychological and physiological effects on health
and wellbeing of children (Wells, 2000; Taylor et al, 1998). These studies demonstrate that
children function better cognitively and emotionally in green environments (Taylor et al, 2001;
Wells, 2000) and have more creative play in green areas (Taylor et al, 1998). Other work has
demonstrated that children have an abiding affiliation with nature, even in economically
impoverished urban communities (Taylor et al, 1998; Kahn, 1997). Direct experience of nature
could play a significant role in children’s affective, cognitive, and evaluative development
(Kellert, 2002), but further study is needed.
The literature indicates increasing concern about the lack of time humans, particularly children,
spend in outdoor environments (Kellert, 2002; Orr, 2002; Pyle; 2002; Stilgoe, 2001), the
increasingly limited opportunities to encounter and interact with the natural world (Orr; 2002;
Frumkin, 2001), and the fact that modern society insulates people from outdoor environmental
stimuli (Stilgoe, 2001; Simpson, 1994). For children, concerns focus on the detrimental effects
on cognitive and emotional development (Kellert, 2002), the paucity of opportunities to develop
an ethic of care for the environment and empathy for other living creatures/fellow humans
(Kahn, 2002), a lack of understanding about the interconnectedness of all life forms, and many
other valuable lessons to be learned from nature (Orr, 2002; Capra, 1997).
In Australia, many schools are incorporating nature-based activities into their curricula.
Although most programs appear successful, few have been evaluated, particularly in terms of the
health-promoting role played by the nature-related elements. This paper will report on
preliminary results of a research program investigating the health benefits of contact with nature
for primary school children. The potential benefits to the mental health of children from handson contact with nature (i.e. those activities that enable children to personally have contact with
key elements of nature, such as plants, and animals) via environmental education and/or naturebased programs are investigated in a Western cultural context via urban primary schools in
Melbourne, Australia. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of ‘hands-on’ contact
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with nature, via nature-based environmental education activities encountered during primary
schooling, to promote the mental health and wellbeing of urban Victorian primary school
children. Specifically, this study examines nature-based activities such as school gardens and/or
those activities run by the environmental education organisations, where children have the
opportunity to directly engage with the natural environment. Research Questions include: 1) To
describe the extent and type of ‘hands-on’ nature-based programs implemented in urban
Victorian primary schools; 2) To determine the perceptions of principals, key staff members, and
parents as to the effects on mental health and wellbeing of children participating in those
programs and the effects on the school community as a whole; 3) To determine the health
promotion potential of ‘hands-on’ nature-based programs, and the enablers and barriers to the
implementation of these programs in urban Victorian primary schools.
The research program comprises a survey of primary school principals, detailed case studies, and
examination of the literature. Preliminary results from the survey will be presented along with an
outline of the later stages of the program (not yet commenced) and an overview of the literature.
It is anticipated that findings will be useful for validation of many nature-based programs already
initiated by schools, and provide greater incentive to governments, educators, and researchers to
develop these programs further.
Capra, F. 1997. Turn, Turn, Turn: Understanding Nature's Cycles. In: A Garden in Every School:
Cultivating a Sense of Season and a Sense of Place, March 15 1997, pp. 1-9. Martin
Luther King Middle School: Center for Ecoliteracy.
Frumkin, H. 2001. Beyond Toxicity Human Health and the Natural Environment. American
Journal of Preventative Medicine, 20, 234-240.
Herrman, H. 2001. The Need for Mental Health Promotion. Australian and New Zealand Journal
of Psychiatry, 35, 709-715.
Kahn, P. H., Jr. 2002. Children's Affiliations with Nature: Structure, Development, and the
Problem of Environmental Generational Amnesia. In: Children and Nature:
Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations (Ed. by Kahn, P. H. J. &
Kellert, S. R.), pp. 93-116. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Kahn, P. H., Jr. 1997. Developmental Psychology and the Biophilia Hypothesis: Children's
Affiliation with Nature. Developmental Review, 17, 1-61.
Kellert, S. R. 2002. Experiencing Nature: Affective, Cognitive, and Evaluative Development in
Children. In: Children and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary
Investigations (Ed. by Kahn, P. H. J. & Kellert, S. R.), pp. 117-151. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Orr, D. W. 2002. Political Economy and the Ecology of Childhood. In: Children and Nature:
Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations (Ed. by Kahn, P. H. J. &
Kellert, S. R.), pp. 279-303. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Pyle, R. M. 2002. Eden in a Vacant Lot: Special Places, Species, and Kids in the Neighborhood
of Life. In: Children and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary
Investigations (Ed. by Kahn, P. H. J. & Kellert, S. R.), pp. 304-327. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Simpson, R. 1994. Urbanization: A Major Environmental Challenge to Health. In: Ecological
Public Health: From Vision to Practice (Ed. by Chu, C. & Simpson, R.), pp. 47-51.
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Nathan: Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Griffith University, Queensland,
Australia and Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, Canada.
Stilgoe, J. R. 2001. Gone Barefoot Lately? American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 20, 243244.
Taylor, A. F., Kuo, F. E. & Sullivan, W. C. 2001. Coping With ADD: The Surprising
Connection to Green Play Settings. Environment & Behavior, 33, 54-77.
Taylor, A. F., Wiley, A., Kuo, F. E. & Sullivan, W. C. 1998. Growing up in the Inner City:
Green Spaces as Places to Grow. Environment & Behavior, 30, 3-28.
Wells, N. M. 2000. At Home With Nature: Effects of "Greenness" on Children's Cognitive
Functioning. Environment & Behavior, 32, 775-795.
Key Words - Nature, Children, Mental Health, Schools, Urban Environments
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Jenny Millar
Ph.D. Candidate
School of Architecture, University of Dundee
Supervisors: Mr Brian Adams (School of Architecture, University of Dundee) and Professor
Seaton Baxter (School of Design, University of Dundee)
Child Responsive Architecture: A Learning Tool
An Investigation into Children’s Perceptions of Architectural Space
“There are children playing in the street who could solve some of my top problems in
physics, because they have modes of sensory perception that I lost long ago.”
J Robert Oppenheimer, Physicist
With regard to works previous (Stea &Taphanel, Tolman, Vygotsky et al), this hypothesis is
formulated that, in relation to perception of space in the western world, young children have a
fundamentally different understanding to that of adults. If this holds true, it could raise certain
issues with the ways in which architects design buildings in terms of spatial awareness,
orientational understanding and building language.
This paper discusses the background to the hypothesis, outlines the questions that must be
answered in order to improve the building design process and highlights the methodologies by
which these questions will be addressed.
Concerning cerebral lateralization, it has been demonstrated that pre-school children exercise
their right hemisphere in an intensive way whilst simultaneously exercising their left hemisphere
in the processing of language and through the production of speech (Springer, SP & Deutch, G,
1998). However, at the onset of formal education, the right hemisphere processes of imagination
and intuition appear to be disregarded; hence the left becomes the dominant hemisphere
(Edwards, B, 2001). The functions of the left hemisphere, through schooling, are being
formalised – the logic is being aligned – whilst the right hemisphere is given much less
encouragement and so logic appears to surpass intuition. In regards to spatial awareness – a
logical understanding of space takes over from the base intuition of youth.
It is suggested that in the western world, men and women only use half the mental capacity that
it is available to them (Ornstein, R, 1975). By focussing on the left hemisphere and in many
ways ignoring the education and the potential of the right, western civilisation is not reaching the
potential that it could if using the brain to its full extent. (Ornstein, R, 1975) Those who receive
formal schooling, especially from a young age, tend to become much more reliant on logical
methods, rather than spatial methods of learning and understanding (Molfese, DL & Segalowitz,
SJ, 1998).
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It is possible that, at present, the design of the built environment not only inhibits children, but
also, due to a lack of understanding into their needs, is giving out signals to which they have a
completely different response than adults expect of them (Stea & Taphanel, 1974). When
considered, this highlights certain moral issues regarding how designers should respond to the
people for whom they are designing. If children do indeed have a different perception of space to
that of adults, then how can designers maximize the use of this knowledge and understanding to
the fullest potential when creating space?
By applying the fields of child psychology, sociology and neurology to the notion of
architectural space, the intent of this research is to determine the most crucial ways in which
children’s perceptions and reactions differ, in some ways substantially, to those of adults. It will
be tested by natural investigation, within two spatially different buildings with separate groups of
children and adults of Scottish working class culture by looking at their personal and social
cognitive maps by means of physical, verbal, drawn and written outputs. The natural potential
for further research into this, in the future, would be to initiate a design based study to create a
child specific space which then responds correctly to the needs of children and could be used to
evaluate the conclusions.
ORNSTEIN, R (1975), The Psychology of Consciousness, Jonathan Cape, London
STEA, D & TAPHNEL, S, Theory and Experiment on the Relation Between Environmental
Modelling (Toy Play) and Environmental Cognition, from CANTER D & LEE, T (eds),
(1974), Psychology and the Built Environment, Architectural Press, Kent, England
TOLMAN, EC, (1961), Behaviour and the Psychological Man, University of California Press,
VYGOTSKY, LS, (1978), Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes,
University Press, Cambridge, MA
SPRINGER, SP & DEUTSCH, G, (1998), Left Brain/ Right Brain Perspectives from Cognitive
Neuroscience (5th ed.), WH Freeman and Company, New York
EDWARDS, B, (2001), The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, Harper Collins
Publishers, London
GOLDSTEIN, EB, (2002), Sensation and Perception (5th ed), Wadsworth Group, California
MOLFESE, DL & SEGALOWITZ, SJ (eds), (1998), Brain Lateralisation in Children, The
Guilford Press, New York
Keywords: Architecture, Spatial Perception, Children
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Yi-Ling Lin,
Master Student, Graduate Institute of Multicultural Education, National Hualien Teachers
College, Hualien, Taiwan. E-mail: [email protected]
Yung-Jaan Lee (corresponding author), Prof. Ph.D., Graduate Institute of Architecture and
Urban Planning, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111; [email protected]
From Local Identity to Explore the Preservation and Reuse of Historic Buildings: A Case
Study of Pinetum Hostel, Hualien, Taiwan
Historic buildings, which carry collective memories of Taiwanese, have gradually disappeared.
The preservation and reuse of historic buildings have become Taiwan’s new paradigm of
architectural discourses and practices. The preservation and reuse of historic buildings,
suggesting emancipation and transformation of public spaces, have become the dominant trend
of socio-cultural development in Taiwan. They are not only the transformation of the spatial
functions, but also an important perspective of socio-cultural development. They are the spatial
practice process of the “lived conservation” mechanism. Moreover, they are the linkage between
local identity and residents.
This works uses the “Pinetum Hostel” in Hualien, Taiwan as an example and adopts related
discourses of historic buildings, reuse, and local identity to explore the preservation of historical
buildings with regard to the transformation of future spatial reform. The Pinetum Hostel used to
be the office of the Naval Administration in the Japanese colonial period. This site was taken by
Taiwanese government in the wake of the end of WWII. It is the only Japanese military remains
preserved in good condition in Hualien. On July 13, 2000, Hualien County Government
officially classified the Pinetum Hostel a “Special Historic Attraction Zone.” This work will use
literature review, in-depth interview, and iconographic approaches to investigate the
relationships between local identity and historical building preservation. Furthermore, this work
will explore cultural image behind the preservation and reuse of historic buildings. Finally, this
work suggests a reflexivity movement for the preservation and reuse of historic buildings.
Barker, C. (2000), Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice, London: Sage.
Delafons, J. (1997), Politics and Preservation: A Policy History of the Built Heritage, 18821996, London: E & FN Spon.
Entrikin, J. N. (1991),. The Betweenness of Place: Toward a Geography of Modernity, London:
Entrikin, J. N. (1994), Place and Region, Progress in Human Geography, 18 (2): 227-233.
Gehl, J. (1987), Life between Buildings: Using Public Space. New York: Van Nostrand
Rubin, H. J. & R. S. Rubin (1995). Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Short, J.R., The Urban Order: An Introduction to Cities, Culture, and Power. Oxford: Blackwell,
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Williams, D. R, M. E. Patterson, J. W. Roggenbuck & A. E. Watson (1992), Beyond the
Commodity Metaphor: Examining Emotional and Symbolic Attachment to Place, Leisure
Sciences. pp. 29-46.
Local Identity, Preservation, Historic Buildings
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YeonKoo HONG
Ph.D in Psychology
Psychology Department, University of Surrey, U.K
[email protected]
Supervisors: Prof. David Uzzell and Dr. Lynne Purvis
An Integrated Approach to Behavior Setting Analysis on an Open-Plan Office
Theoretical framework
A behaviour setting can be viewed as a small-scale social system comprising people and
inanimate components (Barker, 1968). Various components within the temporal and spatial
boundaries of the system interact in an orderly and highly regulated fashion to fulfil essential
setting functions.
As a result of constant person-environment interaction, behaviour settings become associated
with particular patterns of behaviour (Bechtel, 1982). Thus, analyzing the behavioural patterns
occurring within each setting as well as its context and internal dynamics can help to understand
and evaluate the impact of the physical aspects of the setting in relation to its key functions and
Conceiving of the environment in behaviour setting terms makes it clear that physical features of
the workplace environment and behaviour patterns within the enclosure must be closely
interrelated. Thus, workspaces and facilities must not only create a desired mood or atmosphere
but also facilitate actions of people for organizational purposes.
Research methodology
The overall conceptual framework of the study comes from Wicker’s (1987, p.618) view on
behavior setting in which a setting is analyzed based on ‘setting facets and elements’. There are
three main facets and their components as the elements: 1) context (social & organizational
environment), 2) internal dynamics (personal cognitions & motives functional activities, and
social processes), and 3) resources (people, space, behavioural objects, and information &
In the process of substantive theorizing (Wicker, 2002 p.119), research questions are explored
and working theories are developed from surveys as well as subjective occupant accounts, and
later refined, elaborated, and modified in relation to the objective patterns of behaviour. Then,
developed from the behaviour setting K21 survey (Barker, 1968; Wicker, 1979; Bechtel, 1987),
Behaviour Setting Analysis attempts a quantitative measure of environment-behaviour
interdependence within and between the elements of setting ‘resources’: people, space, and
behavioural objects.
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Thus, using an integrated approach to BSA, the study looks at the overall environment-behavior
fit of a behavior setting as a workplace system in relation to setting functions and organizational
Research problem
The present study assesses the open plan office environment in relation to physical structure
(arrangement of the groups in an open space, individual workstation boundaries and activities,
facility use and locations, privacy issues and physical distractions), interpersonal and social
relationships, and the attitudes and perceptions among office users.
In addition, the study will compare over a 6 month period of time the working environments and
the effect of the physical changes on the individuals, groups, and organization as a whole.
Research setting
The setting of particular interest is an open plan office environment in a University Library,
staffed by people who have recently been migrated from a set of closed group offices. The open
setting consists of about 28 regular occupants from 4~5 different work groups.
Research objectives
Overall, the objectives of the study are 1) to describe key behavioral characteristics of office
users in relation to the office environment, 2) to identify social and physical variables from the
environment that affect or interact with the office users’ cognitions, motivations, and social
processes, 3) to assess the structure of social interactions among individuals as well as groups, 4)
to assess the interdependence and boundaries among workstations and facilities, 5) thus, to
evaluate the overall environment-behavior fit in the workplace system for the setting functions
and organizational goals.
Data collection
For the data gathering, a) activity and environmental attitude survey questionnaires, b) individual
interviews, c) Behaviour Setting Analysis questionnaire, and c) observations and office
photographs are conducted as the main tools.
As a longitudinal comparative study, the initial data gathering was taken place in late November
2003 (about a month after the move into the open plan office from enclosed group offices) and
another will be in late May, 2004.
Findings (preliminary)
The initial findings of the study show that most of the participants saw the open office
environment quite satisfactorily, and regarded the office environment as helping to develop a
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better sense of group as a whole. They generally considered the physical changes as
improvement or better than before, and yet perceived them as not well consulted with them.
It was also found that satisfaction on the individual equipment is an important element of overall
satisfaction on the facilities and the physical environment, and senior members of the office
occupants expressed relatively low level of satisfactions about the facilities and the physical
environment as positively correlated with their satisfaction level on the organizational
Conclusion (preliminary)
Due to the relatively collaborative type of the work activities of the occupants, the open office
environment seems to bring them a moderate level of satisfaction on the close individual
workstation setup while increase the opportunities of natural interactions among the occupants.
However, degrees of satisfaction on the physical environment are negatively associated with the
amount of individual solo work requiring high level of concentration and psychological privacy
as well as the distraction factors from the surroundings or locations of individual workstations.
Physical boundaries and facility use seemed to clearly reflect the delineation of the social
boundaries of the organization.
Barker, R. (1968). Ecological psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment
of human behavior. C.A: Stanford University Press
Bechtel, R. (1977). Enclosing Behavior. AZ: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.
Bechtel, R. (1982). Contributions of ecological psychology to the evaluation of environments.
International review of applied psychology, 31, 153-167.
Bechtel, R. (1987). Ecological psychology. In R. Bechtel, R. Marans, & W. Michelson (Eds.),
Methods in environmental and behavioral research (pp. 191-215). NY: Van Nostrand
Reinhold Inc.
Wicker, A.W. (1979). An introduction to ecological psychology. CA: Wadsworth, Inc.
Wicker, A.W. (1987). Behavior settings reconsidered: temporal stages, resources, internal
dynamics, context. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental
psychology (Vol. 2. pp. 613-653). New York: Wiley.
Wicker, A.W. (2002). Ecological Psychology: Historical contexts, current conception,
prospective directions. In R. Bechtel & A. Churchman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental
psychology (2nd ed., pp.114-126). New York: Wiley.
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Carina Weingaertner-Kohlscheen
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
Built Environment Analysis Unit, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
Supervisor : Örjan Svane, associate professor, KTH - Built Environment Analysis
MAMMUT – Managing the Metabolism of Urbanisation. Pilote studies in Stockholm and
Dar es Saalam
Urbanisation is people moving to cities – resulting in a need for new buildings and infrasystems,
new institutions, often a new way of life; but also in leaving something behind. How does this
relate to the sustainability challenge? If migration is unavoidable, urbanisation gives
opportunities for addressing the long-term objectives of sustainable development. At KTH,
Stockholm, a cross-disciplinary research project is presently initiated, that explores the
urbanisation process of Dar es Salaam and Stockholm. In this process, stakeholders face different
options while seeking to shape the city’s urban development. The analysis of these options show
the extent to which - guided by objectives of sustainability - the urbanization process can be
managed. Environmental impacts originated by the exchange of resources between the city and
its hinterlands - the metabolism - will indicate to what extent sustainability is attained.
As a preliminary part of the project mentioned above, this paper discusses pilot studies
developed through workshops and information gathered from existing literature. The last 50
years in the urbanization process of Stockholm and Dar es Salaam are briefly studied. The
concept of Situations of Opportunities is used as a research tool for delimiting and defining the
relevant units of analysis of the case studies. A Situation of Opportunity is a moment in the
process of urbanisation, when stakeholders have a greater possibility than average to influence its
future development.
For each city, one Situation is described to exemplify the possibilities and limitations with this
research strategy. In historical situations like the ones discussed here, there is a factual outcome
in physical form, institutional framework, new ways of life and environmental impacts. There
were, however, also alternatives to the factual outcome. These alternatives combined with the
factual outcome shape the Field of Options that was available to the stakeholders. In this study,
the Field of Options is illustrated through the factual outcome and one contra-factual scenario.
Thus for each Situation and each Scenario there is a brief description and analysis of its resulting
physical urban structure, the institutions needed for development and operation and the resulting
ways of life of the households as well as a brief qualitative assessment of its main environmental
impacts. The environmental impacts of the actual solution and the scenario will then, to some
extent, be compared.
For Stockholm the chosen Situation of Opportunity is the development of the Underground
system in the 1940’s. Discussions about the need for an Underground system in Stockholm got
momentum in the early 30’s due to major traffic problems in the city. The decision was taken in
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1941 and construction started in 1945, reaching its near-mature state in 1978. The Underground
influenced the physical urban structure of the city not only due to construction of rail network
and tunnels, but also because near its stations new housing areas and local centres for shopping
and public services developed. Social implications of this public transport system included:
facilitation of commuting mentality (living in one part of the city and working in another) and
imposition of time restrictions to users because the Underground shuts down at night. Institutions
that played important roles in the development and implementation of the Underground were
Stockholm City and the company Stockholm Tramways (SS), which in 1967 became Stockholm
Lokaltrafik (SL). SL remains the main company running the Underground, although since the
90’s operation activities have been subcontracted to a separate company (Connex).
Environmental impacts related to the development of the Underground result from the changes in
the city’s physical configuration, as well as the influence of the institutional structures and
changes in the ways of life. Some of the impacts are briefly accessed and described. The
alternative scenario is based on the use of private cars and buses instead of commuting with the
Underground. In this case, physical implications such as the construction of highways and roads,
more of urban sprawl and large parking areas can be expected. Institutions like regional and local
planning offices and road authorities as well as car owners are likely to play important roles.
Among changes in the ways of life are longer commuting distances and higher individual
mobility. Just as in the factual case, environmental impacts will derive from the changes in the
physical, institutional and social structures of the city, and in this case they are expected to be
more severe than in the factual situation.
The Situation of Opportunity analysed in Dar es Saalam is the urban public transport system. In
1949 a private company (Dar es Saalam Motor Transport Company - DMT), subsidiary from a
British company, started providing urban public transport in the city. In the 70’s, after
Tanzania’s independency, DMT was nationalized and restructured, but it continued holding
monopoly-rights for public transport in the city. In the 80’s and 90’s the urban transport system
went through reforms including deregulation, trade liberalization and policy changes. These led
to the current public transport system which is predominantly based on “one-man one-bus”
(Daladala buses). Physical, institutional, social and environmental implications of the existing
transport system in Dar es Saalam will be further discussed in the paper. The alternative scenario
will also be explored.
Key words: urbanisation, management, situations of opportunity, Dar es Saalam, Stockholm
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Malika Bourennane
PhD Student
Royal Institute of Technology
Dept. of Infrastructute
DKV 30, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
[email protected]
Does an Enabling Strategy Fulfil its Promise? a case study for the evaluation of the new
development control code
The purpose of the research project is to assess how the new Development Control Code, 1995 is
applied and followed in low income residential areas with particular regards to its relaxed
capacity. On the Code, the relaxed capacity means relaxing minimum requirements of setbacks
on the merit of each case. One of the main focuses is on female-headed households and their
opportunities to carry out small business that is called infromal economy on their plots.
The research method for the project is planned to be fourfold: firstly, entailing literature review
on gender issues, theory of justice, good governnace as base for theortical framework;secondly,
multiple case study - The fieldwork will comprise a comparison between two low-income
housing areas where the implementation of the planning code is expected to be principally
different. The methods will comprise analysis of official policy and planning documents; key
person interviews with local and central government officials, local community leaders etc; so
called expert assessments of spatial qualities such as accessibility, shaded spaces, cross
ventilation and other climatic qualities; observations of use of space, and interviews-in-depth
with households of different demographic, educational and class composition, and experience of
building construction- thirdly, following a case; fourthly comparison with Northern African
perspective is also proposed.
It is hoped that the findings of the research will be of direct use to supporting the basis for UN
Habitat's enabling human settlement strategy which is aimed at favouring the disadvantaged
majority. Furthermore, it is expected that the mode of evaluating planning regulations in this
study could be used as a tool in other rapidly urbanising low-income countries. The research is
expected to contribute to a deeper knowledge on the enabling approach to low-income housing
and to the problems of implementing planning legislation in a situation of rapid urbanisation.
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# 590
Tatu Mtwangi Limbumba
Residential Location Preferences and Urban Form in Dar es Salaam City
Ph.D. Proposal
This is a proposal for a PhD study. The study attempts to look into how residential choice
behaviour expresses the preference of the residents of Dar es Salaam city and how the choices
affect the urban form and quality of the city. In the study the theory/concepts of lifestyle will be
used to understand their choices while typo-morphology will be used as a tool to analyse the
quality of the different residential areas chosen and will be basis of the presentation. GIS will be
used to analyse and display the spatial information. The research methodology will include both
quantitative and qualitative methods. The expected results will be a better understanding of how
lifestyle affects residential choices particularly in a Third World context.
Why did you choose to live in this area? Where did you live before coming here? What are the
qualities that attracted you to live in this area? These are some of the questions whose answers
ultimately influence the choices that people make on where to live. Rapoport (1985) says that
people choose in order to increase congruence between needs, wants, and their environment,
between lifestyle and their environment. Changing lifestyles for instance in developed countries
was an influential factor in sub-urbanization. Similarly low-income people in developing
countries attach great importance to kinship and social ties when choosing a place to live (Ozo,
1991, Lindert 1991).
Research Problem
The proliferation of informal settlements in Tanzania continues unabated resulting in high
densities in core areas of the city and haphazard land development in the peripheral and
hazardous areas. The key question is what factors influence people’s choice of residence and in
particular those choosing to live in informal settlements and how these are expressed in space.
The relationship between urban planning and design and; human spatial behaviour needs to be
explored in order to understand how our choices affect the urban form and quality and vice
Research Objectives
The main objective of the study therefore is to investigate the factors people find important in
selecting where to live and how their decisions spatially influence the form/structure of the city.
Specific Objectives of the Research are:
1. To investigate the factors underlying choice of residential area of households in Dar es
Salaam City.
Page 18
2. To ‘map’ the spatial dimension and characteristics of the different residential locations and
compare them to the preferences.
Theoretical Framework
This study intends to use the concept/theory of lifestyle as a determinant for residential choice.
Rapoport (1985) argues that lifestyle and residential choice can be matched. This is because a
person’s lifestyle is related to education, income, class, ethnicity, stage in lifecycle, which
influences residential choice. Aero (2000) citing Murie (1974) points that through housing and
residential choice, lifestyle preferences attempt to be realised. Informal residential areas in Dar
es Salaam are not homogeneous and while they maybe lacking in basic services, they do not all
manifest poor environmental and socio-economic characteristics like other squatter settlements
in developing countries probably because of differing lifestyles of their inhabitants.
In order to relate the choices to urban form and spatial quality the preferred residential areas will
be analysed using typo-morphological urban analysis which provides an appropriate framework
to study the areas in detail. It is possible to evaluate the relative attractiveness of different urban
types using typomorphological urban analysis (Radberg, 1998).
Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used in the study. A socio-economic survey
using questioners and interviews will be done in two informal areas of Dar es Salaam city. One
area will be that of low-income and the other a middle/high income area in order to get a
comparison of preferences. Informal areas are chosen because almost 80% of residents in Dar es
Salaam are accommodated in them, the areas lack basic services like water, roads and drainage
but the houses built are of good quality. I may decide to choose areas close to the centre of the
city and those on the periphery. Both owners and renters will be interviewed. Analysis will be
done using a statistical package and GIS for the spatial information.
Lindert, P., Van, (1991) Moving Up or Staying Down? Migrant – Native Differential Mobility in
La Paz, Urban Studies, Vol. 28, No.3 (pp. 443-463)
Ozo, A. O., (1991), Residential Location and Intra urban Mobility in a Developing Country;
Some empirical Observations from Benin City, Nigeria, Urban Studies Vol.23
Radberg J., (1998): Towards a Theory of Sustainability and Urban Quality: A New Method for
Typological Urban Classification, A Paper presented at the 14th IAPS
Rapoport A., (1985): On Diversity and Designing for Diversity: In B. Judd, J. dean and D.
Brown (Eds), Housing Issues 1: Design for Diversification, Canberra, Australia
Aero T., (2000): Residential Preferences, Choice of Housing and Lifestyle, PhD Thesis, Danish
Building and Urban Research, Denmark
Key words: Residential Choices, Informal settlements, Urban Form, Spatial Quality, Lifestyle
Page 19
Nsumbalimi Chagu Gilya
Ph.D. Candidate
BBA Infrastructure- KTH
Stockholm, Sweden
Supervisor: Dick Urban Vestbro
Spatial and cultural qualities in domestic architecture in the historic town of Bagamoyo,
Research Problem
Declaration to conserve the designated area in the historic town of Bagamoyo has produced a
stalemate where neither side (conservators on the one hand and the general public on the other) is
able to make any progress. Controlling new development within this urban quarter on the other
hand has proved difficulty without clear understanding of the spatial and cultural qualities of the
domestic architecture. Where buildings have vanished, and where new plots need infill current
concepts create imbalance to the history and social structure of the place. The speed with which
this historic town is being transformed and rebuild is erasing all references to the old fabric even
before it can be documented. Furthermore, there has been a concern on possible social, cultural
and environmental impacts from the economic optimisation on this tourist town. Erosion of
history and disruption of community cohesiveness are among the imminent dangers facing
Bagamoyo historic town.
Despite numerous studies on the history and origins of the Swahili Architecture which are still
inconclusive (Garlake, 1966; Lewcock, 1971), and several on the technical improvements of the
same {Holmqvist et al, 1992), a gap still persists on the cultural and social qualities of these
buildings. It is still controversial for example as to who founded the Swahili settlements; indeed
from which ethnic group does Swahili architecture come from?
Fundamental to the understanding of any architectural development involving culture is the
establishment of an appropriate relationship between culture and architecture, in this case the
relationship between the Swahili built environment and the culture for which it is designed. To
understand the interplay between societal patterns and housing environments it is necessary to
divide the subjects to be studied into observable units of analysis as people, houses and activities
This research identifies the units of analysis as people in relation to their living spaces or houses.
The Swahili house demonstrates the reflexive relationship between categories of people and
spaces. These are further classified according to gender, age and relation to the head of the
To study how houses are given meaning by the users (people) it is necessary to conceptualise
them as having meanings that transcend the physical boundaries of shelter. In this study house is
conceptualised as not only a tangible physical structure but as a system of settings, linkages and
separations where encounters and avoidances are established. It is where formal and informal
Page 20
activities take place. The Swahili traditional house is here looked in terms of spatial progression
as frontage and back zone. Further more it can be divided according to male female domains,
public, semi, and private realms.
The research will explore the daily activities taking place in different spaces and by different
people. Occasional and special activities such as dancing within residential premises on a
ceremony, is frequent in Bagamoyo, and will be documented so as to know how spaces behave
to accommodate such events/uses. An activity such as eating from plates is alien to the Swahili,
who use communal trays for serving food despite importing expensive plates for many centuries!
Understanding the inter-play between Swahili people and their living environment is vital for
understanding fully the Swahili architecture. The knowledge is also a means to understanding the
pattern of the Swahili social order. Spatial and cultural qualities are therefore important aspects
for modernization and preservation of the traditional living environments. The vacuum in
knowledge on the aspects of spatial and cultural qualities and on the aspects of the relationship
between people and their spaces in this historic town has created difficulties in effecting
conservation programmes.
The importance of culture in the design of housing in particular has increasingly been
acknowledged by different disciplines. Many scholars and specialists have collaboratively or
individually pursued and explored the relationship between built environment and culture.
(Morgan, 1965; Rapoport, 1969; Altman et al, 1980).
The objective this PhD research is to identify and analyse the inherent values and qualities,
spatial and cultural, which are important aspects for modernization, improvement and
preservation of any historic fabric.
Cultural, urban, as well as architectural
Theoretical Framework
Man – Environment Studies
What are the spatial and cultural qualities inherent to Swahili Domestic Architecture?
Participant Observer, where the researcher lives with the subjects in their area of study with the
purpose of observing, talking to and interviewing them through structured and unstructured
questions. Noting and recording daily activities, i.e. who does what, where and when including
why. The researcher is to make photographic registration and measuring spaces, both indoor and
State of development of thesis
The research is at data collection level.
Page 21
Ohno, R., Kubo, E. and Soeda, M.
Residents’ front/back definition of the spaces around suburban houses in Tokyo
Most suburban houses in Japan are built by prefabricated systems, and thus they have quite
similar appearances. The outdoor spaces around each house, however, are arranged differently so
that they mirror the resident’s personal values and feelings (Marcus, 1995). The distinction
between the domains of “front” and “back” seems to play a fundamental role in determining the
layouts of such outdoor spaces as carports, yards, and gardens. Rapoport (1977) points out that
“There is much evidence that people very clearly differentiate between front and back areas since
very different symbolic values are attached to them.” He also notes that the physical expressions
that symbolize front/back areas are very different across cultures.
The present study was intended to give empirical support to the above argument. A survey of 74
houses in the suburbs of Tokyo investigated how the residents differentiated between front and
back areas. Descriptions of the physical features of the outdoor spaces as well as residents’
responses to a questionnaire concerning their perception and use of those spaces were the data
obtained by the survey. We first drew a rough plot plan of each site visited and asked the resident
to point out the places where such activities as putting out garbage, drying laundry and chatting
with neighbors occurred. A list of eighteen possible activities was prepared in advance and the
item number of each activity written down on the plan according to where it occurred. We also
probed for the resident’s perception of the spaces by asking which parts they preferred to show
neighbors and which parts they kept hidden, which parts were thought of as front and which as
back, and so on.
In order to analyze the data obtained, the outdoor spaces around each house were divided into
unit spaces according to such physical features as shape, height and type of ground covering
materials. We extracted 541 unit spaces out of 71 houses; therefore the average number per
house was 7.6 unit spaces. Each unit space was analyzed according to such physical and spatial
features as size, location within the site, proximity to the street, accessibility to the interior of the
house, and visibility from neighboring sites.
Although about 30% of the unit spaces were not recognized as either, the rest were distinguished
as front (38%) or back (32%). Proximity to the main thoroughfare and accessibility to the
entrance and living room were some characteristics of the unit spaces that tended to be seen as
“front”. On the other hand, the unit spaces seen as “back” tended to face a blank wall or a door to
the kitchen. As for the relationship between the front/back distinction and residents’ use of the
unit spaces, it seemed that such activities as displaying plants and flowers or chatting with
neighbors occurred in the front while household activities and storage took place in the back.
Residents seemed to care better for the front region since it is the part that communicates a
public image. The back region was not necessarily a deserted place, however, but could be a
favorite place for spending leisure time or conducting other private family activities. It is
interesting to note that drying laundry, which is believed as a typical back-space activity, could
be found equally in the front area according to this survey. This could be simply due to the
Page 22
limited space in the back area, but may also reflect the strong Japanese preference for drying
clothing and Futons (Japanese mattresses) in a sunny place, which tends to be regarded as a front
Marcus, C.C.: House as a Mirror of Self, Conari Press, Berkeley, 1995
Rapoport, A.: Human Aspects of Urban Form, Pergamon Press, New York, 1977.
Outdoor spaces, house, perception, front, back
Page 23
Janet Loebach
Masters of Environmental Design Studies (In progress – TBC Summer 2004)
Faculty of Architecture, Dalhousie Univeristy, Halifax, NS
[email protected] OR [email protected]
Supervisor: Christine Macy
An Affordance-Based Approach to the Design of Effective Learning Environments for
Research from a wide range of disciplines over the last couple of decades has provided enormous
insight into the natural behaviour of children, the unique ways in which they perceive their
environments, as well as the environmental experiences and conditions that are necessary for
their healthy development and well being. Studies have demonstrated that appropriate
development, for example, requires the opportunity for the child to experience both privacy and
appropriate social interaction throughout the various stages of childhood (Wohlwill & Heft,
1997; Cooper Marcus, 1995). A child’s ability to choose and manipulate their settings to suit
their purposes is also known to be an important component in the critical process of developing a
sense of identity and environmental competence (Proshansky & Fabian, 1987; Sanoff, Sanoff &
Hensely, 1972). It has also been established that children learn by ‘doing’, and that exploration
and discovery experiences are important methods for obtaining knowledge and understanding
(Brown & Campione, 1996; Sanoff, 2000).
With respect to the physical nature of behaviour settings, both research and design practice have
demonstrated that a successful environment is one whose form and philosophy are compatible
with the desired behaviour and preferences of the inhabitant. In the case of learning
environments for children, an effective setting must therefore embody an understanding of the
natural learning behaviour of children and their unique perception of the opportunities afforded
by a physical form or space. These facilities are particularly of interest since, as Gump suggests,
children spend such a significant amount of time immersed in these environments that much of
the time is devoted to living as well as learning (cf. Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). The quality of this
living is therefore of vital importance. However, many formal learning environments for
children do not exhibit an understanding of the natural behaviour and numerous needs of
children, and fail to provide a built environment that effectively supports the variety of
experiences critical to appropriate development during childhood.
Sanoff suggests that achieving more appropriate learning environments for children necessarily
requires an approach that recognizes the vast differences in needs, abilities and preferences that
these sensitive users exhibit (1994). The critical factor in developing responsive learning
settings lies in the ability of an environment to effectively accommodate the various demands
and intentions of its users. In the case of children, an effective setting must provide physical
forms and attributes that are congruent with the goals and inclinations of a group of unique
Page 24
children. That is, the ability to respond to the myriad needs and objectives of these particular
users must be made integral to the form itself.
This paper advocates for a new approach to the design of settings within learning environments
that more effectively respond to the developmental needs and behaviour of children. After
clarifying the criteria for an effective learning environment, this paper moves on to outline a
design framework that is capable of meeting these requirements. While borrowing from various
psychology frameworks, the approach relies heavily on affordance theory, which suggests that
children’s perception of the possibilities inherent in their environment is functionally-oriented,
and is directly related to both their capabilities and intentions (Greeno, 1994; Heft, 1988).
However, this affordance-based approach is also firmly set within a developmental context in
order to address the diverse needs of children at various stages of childhood. This investigation
also explores the role of ‘loose’, unstructured features and settings in …Ultimately, the
framework attempts to outline the role of the physical environment in supporting the natural
learning behaviour and critical developments of children, and to pinpoint the environmental
features and conditions that will be perceived by children as supportive of these goals.
The framework (under development) is expected to demonstrate that ‘loose’, affordance-rich
settings can successfully reflect and encourage children’s innate learning behaviour, while
providing the environmental conditions that promote engagement in developmentally significant
activities. In turn, providing these informal experiences and settings within formal school
facilities will assist in institution in meeting the criteria for an effective learning environment.
The developmental-affordance framework will be used to critically review 2 to 3 elementary
school facilities, and discuss the success of each facility in providing loose, engaging settings
capable of facilitating some of the critical developmental experiences of school aged children.
Note: Though this work is still in progress, it will be completed for presentation in July.
Sample References
Brown, A.L. & Campione, J.C. (1996). Psychological Theory and the Design of Innovative
Learning Environments. In Innovations in Learning: New Environments for
Education. (Schauble, L & Glaser, R., Eds.). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum
Clark, C. and Uzzell, D. (2002). The Affordances of the Home, Neighbourhood, School and
Town Centre for Adolescents. Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol 22, pp. 95-108.
Cooper Marcus, C. (1995). House as a Mirror of Self: Exploring the Deeper Meaning of
Home. Berkeley, California: Conari Press.
Greeno, J.G. (1994). Gibson’s Affordances. Psychological Review, Vol 101 (2), pp. 336-342.
Heft, Harry. (1988). Affordances of Children’s Environments: A Functional Approach to
Environmental Description. Children’s Environments Quarterly, Vol 5 (3), pp. 29 – 37.
Hertzberger, Herman. (1991). Lessons for Students in Architecture. Nijmegen: GJ Thieme.
Hertzberger, Herman, van Roiien-Wortmann, A, Strauven, F. (1982). Aldo van Eyck.
Netherlands: Stichting Wonen.
Page 25
Kytta, Marketta. (2002). Affordances of Children’s Environments in the Context of Cities,
Small Towns, Suburbs and Rural Villages in Finland and Belarus. Journal of
Environmental Psychology, Vol 22, pp. 109-123.
Lackney, J.A. (2000). Brain-Based Learning Research. Proceedings from Interactivity
2000: Creativity in Civil Society conference. Association of Youth Museums & Institute
for Civil Society. Baltimore, Maryland.
Malone, Sara. (2001). Innovative Alternatives in Learning Environments. Proceedings
from Committee on Architecture for Education (CAE) Fall Conference, Amsterdam,
Pettit, J. (1997). Flexing with the Times. Retrieved July 2003 from American School and
University website.
Moore, G.T., Lane, C.G., Hill, A.B., Cohen, U., McGinty, T. (1979). Recommendations for
Child Care Centers. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Community Design Center, Inc with Center
for Architecture and Urban Planning Research, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee.
Pollowy, A. (1977). The Urban Nest. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross,
Proshansky, H.M. & Fabian, A.K. (1987). Spaces for Children. (Weinstein, C. & David, T.G.,
Eds.). New York: Plenum Press.
Sanoff, Henry. (2000). A Visioning Process for Designing Responsive Schools. Retrieved
June 2003 from National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities website:
Sanoff, Henry. (1994). School Design. New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold.
Sanoff, H., Sanoff, J., and Hensley, A. (1972). Learning Environments for Children.
Raleigh, NC: Learning Environments.
Strauven, Francis. (1996). Aldo van Eyck’s Orphanage: A Modern Monument. Netherlands: Nai
Wohlwill, J.F. & Heft, H. (1987). The Physical Environment and the Development of the
Child. In Stokols, D. & Altman, I., Eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology.
New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Wolff, Susan J. (2002). Design Features for Project-Based Learning. Retrieved July 2003
from Design Share website: www.designshare.com
Page 26
Ian Senkatuka
Ass. Prof. Orjan Svane, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Prof. Dick urban Vestbro, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Dr Barnabas Nawangwe, Makerere University
Effective Urban Infrastructure Management in Developing Countries – An Analysis of
Kampala City.
A Synopsis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture
Urbanization is occurring rapidly around the world, particularly in developing countries that are
suffering from the brunt of its adverse effects. By 2030, urban areas in developing countries will
need to accommodate a projected doubling of the urban population (World Bank 2002).
Urban areas are potential dynamic engines of growth. Local governments need to take steps to
make their cities more hospitable venues for economic growth (World Bank 2002). They must
provide a good living and working environment. For this to occur they must have good
infrastructure that needs to be managed responsibly if development is to be sustainable (World
Bank 2002)
In many developing countries, local authorities and public corporations normally provide the
physical infrastructure, which is vital for economic growth and development, or they provide a
conducive environment for others who provide some of it, particularly housing. However, urban
infrastructure providers are failing to keep up with the rapid urbanization, adversely affecting the
natural and the built environment and exacerbating poverty. This is because of various
constraints that include: lack of finances, a lack of capacity, unnecessary political interference,
haphazard and inefficient provision, etc.
Kampala, Uganda’s capital city has not been spared. The planning and management of physical
infrastructure is poor and uncoordinated, leading to inadequate and poorly maintained
infrastructure. The problems are further complicated by the country’s complicated land tenure
system and non-compliance with the planning by-laws. The country’s scarce resources are also
being wasted by some of the infrastructure providers. For example, roads are provided with no
plans for drainage, newly constructed roads are dug up by other infrastructure providers trying to
provide their own services, etc. This makes one question the seriousness of the providers. The
city has many poor roads, poor storm water drainage, poor garbage collection, slums, poorly
planned and maintained open spaces, inadequate provision of water and sewerage facilities, etc.
While the responsible parties are trying to address the problems, they still have a very long way
to go.
It is argued that some of the constraints faced by infrastructure providers can be handled, and
that innovative methods and institutional arrangements can result in much better service
Page 27
provision even at low investment levels (World Bank 2000). Coping with infrastructure
challenges, involves more than simple planning. It involves tackling inefficiency and waste, both
in investment and in service delivery (World Bank 1994). This is a challenge for urban
authorities in developing countries. Ways need to be found to ensure that infrastructure provision
keeps pace with urban growth on a basis, which is financially and environmentally sustainable,
and equitable.
It should be acknowledged that to address these problems a combined effort of all the
infrastructure providers and other stakeholders like the central government and the private sector,
may be needed. While the involvement of the private sector is at the heart of the Uganda
government’s strategy on infrastructure, the private sectors involvement has been minimal in
most areas (Price Water House Coopers 2000). This is an issue that needs to be looked into.
This research will be look at housing and its associated complementary infrastructure like roads,
water and sewerage facilities in Kampala City, provided and maintained by the local
government, or influencing infrastructure provided by the local authorities. It will try to
1. How urban physical infrastructure can be efficiently provided and maintained in developing
countries with their limitations, in a manner that will lead to sustainable development.
2. How to integrate urban infrastructure planning and provision to avoid the inefficient use of
scarce resources
It will mainly focus on roads and other associated services, like storm water drains, pedestrian
pavements and street lights. In particular, it will try to address the following research questions:
Can urban road infrastructure be provided appropriately in a manner that matches the
increasing urbanization?
Can Kampala’s road infrastructure providers do more to improve service delivery, even
within current constraints they face?
Can the involvement of the private sector, taking advantage of their finances and
management expertise, help infrastructure providers to improve their service delivery?
Is there an enabling policy environment aimed at ensuring that the road infrastructure is
efficiently provided?
Can innovation and intermediate technology help improve service delivery?
The methodology for the research will include the following:
Literature reviews of national and local government policies e.g. on decentralization,
infrastructure provision and management, the planning and management policies of the
infrastructure providers, good practice, etc.
Case studies in developing countries and the developed world. Comparisons will be made to
Dar-es-Salaam, Nairobi, Botswana and Peru. There are cases of some Community Based
Organisations in some countries like the Karengata association in Nairobi that is trying to
manage their own infrastructure. In Kampala, there are a few examples of residents of
Page 28
particular areas like Muyenga, running out of patience with the local authorities, and
providing their own road infrastructure.
In the developed world, Cites in Sweden and the United Kingdom will be selected to see
what can be learnt from how they provide and maintain their infrastructure.
Comparisons will be made between Kampala and other African cities, which have better
functioning systems of management, like CapeTown.
A pilot study will be undertaken before the main fieldwork is undertaken
Key Person Interviews of technocrats in local government and in public infrastructure
corporations, representatives of Non Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) and Community
Based Organisations (CBO’s), and the private sector. These will include:
 Government ministers like the Ministers of Works, Housing and Communication, and
the Minister of Local Government in Uganda, - 0n policy issues.
 Representatives of donor organizations involved in infrastructure provision – on policy
 Town clerks of Kampala city and some other selected cities, and city managers
 Chief planners - on what is currently being done, problems faced, challenges,
 City engineers- on what is currently being done, problems faced, challenges,
 The main founders of CBO’s involved in some form of infrastructure planning and
management e.g. the chairman local council 1 around Muyenga in Kampala, Karen
and Lanagata in Nairobi – on why they had to provide and manage their own
infrastructure, their results and challenges
 Representatives of the private sector e.g. key business organizations, and the general
public - on their views, to determine if they may be interested in participating, and if
so how.
Systematic Observations, taking photographs and an analysis of aerial photographs, to see
what is currently being done and to determine if it is being done in the best way
Price Water House Coopers (2000). Uganda Country Framework Report.
http://europa.eu.int/comm/development/publicat/rep98/pdf/en/ug.pdf (Accessed on 13th
February 2003)
http://easd.org.2a/Soe/Uganda/CHAP6.html (Accessed on 13th February 2003)
http://www.ubos.org?prov%20Results%20RPT52005.doc (Accessed on the 13th of February
Lubuva, John 2001. African Challenges: Urban local government Management – Prospects and
df (Accessed 13th February 2003)
World Bank (2003). World Development Report 2003 Overview – Sustainable Development in a
Dynamic World Transforming Institutions, Growth and Quality of Life, World Bank
Washington DC, 2002.
World Bank (2000). Entering the 21st Century, World Bank Development Report 1999/00,
World Bank, Oxford University Press, New York
World Bank (1994). World Bank Development Report 1994. Infrastructure for Development.
Oxford University Press, New York
Kampala Urban Study, March 1994
Page 29
École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), Laboratoire d’anthropologie sociale, Paris
Diplome d’études approfondies (DEA/Master’s, before thesis)
Supervisor : Mrs. Anne-Marie Brisebarre
Occupation/uses of space and behavior in the presence of nature in Berber agro-pastors of
the High Moroccan Atlas: The case of the agdal in the tribe of Aït Oucheg to the high
plateau of Yagour
Research project
I intend to obtain an understanding of mental representations and a good identification of the
different conducts associated to the main ecological spaces, more precisely those facing the
present situation of reformulation of the ways of appropriation of land and « AGDAL »,
communal territories in the High Moroccan Atlas.
My methodology will be based on work in community manners, within the framework of a
Franco-Moroccan and multidisciplinary investigation program, "AGDAL" (for the sustainable
development of the mountainous areas of Morocco), on PhD directors advises, on broad
bibliographic sources and on field work (occupation of space, observation of modes of behavior
control, analysis of the influence of environment in collective conduct, description of
experiences related to local manners, etc.)
Aims and specific objectives
1/ Identification of the principal ecological spaces exploited by the community, types of uses
(irrigated cultures, rain cultivation of cereals, breeding, cut of wood, etc.), mental representations
and identification of the different conducts associated to these spaces.
2/ Identification of appropriation modes of space and natural resources (private/collective
appropriation, etc.), behavior in situations of conflict concerning propriety of Nature elements.
3/ Establishment of typology and situation in space of the different „agdals‰ (communal
territories), according to the uses (forest, fodder, pastoral, crowned, etc.) and their levels of
organization (Community, inter-fractions, inter-tribal).
Frame of the investigation/Background information
The governmental management of the access to sylvan-pastoral resources is currently questioned
in the Maghreb countries, in particular in the mountainous and underprivileged zones, which
undergo strong anthropologic pressures. Moreover, recent evolutions place the natural
Page 30
inheritance of these areas at the heart of a sustainable development context (eco-tourism, national
parks, etc.).
Starting from the rise of environmental and sustainable development concerns (Conference of
Rio), several disciplines were interested in the modes of common property of forest and pastoral
spaces; such modes can be found in the Moroccan Atlas under the Berber name of AGDAL.
Such problems are developed by a Franco-Moroccan research program (The "agdal" of the High
Moroccan Atlas: Biodiversity and communal management of the access to sylvan-pastoral
resources), which is supporting continuously my PhD research project. This program is mainly
carried out by the Laboratory "Population-Environment-Development‰ (IRD ˆ University of
Provence) and several Moroccan partners (Faculty of Science of Marrakech, Agronomic and
Veterinary Institute Hassan II, the National school of Meekness). Within this multi-disciplinary
framework (associating life sciences and human sciences), my PhD project deals with the
systems of behavioral interactions between „rurals‰ (villagers) and their natural environments,
with regards to environmental safeguarding and socio-economic development aiming at a better
reorientation of the forest and pastoral policies.
Place of investigation
My work will be concentrated on one of the sites identified by the team, the high plate of the
Yagour, located in the High Atlas (zone of Ouazarst), between 2000 and 2600 meters of altitude.
- Geological substrate: secondary sandstones
- Altitude-vegetation gradient: forest and cultivated stage (up to 2000 meters); a stage of
course and extensive cultivation of cereals between 2000 and 2400 meters; finally a stage
of high mountain up to more than 3000 meters.
Methodologies and research strategy
1/ Bibliographic and documentary research: At the moment in France (LPED and the IREMAM
of Aix-Marseilles, the SIEGA, the library of F Mitterrand and the CHEAM in Paris), and during
my ground work in Morocco. I will arrive at Morocco 10th Juy and during some days (from 11th
to 19th Juy) I will make a bibliographical investigation in situ; members of the equipment will be
already in Morocco and I will have by that time advanced the information research. We will
consult with the ENA of Meeknes, and the FACE of sciences and the FACE of letters of
Marrakech. On the other hand, at the moment, I am attending research seminars and reading
work-shops of the EHESS on the subjects related to my report.
2/ Since the program AGDAL has already got in contact with local agents in the Yagour (it even
has a work established for the students on the project of building a protected area), precisely with
a local ONG called the "friends of the Zate" (Ouarzarzt located in the river basin of the river of
Zate), we are expecting to establish the way of setlement in Yagour and other factors like
holding of interviews, etc, before our arrival. That is to say, it will be decided in advance what
the means of housing and subsistance will be, as well as the hiring of translators and surveys
Page 31
3/ It is estimated that some days for the setlement in Ouarzarzt will be necessary. We want to
have, during this time, several discussions with important people from the village (heads of
family, people of the village with economicial or political power, etc.) in order to make us
known, us and our work, and at the same time to begin our approach to the main schemes and
themes of the commune, the rites and collective manners. For these meetings, we hope to obtain
the help of the AAZ and perhaps advice from professors and students who worked in the past
term on the agricultural systems of neighboring valleys (Directed by professor A. El AICH, from
the agronomous Institute and veterinary at Hassan II).
4/ Strolls and long walks of exploration and recognition of the whole of the plateau in some days
(from 20th to 30th mars). General recognition will be made, at least at some moments, in
company of a guide or of a local inhabitant (who speaks our language) so that we can understand
better the perception than berebers have of their territories (implication of the guide is
determined prior to our arrival through the AAZ). During this first investigation stage, a registry
of conduct data and uses of the space would be made thanks to a video camera, photographies,
random illustrations and our field notebook. The multi-field data acquisition will be made in
collaboration with other members of the program AGDAL.
5/ Sourroundings to Ouarzarzt and analysis of the inhabitants (from 30th mars to 2nd or 3th
april) in collaboration with a geography student in what concerns the organization studies of the
territory bound to places of collective celebrations as well as in the detailed description of the
Ouarzarzt landscape.
6/ From this moment (approximately from 1st of april to the end of my stay), working more
independently from the other students, I will make examinations and surveys of ethological and
anthropological character: qualitative interviews, analysis from participant observations and
semi-directed interviews (previous search of the advisors and privileged informers) on elements
of the study which deal with the mentioned subjects.
7/ From the beginning, and specially from april onwards (from 10th mars to the 30th april), I will
try to write down all the observations possible and to collect the following data:
different observed and lived activities in the village
ways of control, social behavior, the division of the labour, etc
observation of the habitats (houses), composition of the families/households and analysis
of the influence of these structures on the ethologic phenomena.
description of the experiences and the sensations lived as opposed to the local behavior
application of the knowledge acquired during my PhD seminars.
Page 32
Carina Tenngart
Ph.D. Student in Landscape Architecture
Department of Landscape Planning Alnarp
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
[email protected]
Supervisors: Associate Professor Patrik Grahn and Assistant Professor Caroline Hagerhall.
A Case Study On The Use and Experience of Healing Gardens
In Sweden today there is a growing interest for including gardens and nature in the treatment of
people suffering from different kinds of stress disorders. Landscape architects are thus designing
healing gardens that all are supposed to be restorative. This is a single-case study that by a series
of studies aims at looking closer into how the design in one healing garden works.
During 2002 a healing garden was built at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in
Alnarp. People diagnosed as having had burnout diseases are offered rehabilitation through a
horticultural therapeutic program run by occupational therapists, physiotherapist, psychotherapist
and horticultural therapists. Patients stay approximately 20 weeks and there are two groups a day
with 8 patients in each group. All year around the patients are to use the garden in different ways,
i.e. sowing, resting, pruning etc. The design of the healing garden in Alnarp relies on several
theories. Regarding the restorative effects of the garden two theories on restorative environments
are fundamental. That is Ulrich’s theory concerning recovery from psycho physiological stress
and Kaplan & Kaplan’s theory on recovery from mental fatigue (Hartig et al, 1996; Stigsdotter &
Grahn, 2002). Regarding activities that are to be carried out in the garden other theories from for
example occupational therapy and psychology have been considered. Earlier research at the
Department of Landscape Planning in Alnarp has shown that eight main characters constitute the
building blocks of parks and gardens. The design process where these theories all have been
transformed into physical elements and design hypotheses has been well described and
documented. (Stigsdotter & Grahn, in press), (Stigsdotter & Grahn, 2002).
In a first pictorial study the questions whether a garden is restorative and whether different
gardens can be more or less restorative will be answered. The tool is an existing scale, the
Perceived Restorativeness Scale, based on the theory of Kaplan & Kaplan and developed partly
to assess the restorative potential in settings. (Hartig et al, 1997). Two healing gardens that differ
much in size and design but have the same target group will be compared.
To answer the question whether the patients in Alnarp find that there are garden rooms that are
more important than others an observational study will take place in the garden. It will consider
how patients use the garden, where they go, what they do and how much time they spend.. To
deepen the understanding semi-structured interviews will be conducted with some patients. The
Page 33
results can be interpreted with the help of the result in the PRS-study, the design hypotheses in
the healing garden at Alnarp and design theories from for example urban planning.
It would also be interesting to know whether a garden could be more or less restorative for
different groups of people. If important garden rooms or characters can be extracted in the
observational study these characters will be used in a second pictorial study. By using photos of
these extracted characters patients will fill in the PRS both in the beginning and in the end of
their rehabilitation. A group of healthy people will also be asked to do this version of the PRS.
This will provide an opportunity to see if opinions differ between patients and healthy people
and if patients’ opinions change during time.
In July there will be preliminary data of the first PRS pictorial study. The observations and
interviews have also been going on since March.
Case study methodology is used in this revelatory single-case study and different methods are
used for triangulating this unique case and thereby enhancing its validity.
It would be of interest to in future studies do the same studies/experiment with another group of
people (healthy or other patient group) to see if the results are coinciding.
The results can be applied not just in designing healing gardens but also in a wider context, e.g.
in designing parks etc.
Hartig, T., Böök, A., Garvill, J., Olsson, T. & Gärling, T. (1996). Environmental influences on
psychological restoration. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 37, 378-393.
Hartig, T., Korpela, K., Evans, G.W. & Gärling, T. (1997). A Measure of Restorative Quality in
Environments, SHPR 14: 175-194.
Stigsdotter, U.A. & Grahn, P. (2002). What Makes a Garden a Healing Garden? Journal of
Therapeutic Horticulture, 13, 60-69.
Stigsdotter, U.A. & Grahn, P. (In press). Experiencing a Garden – A Healing Garden for People
Suffering from Burnout Diseases. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture.
Page 34
Zeinab Nour-Eddine Tag-Eldeen
Built Environment Analysis, Div. of Urban Studies, Dept. of Infrastructure.
The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
Stockholm, Sweden
[email protected]
Supervisors: Prof. Dick Urban Vestbro
Assoc Prof. Rolf Johansson
Poverty alleviation is the study’s overall theme. The focus will be on the most vulnerable groups
affected by poverty in a selected quarter of an informal settlement in Cairo. The project’s target
groups are women and children. The working process of the project will be based on a
participatory bottom up approach and a community driven policy.
The study aims to identify a “Model for Participatory Community Driven Development”. This
Model is based on a locally adaptable approach that is composed of four fundamental and
interrelated forces:
Locally Adaptable Participatory Approach.
Good Local Governance.
Gender Equality, Children’s Rights and Democracy.
Specific Development Component(s) selected by the community.
The study will be carried out simultaneously at both the theoretical analysis and fieldwork levels.
The study will cover a deep theoretical analysis on the existing participatory planning
approaches, such as “Community Action Planning” developed by Hamdi and Goethert; “ZOPP”
developed and applied by GTZ; “Urban Community Assistance Team” developed by the
American Institute of Architecture and “Planning for Real” developed by Tony Gibson and the
Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation. An attention will be paid to the community types in order
to ensure effective participation and inclusion of the most marginalized of the poor - mainly
women - in the community. The gender equity experiences, children rights and democracy will
be examined. At the fieldwork level, the study attempts to implement a locally adaptable
participatory approach and will be basically carried out jointly with the community.
The research is designed to use a case study methodology. Qualitative and quantitative
methodologies will be applied to achieve the followings:
Selection of a study area within the informal settlement.
Selection of the target group.
Selection of community representatives.
Understanding of the status, opinions and views of the people.
Page 35
Analysis of a gender sensitive approach.
The identification of socio-economic and cultural aspects that have significant effects on
the efficiency of women’s participation that will contribute in improving an adaptable
participatory approach.
Various technical methods will be used in collecting the data including:
In-depth interviews.
Structured interviews.
Women’s focus group discussions.
Direct observations.
The researcher will also participate in actions during the study process
The Development Component(s) will be selected by the community through the participation
process and will be integrated with the ongoing development projects in the informal settlement,
which are currently carried out by the local Egyptian authority and the German Agency GTZ.
The study process is composed of seven stages and each has its own objectives, activities, results
and discussion that altogether will contribute to the study expected output. Those stages have
been developed based on my previous Master Thesis titled “Participatory Urban Upgrading –
Case Study of Ezbet Bekhit – Cairo” and field work carried out between 2002-2003 in the same
informal settlement in Cairo. The stages present the outlines for the project that identify its
process. They will each be tested according to the local community socio-economic and cultural
At the first stage, the community profile as well as the target groups will be identified based on
socio-economic survey. At the second stage, a locally adaptable participatory approach will be
identified that promotes gender equality and children’s rights through a democratic process. The
development component(s) will be selected jointly with the community. At the third level,
decision-making process, stakeholders and issues of local governance will be identified. At the
fourth stage, a plan of action will be drawn up for the development component(s). Tasks and
responsibilities will be identified in response to the questions what? Who? How? When? At the
fifth stage, set up mechanism for implementation of the plan of action and recommendations for
the overcoming of obstacles. At the sixth stage - based on the previous actions, their results and
outputs - a community level “Model” will be extracted. At the seventh stage, set up mechanism
for possible replication of Participatory Community Driven Development Model at the local, city
and national levels.
The study is expected to establish a “Model of Participatory Community Driven Development”
that involves women in the improvement of their communities, taking into consideration the
rights of children in conjunction with good, overall governance at the local level to support the
Model. This Model will represent the core of “Model Networks” at the community, city and
national levels.
Keywords: Poverty Alleviation, Community Participation, Good Governance, Gender Equity, Children
Rights, Democracy.
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# 649
Anna Bengtsson
Department of landscape planning
Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences
[email protected]
Landscape Architecture
Supervisors: Patrik Grahn, Caroline Hagerhall
Outdoor Environments for Older People in Healthcare Facilities
A Case Study on the Experience of Accessibility
The circumstances of healthcare facilities in Sweden have changed a lot during the last ten or
twenty years. The need for care has increased at the same time as conditions to give care has
diminished. This has resulted in overworked caregivers and a lot of older people not being able
to get the help they need. The loss of places at healthcare centres for older people results in very
sick and disabled persons getting the places. Therefore the burden upon the caregivers is
constantly growing. In a general perspective the need for healthcare arise at the age of 80 years.
The age between 85 and 90 is the most comprehensive. In Sweden the share of people in this
group is expected to double in 30 years.
In Sweden one aim at healthcare facilities is to make it possible for the patients to live like
others. This includes being outdoors regularly. Being outdoors regularly is also motivated by
theories that imply that being outdoors benefits health. According to one theoretical aim health
benefits are due to environmental impacts by for example daylight (Küller & Wetterberg, 1996)
or air (Söderström & Blennow, 1996). Other theories suggest that a natural environment
promotes 1) restoration of mental capacity (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) and 2) physical restoration
after stress (Ulrich, 1999).
Since the share of older people at Swedish healthcare facilities is growing at the same time as
their condition is getting worse the outdoor environment needs to support in new ways in the
future. To motivate caregivers and caregivers to be outdoors we need to make outdoor
environments attractive and easy accessible.
Research problem
The experience of accessibility to outdoor environments comprises both a physical and a
psychological dimension. Physiological accessibility in an environment concerns distances,
inclinations, benches, ground covers, thresholds, doorsteps, kerbstones etc.(Cohen-Mansfield,
Jiska & Werner, Perla, 1999). Psychological accessibility in an environment is a more
unexplored phenomena. For example, when using an outdoor environment, the first step of
psychological accessibility is to know that there is an outdoor environment possible to use and
that this environment has qualities that attracts the users. To be able to see this environment from
inside the building might further enhance the psychological accessibility (Cooper Marcus, Clare,
Page 37
2001). Also its important to believe that one is able to and will have the strength to linger in this
environment. The next step of psychological accessibility concerns using the environment.
Matters of importance in this step is for example feeling safe and secure or being able to find
ones way. The possibility to be in a stimulating environment unconcerned of ones disabilities and
constraints is important for wellbeing. Negative features such as noise, smell or feeling exposed
might decrease the psychological accessibility (Ulrich, Roger, 1999).
Whereas the knowledge in physiological accessibility is greater we find it interesting to
investigate the psychological dimensions of accessibility. By exploring the experience of
accessibility to outdoor environments for older people in healthcare facilities we will describe
the relation between the physical and psychological dimensions of accessibility in outdoor
The psychological versus physiological aspects of accessibility that will be analyzed origins in a
literature review that was conducted and published during 2003 (Bengtsson, 2003). The
empirical part of this project will be conducted at three different healthcare facilities for older
people in Sweden during summer 2004. Data will be collected through observations and
interviews. The three cases chosen will have different environmental preconditions in the
outdoor surrounding. Conditions concerning social matters, health status of respondents, care
availabilities or preconditions in the indoor environment will be held similar in the three cases.
Thus the difference of the experience of accessibility in the outdoor environments can be
described without the result being affected by other impacts.
Bengtsson, A. 2003. Utemiljöns betydelse för äldre och funktionshindrade. Statens
Folkhälsoinstitut 2003:60, Stockholm.
Cohen-Mansfield, J. & Werner, P. 1999, Outdoor Wandering Parks for Persons with Dementia:
A Survey of Characteristics and Use, Alzheimer Disease and associated disorders, 13(2)
sid. 109-117.
Cooper Marcus, C. 2001, Gardens and health, in: Design and Health. The Therapeutic Benefits
of Design, sid. 61-71.
Kaplan, R. & Kaplan, S. 1989. The Experience of Nature. A Psychological Perspective.
Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Küller, R. & Wetterberg, L. 1996 The subterranean work environment: Impact on well-being and
health. Environment International 22: 33-52.
Söderström, M. & Blennow, M. 1996. Utomhusvistelse minskar sjukfrånvaron. Poster
presenterad på Svenska Läkaresällskapets Riksstämma 27-29 november 1996. Stockholm.
Ulrich, R. 1999, Effects of gardens in health outcomes: Theory and research, in: Healing
Gardens, s. 27-86, New York.
Page 38
Mr Géza Fischl
Ph.D. program in Engineering Psychology
Lulea University of Technology, Department of Human Work Sciences,
Division of Engineering Psychology
[email protected]
Supervisor: Anita Gärling, Ph.D.
Stage in the study:
Licentiate exam in March 2004.
Enhancing well-being in health care facilities
Focusing the investigation on health supporting built environmental components, researches
showed (Shepley & McCormick 2003), that therapeutic environments are powerful agents of
healing (Canter & Canter, 1979) for patients. Ulrich's theory (1991) depicted that,
therapeutic environments unproved medical outcomes of patients by reducing stress.
Research findings show that therapeutic environments for patients allow recovery from stress
through access to nature, exercise and physical movement, and enhanced social activities
(Calkins, 1988; Cohen & Weisman, 1991; Devlin, 1995; Kaplan, et al., 1999; Shepley, et al.,
1995; Parsons, et al., 1998; Ulrich, 1984, 1991). Outcome-based research findings are
beginning to reveal that beyond recovery from stress, therapeutic environments are related
positively to improved health and behavioral outcomes of patients (Lawton, et al., 1996;
Rubin, et al., 1997; Zeisel, 2001b; Zeisel, et al., 2001).
Problem identification
There is a clear need for research to identify environmental characteristics that tend to be
stressor and what end-use consumers really need and want in health care environments
(Davidson & Teicher, 1997; Devlin, 1995; Gray et al. 2003; Potthoff, 1995; Shepley et al.,
1995; Stern et al., 2003; Ulrich, 1991; Ulrich et al., 2003). A qualitative research technique
known as focus-group methodology serves as the primary method of obtaining health care
staffs, patients' and visitors' (consumers') feedback (Stern et al., 2003). Data generated from
these discussions are neither representative nor generalizable. Therefore a more comprehensive
qualitative measurement technique would be preferable which can, at least, establish a shared
view on the environment and even more, enable/empower the participants /consumers to act
toward the proposed plan together with the design professionals.
Page 39
Aim and research question
The aim of the research is to develop a method which gathers both quantitative and qualitative
measures on the well-being supportiveness of the environmental attributes and also useful tool
for design or re-design purposes.
What are the psychosocially supportive components of the built environment, and is the
suggested multi-methodological approach an appropriate tool for evaluating those components?
The objectives specific to research questions are the following:
1. To investigate the relevance of psychosocial components in the suggested multimethodological tool
2. To analyze the data gathered by the suggested tool in terms of well-being supportiveness
in a real environment setting
3. To provide guidelines for designers about psychosocial supportive environmental
components integrated in the design process
4. To evaluate the proposed design by comparing it to the existing environment
5. To compare design professionals and laypersons perspective with regards to perceived
psychosocial supportiveness
Study design / methodology
The study will be conducted among health care personnel, patients and visitors (the end users
of design). A multi-methodological approach, the Triple-E (Fischl & Gärling, 2003) will he
used at different health care environments. Triple-E tool consists of three stages, namely the
Empowerment session, Environment assessment session and the Evaluation of architectural
details session.
Empowerment session. The empowering session is based on the Future Workshop (FW)
method (Jungk & Müllert, 1987), which is a participatory based brainstorming technique. It is
adapted to draw out opinions, feelings, and emotions of users toward a built environment
regarding psychosocial supportiveness
Environment description. Küller's model (1991) describes the mechanism of human
emotion processes from a human-environmental interaction point of view. The semantic
environment description was built on this model and has been administered in this study.
Evaluation of architectural details. The evaluation of architectural details consists of a
questionnaire focusing on perceived well-being and preferences, specific to the quality of the
environmental elements. The questionnaire was designed based on individual interviews of
health care personnel and patients, and was pilot tested within the same subject groups. The
questionnaire measures temporal mood, feeling of safety and perception of noise level as part of
the evaluation.
Preliminary Results
Page 40
The preliminary results show that, with the Triple-E tool, psychosocial components of the
environment can be measured by a combination of a structured brainstorming session, a semantic
environmental description session, and an architectural details session. The structured
brainstorming session yielded data mainly on the physical environmental complaints and
functions (79%); the semantic description was more associated with the aesthetic quality of the
environment (83%); while the architectural details contributed almost equally to both. User
group differences were found and further considered in the design process. The analysissynthesis model of design helped to make the designer understand how psychosocial approach
could be integrated in the design cycle.
The ranking of the influential architectural details on perceived supportiveness for architect and
patient groups is in the following order: 1) window; 2) floor and wall; 3) ceiling and furniture; 4)
handicraft, photograph, chair and curtain; 5) noise level, safety, and space for moving.
Preliminary results show that the significant architectural details may influence individual
psychological skills, which in turn can affect the individual social skills and self-management.
Bell, P., Greene, T. C., Fisher, J. D., & Baum, A. (2001). Environmental psychology: Harcourt
College Publishers, USA.
Bradley, C., & Cox, T. (1978). Stress and health. In T. Cox (Ed.), Stress. Hong Kong: The
Macmillan Press Ltd.
Canter, D., & Canter, S. (1979). Designing therapeutic environments. New York: John
Calkins, M., P. (1988). Design for dementia: Planning environments for the elderly and
the confused. Owing Mills, MD: National Health.
Cohen, U., & Weisman, G., D. (1991). Holding on to home. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins.
Davidson, A. W., Teicher, M. H., & Bar-Yam, Y. (1997). Role of environmental complexity
in the well-being of elderly. Complexity & Chaos in Nursing, Summer, 5-12.
Devlin, A., S. (1995). Staff, patients and visitors: Responses to hospital unit enhancements.
In J. Nasar, R. & K. Hanyu (Eds.), Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of the
Environmental Design Research Association. Oklahoma City, OK: EDRA.
Gray, D. B., Gould, M., & Bickenbach, J. E. (2003). Environmental barriers and disability.
Journal of Architectural Planning and Research, 20(1), 29-37.
Fischl, G. & Garling, A. (2003). The Triple-E: A Tool to Improve Design in the Health
Care Facilities. (Submitted for publication)
Jungk, R., & Mullert, N. (1987). Future workshops: How to create desirable futures.
London: Institute for Social Inventions.
Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S., & Ryan, R., L. (1999). With people in mind: Design and
management of everyday nature. Washington, DC: Island.
Küller, R. (1991). Environmental assessment from a neuropsychological perspective. In T.
Garling & E. G. W. (Eds.), Environment, cognition and action: An integrated
approach (pp. 111-147). New York: Oxford University Press.
Laschinger, H., Finegan, J., & Shaman, J. (2001). The impact of workplace empowennent,
organizational trust on staff nurses' work satisfaction and organisational commitment.
Health Care Manage Rev, 26(3), 7-23.
Page 41
Lawton, M., P., Van Haitsma, K., & Klapper, J. (1996). Observed affect in nursinghome
residents with Alzheimer disease. Journal of Gerontology, 51B(1), 3-14.
Preiser, W. F. E. (1988). Post-occupancy evaluation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Parsons, R., Tassinary, L., Ulrich, R., Hebl, M., & Grossman-Alexander, M. (1998). Viewof the road: Implications for stress recovery and immunization. Journal of
Environmental Psychology, 16, 277-284.
Philip, D. (1996). Practical faliure of architectural psychology. Journal of Environmental
Psychology, 16, 277-284.
Potthoff, J. (1995). Adolescentsatisfaction with drug/alcohol treatment facilities: Design
implications. journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 41(1), 62-73.
Rubin, H., G., Owens, A., J., & Golden, G. (1997). Status report: An investigation to
determine whether the built environment affects patients' medical outcomes.
Martinez, CA: Center for Health Design.
Schwarz, B. (1997). Nursing home design: A misguided architectural model. Journal of
Architectural Planning and Research, 14(4), 343-359.
Shepley, M., Bryant, C., & Frohman, B. (1995). validating a building prototype: A postoccupancy evaluation of a women's medical center. journal of Interior Design, 21(2),
Shepley, M., & McCormick, M. (2003). Preface: How this issue came about. Journal of
Architectural Planning and Research, 20(1), 1-15.
Sommer, R. (1996). Benchmarks in Environmental psychology. Journal of Environrnental
Psychology, 17, 1-10.
Stern, A. L., MacRae, S., Harrison, T., Fowler, E., Edgman-Levitan, S., Gerteis, M., Walker,
J. D., & Ruga, W. (2003). Understanding the consumer perspective to improve design
quality. Journal of Architectural Planning and Research, 20(1), 16-28.
Tetlow, K. (1996). Future in the environmental design professional: It's the context which
matters. In J. Nasar, R. & B. Brown, B. (Eds.), Public and Private Places:
Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Environmental design research
Association. Edmond, OK: EDRA.
Ulrich, R., Simons, R., F., & Miles, M., A. (2003). Effects of environmental stimulations and
television on blood donor stress. Journal of Architectural Planning and Research,
20(1), 38-47.
Ulrich, R. (1984). View from a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science, 224,
Ulrich, R. (1991). Effects of healthy facility interior design on wellness: theory and scientific
research. Journal of Health Care Design, 3, 97-109.
Ulrich, R. S. (1995). Effects of healthcare interior design and on wellness. In S. O. Marberry
(Ed.), Innovations in health care design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Zeisel,
J. (1981). Inquiry by design. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Zeisel, J. (2001b). health outcomes improvements from Alzheimer's care design. In Dilani
(Ed.), Design and health: The therapeutic benefits of design. Stockholm: Swedish
Building Research Center Publishing.
Zeisel, J., Silverstein, N., Hyde, J., Levkofl; S., Lawton, M., P., & Holmes, W. (2001).
Environmental contributors ro behavioral outcomes in Alzheimer's special care units.
(submitted for publication).
Page 42
Eveline Maris
Ph.D. program
Social and Organizational Psychology, University of Leiden
[email protected]
Prof.Dr. P.J.M. Stallen, University of Leiden
Highly Annoyed: One mark, multiple meanings
Research problem
Are (social) nonacoustical factors a contributory cause of noise annoyance?
The problem of noise annoyance is omnipresent. Abatement programs and policies to reduce
annoyance focus mainly on acoustical measures: sound insulation, changing flight paths, and the
like, implicitly assuming that the proportion of residents indicating to be Highly Annoyed only
reflects their response to acoustical aspects situation. Still, there is more to noise annoyance than
acoustics alone. Several nonacoustical factors (sensitivity, attitudes, fear) have been identified in
mostly correlational studies. Could it be useful if abatement programs would also address the
nonacoustical side of noise annoyance? This could only be effective when nonacoustical factors
have a causal relationship with noise, and only where nonacoustical factors influence people on a
group level.
Theoretical framework/relevant literature
In this project, annoyance is regarded as a stress response to an environmental stressor: noise. A
cognitive stress model is used, in which on the stimulus side both the sound and the social
context are included. On the response side the evaluation between perceived disturbance and
perceived control results in a stress reaction (annoyance) (relevant literature: Stallen, 1999).
Social context is operationalized according to findings from the field of Social Justice Theory
(Tyler & Lind, 1992).
Stallen, P.J.M. (1999). A theoretical framework for noise annoyance, Noise and Health, 3, (2),
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Tyler, T. & Lind, A. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. In: M. Zanna (Ed.),
Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 25, 115-191, New York: Academic Press.
Research questions, objectives and/or hypotheses
1) Which is the role of social nonacoustical factors in the causal mechanism of noise evaluation?
2) Is the influence of social nonacoustical factors moderated by sound level?
Research methodology
Hypotheses are tested in a laboratory experiment. Several sound conditions (high and low sound
level) are crossed with conditions in which the fairness of procedures is manipulated (Fair,
Unfair). Subjects are exposed to sound (50 or 70 dB(A)eq.) while completing a task. Before
starting their task, they either are, or are not, let to believe they are involved in the decision
making process regarding their own sound exposure. Dependent measures are: noise annoyance,
perceived disturbance and perceived control regarding the sound exposure, perceptions /
evaluations of the procedure.
State of development of thesis
The project is in the state of data collection.
The meaning of being annoyed by sound differs for the two social conditions tested in the
experiment. For subjects who believe they do not have a say in the decision making process, we
find a strong correlation between sound level (acoustics) and reported annoyance. Subjects who
do believe to have had a say in their exposure situation also report annoyance with the sound, but
for this group the correlation between sound level and annoyance is not significant. Ancova
analyses show a causal effect of social setting on annoyance for the higher sound level.
As the findings have not yet been replicated, no hard conclusions can be drawn.
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Mirele B. Goldsmith
PhD Program
Environmental Psychology
City University of New York Graduate Center
[email protected]
Supervisor: Dr. Cindi Katz
The Technical Fix or the Systemic Solution for Urban Water Quality? The Political
Ecology of New York City's Drinking Water
Research Problem
New York City, known for the excellent quality of its unfiltered water, recently negotiated an
agreement with the federal government that will allow it to be exempted from requirements to
filter water obtained from the Catskill and Delaware watersheds. This agreement is touted by the
City as an example of enlightened fiscal and environmental policy because the City will avoid
the expense of filtration while it implements an aggressive program to preserve the natural
capacity of the watershed to insure water quality. Yet at the same time the City is pursuing a
very expensive and controversial plan to implement filtration for water obtained from the Croton
watershed. Opposition to this plan has come almost exclusively from grassroots activists, led by
the Croton Watershed Clean Water Coalition. Why is the City pursuing this contradictory
policy, and what is the significance of the Coalition’s opposition? My study is intended to reveal
the obstacles to the implementation of environmentally-preferable policies for managing urban
water supplies, explore how grassroots activism contributes to the policy process, and to shed
light on New York City’s hydro-social cycle.
New York City has one of the oldest and largest water systems in the United States and
exemplifies the complexity of urban water management. The City draws its water from three
watersheds and is responsible to multiple regulatory authorities. Due to it’s size, the management
of New York City’s water system affects numerous communities. Although the City is under a
court order to build a filtration (water treatment) plant for the Croton watershed, the City has
been unable to site and begin construction of the plant due to sustained opposition.
The Croton Watershed Clean Water Coalition (“the Coalition”) includes both New York City
organizations and watershed community organizations among its members. The Coalition’s
position is that the City should protect the watershed and forego construction of a filtration plant.
The Coalition argues that once filtration is in place, there will be little incentive to continue to
protect the watershed. The policy advocated by the Coalition, the systemic solution of watershed
protection, is a form of pollution prevention. Implicit in this position is acceptance of the
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precautionary principle, a principle that has not been accepted as a basis for environmental
policy in the United States.
Theoretical Framework and Relevant Literature
I have selected political ecology as the framework for this research because the complexity and
inter-disciplinary nature of the issues involved in water supply call for an integrative framework
for analyzing human-environment interactions. Major questions motivating research in political
ecology include how relationships between people and nature result in both environmental
degradation and social injustice, and how the dynamics of capitalism and urbanization
reconstruct the inter-connected landscapes of city and country. Recent works in political ecology
have emphasized the need for sensitivity to questions of agency, or the power of people to
change their circumstances in the face of structural forces, reinforcing my decision to focus on
the role of the Coalition in the filtration controversy. My study is also informed by prior
research on urban water systems and citizen participation in environmental policy-making.
Research Questions and Strategy
Starting from the “bottom up,” my case study will closely examine the Coalition’s participants
and their motivations, the access that the Coalition has to the policy process, the Coalition’s
understanding of the history of water quality in the Croton watershed, how the economics of
water in New York City have influenced the Coalition’s strategies and the potential effects of the
policy advocated by the Coalition.
My sources of data are documents, interviews with the board members of the Coalition and
participant observation in Coalition activities. Once I have completed my interviews of all of the
Coalition’s board members, I plan to identify critical issues and turning points in the filtration
controversy for further investigation. I will then turn to an archive of approximately 600
videotapes of Coalition meetings and public hearings. These videotapes were made by one of
the Coalition’s leaders. I will also interview leaders of some of the 50 organizations that are
members of the Coalition and key observers of Coalition activities
In my analysis I will tell the story of the Coalition’s attempts to influence the policy of NYC
regarding filtration of the Croton watershed, reveal the forces at different scales that influence
the Coalition and structure the conflict over filtration, and reach some conclusions about the
extent of the influence of the Coalition on the policy process. I will address the significance of
the case study of the Coalition by examining what the experience of the Coalition can teach us
about the political ecology of urban water systems and the potential for grassroots influence in
urban environmental policy struggles.
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Pia Carrasco
Ph.D. program in Urban Studies
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, Culture et Société (INRS-UCS),
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
[email protected]
Supervisors: Damaris Rose (INRS-UCS) & Bernadette Blanc (University of Montreal)
From micro-space to social housing policies in Latin America. For the better integration of
women in formal Urban Planning
Research problem
In the last few years the link between gender and development has become a major element of
the public debate at the national and international level (UNDP, UN-Habitat, WB, CIDA, SIDA).
Gender urban planning considers the differential roles of women and men in a neighborhood, a
City and/or a given territory. This planning approach has the explicit goal to ensure that every
citizen, irrespective of its gender, has the same set of opportunities and the same level of control
over the resources and services provided by the urban development. Hence, formal urban
planning must be engendering, (i.e., going beyond the traditional neutral and gender blinded
schemes and frameworks for policy and decision making). In fact, modern urban planning must
consider not only the social and economic dimensions of the city dwellings, but also their
cultural and gender differences as the appropriate way to ensure efficiency and equity of policies
and interventions. Yet, in most developing countries social housing policies do not consider
gender as a focal variable. This situation calls for more research in order to better understand the
difficulties, as well as the enabling mechanisms to integrate the gender perspective in the formal
urban planning process. By doing so, full urban citizenship for the most vulnerable women could
be guaranteed.
Cultural setting
We took Chile as the case study because of its potential of transferability for the Latin-American
context. First, the social transformation that took place in the last three decades and, second, the
innovativeness of the social housing policy applied during the 1990s and based on the so called
enabling approach are seen as a model for the region (Rojas, 2001).
Theoretical framework
This research is aligned with and inspired by Moser’s framework for gender mainstreaming
(Moser, 1993). This framework is based on three main concepts 1) women’s reproductive,
productive and community gender roles 2) practical and strategic gender needs and 3)
WID/GAD categories for policy approaches (Chant et Gutmann, 2000; Moser, 1993; 2002;
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Moser et al., 1999). Moser framework intends to provide a solid base for policy intervention in
order to balance the women’s triple role and to empower them to change their subordinate
position. Latin-American policies in general and Chilean social housing policy in particular, do
not consider the asymmetries between women and men (Mac Donald, 1992; Saborido, 1996).
This lack of intervention from the State not only affects the most vulnerable of society, but also
avoids enabling social policies to be as performant and efficient in fighting inequalities, poverty
reduction and housing deficit as they could be.
Research aim and objectives
The aim of our research is to focus on the importance of women specific issues related to the
household survival strategies and difficulties imposed by a gender-blind urban planning and
policy making process. The goal of our general question is to understand how and to what extent
government intervention influences, builds, modifies and legitimizes gender relations in urban
settings. Our specific interest is to study the most recent Chilean social housing policy while
documenting and nuancing how and to which degree a social housing policy based on a
particular gender ideology impacts on living conditions of poor women.
Research strategy
Our research strategy is a case study (Chile). Data was collected between 1999-2000. Three
methods were used: semi-structured face-to-face interviews with key informants (n=20), semistructured face-to-face interviews with women from a marginal neighbourhood (La Pintana)
having applied to a social housing program (n=13) and a focus group addressed to men in the
same situation (n=10). Data was recorded, transcribed and managed with NUD*IST software
State of development of thesis
The theoretical framework, literature review, research questions (hypothesis), and data collection
are all completed. Analysis is in progress.
Not yet available (will be ready for the workshop).
Avenues for research findings applications
To point out the added-value of gender mainstreaming into formal planning and decision-making
for social housing policy in the context of developing countries.
Chant, S. et Gutmann, M., (2000). Mainstreaming Men into Gender and Development, Oxfam,
Mac Donald, J., (1992). "Mujer, vivienda y desarrollo local (la experiencia chilena)", Cuaderno
de Desarrollo Local, (9), 37-45.
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Moser, C., (1993). Gender Planning and Development Theory, Practice and Training, Routledge,
London et New York.
Moser, C., (2002). "Mainstreaming Gender in International Organizations", Draft, Public
Hearing Globalization and Gender, Berlin.
Moser, C., Tornqvist, A. et van Bronkhort, B., (1999). Mainstreaming Gender and Development
in the World Bank: Progress and Recommendations, World Bank, Washington.
Rojas, E., (2001). "The Long Road to Housing Sector Reform: Lessons from the Chilean
Housing Experience", Housing studies, 16(4), 461-483.
Saborido, M., (1996). "Introducción: Género y Asentamientos Humanos", M. Pineda et A.
Sugranyes, eds., Asentamientos Humanos, Pobreza y Género GTZ/MINVU/PGU,
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Matthew Ebden
PhD. Program
School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University
Email: [email protected]
Supervisor: Dr Mardie Townsend
Ecological sustainability and its occupational science underpinnings: What influences
people to make ‘earth-friendly’ choices?
Research problem
Humans engage in a complex array of occupations throughout their daily lives. Occupations are
all the ways we occupy time and space; they involve everything we do including all activities
and actions. Occupations take place within an environmental context. That is, the environment
influences the occupations people engage in and the occupations, in turn, influence people and
environments or the ecological context. It is becoming increasingly more important to address
the impact human occupations have ecological sustainability. To address the impact of human
occupations, we need to understand the influences or reasons why humans engage in certain
The occupations we engage in can be divided into categories according to the effects the
occupations have: those occupations motivated by outcomes that are favourable to the individual
and those occupations that are motivated by outcomes that are ‘earth friendly’ or favourable to
the ecological context. Although situations exist where occupational outcomes favour both
individual and ecological contexts, ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressures resulting
from people engaging in occupations that favour individual needs at the expense of ecological
balance, harmony and health. Many factors such as values, attitudes, characteristics and past
experiences influence human occupations. This research aims to investigate the occupational
influences on two groups of people: those people who are known for engaging in occupations
that are favourable to the ecological context and those people who are known for engaging in
occupations that primarily favour the individual.
This research will aim to capture a range of diverse views by exploring the experiences of
influential people across a range of cultural and geographical locations.
Theoretical framework
Occupational science: the study of the ways people occupy time and space
Perspectives of health: individual, public/population, ecological, prevention, promotion
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Ecological sustainability
Economic rationalism
Environmental psychology/eco-psychology
Environmental sociology
1. That common values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics influence the occupations
of people who engage in occupations that favour the ecological context.
2. That common values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics influence the occupations
of people who engage in occupations that favour individual needs at the expense of the
ecological context.
3. That the values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics of these two groups of people
are different.
4. That structures within societies can provide opportunities for the development of values,
attitudes, characteristics and experiences that are favourable to people engaging in
occupations that promote ecological balance, harmony and sustainability.
1. What particular values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics influence people to
engage in occupations that favour
• the ecological context?
• the individual at the expense of the ecological context?
2. What do these people believe influence their occupational lives?
3. What occupations do they engage in that
• demonstrate promotion of the ecological context?
• favour individual needs at the expense of the ecological context?
4. How do people who favour engagement in occupations that support the ecological context
view people who engage in occupations that support individual needs at the expense of the
ecological context and visa versa?
5. What changes would need to occur within their society to encourage a greater focus on
Pending ethics approval, approximately 7-10 people will be chosen from each of the two
perspectives. A sample of people from a range of cultural and geographical locations who are
internationally, nationally and locally well known will be chosen to identify a range of factors,
micro to macro, which might me influencing them. Participant selection will cease once
saturation of the data occurs.
Data Gathering/Analysis:
A grounded theory approach will be used to guide the research methodology whereby the data
collection and analysis processes are intertwined and evolve. A series of approximately 3 in-
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depth interviews with semi-structured questions (1-2 hours duration) per person will be
transcribed and analysed. The initial interview with each person will preferably be person-toperson with follow up interviews using telephone or person-to-person means.
State of development of thesis:
This research project is in its infancy, with the development of the research proposal and
literature review currently underway. I would greatly appreciate the opportunity to share my
research ideas with my peers and gain feedback. I anticipate a substantive literature review will
have taken place by July 2004.
Avenues for research findings applications:
The possible findings of this research may highlight more explicit ecologically-centred models
and philosophies that may influence occupational and social change through applications in areas
such as health, public policy and education.
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Chandra Victoria Lesmeister
Department of Landscape Architecture
Agricultural Sciences, University of British Columbia
[email protected]
Supervisor: Susan Herrington
Developing Design Interventions for Children’s Outdoor Play Environments
Research Problem
At the University of British Columbia Child Care Services complex, I will compare two outdoor
play yards. “Yard A” was built and designed several years ago by a landscape architecture
student whose children attended the day care. “Yard B” was recently built after renovations to
the day care room. “Yard A” represents a traditional type of playground space with its open
patch of grass and scattered play equipment. “Yard B” is densely planted, has defined
circulation paths, and is spatially complex.
A single group of children will be observed playing within both spaces. The comparison of the
play experiences will help to reveal what attributes of the two yards best support the child’s
development. Parents and early childhood educators will contribute their perceptions and
observations. During the interviews, I will aim to discover what elements we perceive as being
beneficial to the child.
I will use the beneficial attributes of the yards to generate a series of design interventions. The
interventions will be implemented in “Yard B”. Through the implementation process, I aim to
discover how and if the attributes from one yard can be designed into another while maintaining
the same developmental benefits.
The day care complex is located on the campus of the University of British Columbia on the
West Coast of British Columbia. The children who attend the facility ranged in ages from 6
months to five years. The study yards are intended for toddlers (children aged 12 to 24 months).
The families are either students or professors at the university.
Theoretical Framework/Relevant Literature
I will be using literature and theories that discuss the design attributes of quality outdoor play
spaces for young children. Susan Herrington’s work in creating interventions for children’s
outdoor play spaces provides an example of successful applications of this type of work.
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Recommendations for Child Play Areas Gary T. Moore
"The received view of play and the subculture of infants." Landscape Journal: Design,
Planning, and Management of the Land. 16 (2). 149-161 1997.
Spaces for Children: The Built Environment and Child Development Weinstein,
C.S. and Thomas G.D (eds.), New York: Plenum 1987.
Kindergarten Architecture Mark Dudek
Research Questions
How does the same group of children play in a contrasting outdoor environment?
What do families and early childhood educators perceive as being a quality outdoor space for
young children?
What does a toddler’s rich outdoor play experience look like?
What developmental opportunities are there in the toddler’s outdoor yard?
How do the children’s play experiences differ before and after the interventions?
How can a designer translate the attributes of one environment into an adjacent location?
Can we translate attributes from these yards to other neighbourhoods and contexts in
Research Methodology
In order to understand the children’s relationship to the environment, I will use video, interviews,
and a written play narrative. Through video, qualitative examples of children’s play experiences
will be documented. The videotaping will occur a total of eight times in thirty-minute sessions.
The children who are enrolled in the traditional play yard will be documented. The children will
be taped four times in their yard, “Yard B”, and four times in the other yard, “Yard A”. They will
be taped twice on sunny warm days and twice on cold rainy days in each yard. While the
children are being taped, a second observer will scribe play narratives. There will also be a
series of interviews with staff and families. The interviews with staff will help gain further
insight into how the spaces are used by children, and what attributes of the play spaces are
developmentally valuable.
State of Development
“Yard A” has been observed and documented through the use of a field observation form that
Susan Herrington and I have developed for another research project, The CHILD Project. The
form is meant as a tool to record and understand the physical conditions of the space, functional
and relational spaces, and community context.
Avenues for Research Findings Applications
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My thesis project will be a part of a five-year, interdisciplinary university-community
partnership endeavour called CHILD (Consortium for Health, Intervention, Learning and
Development) in Vancouver, Canada. The aim of CHILD is to improve evidence-based policy
development, encourage more effective advocacy work, and ultimately, better conditions for
healthy child development in the Province of British Columbia. My work will contribute to the
CHILD Project’s body of research. It will also be used to apply design interventions to a series
of day care centres in different neighbourhoods of Vancouver.
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Valerie Carr and Maggie Butchart
PhD programme
School of Design/School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Dundee
[email protected] and [email protected]
Supervisors: Jeanette Paul
Professor Toms Inns
Dr. Andrew Symon
An evaluation of maternity unit design in the UK.
The research aims to determine which distinct aspects of the interior environment have particular
impact on maternity patient satisfaction and which aspects are particularly related to staff wellbeing.
Pleasant wards may significantly improve patient outcomes (Ulrich 1984) Unlike most other
departments of the hospital the maternity department is normally concerned with a natural rather
than a pathological event. It is also dealing with a continuous process from pregnancy through
delivery to aftercare of both mother and child. It is not principally concerned with curing a
condition but with fulfilling it. Thus not only are its accommodation requirements different from
those of other wards but it is important that it should not be associated psychologically with
The patient perception of the maternity unit is filtered through their relationship with the
caregiver. Therefore the facilities provided for staff, in rest and changing areas, and the
functionality of their working environment, are as important as the patient areas. Staff wellbeing
is linked to their sense of being valued by their employer, which is often measured by the quality
of facilities provided for them by the employer. (Nursing Staff Review 2002)
The Department of Health in the UK has reaffirmed that the patient viewpoint is central to the
design process (DoH 2000), suggesting that the NHS must be prepared to change and focus on
what matters to patients. The quality of the buildings is vital to the quality of the care patients
receive in them. One million patients a week use NHS hospitals. One third of those hospitals
were built before the NHS was created. One tenth date back to Victorian times. The
consequences are shoddy buildings, unreliable equipment and out of date hospitals. In too many
places, the environment in which patients receive care is simply unacceptable
We have received funding for a three-year research project from NHS Estates. As a result we
have two concurrent doctoral research programmes linked to this research, one assessing and
analysing the patient perspective and the other focusing on the staff experience. The intention is
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to gain an overall understanding of how the interior environment of a maternity unit impacts on
all users.
The study will be conducted in five very different types of maternity unit. The units have been
chosen to give a cross section of rural and urban, high and low caseload facilities, newly built
PFI hospitals and older community units. It will focus on recent developments in healthcare
design. In particular, it will focus on patient-centred design and the patient-as-client philosophy
now driving most new healthcare projects.
The theoretical basis for our research lies within Environmental Psychology and Post Occupancy
Evaluation. Studies evaluating hospital design (Janssen, Klein et al. 2000; Lawson and Phiri
2000) have reported improved clinical outcomes for patients on purpose designed wards.
Hospital surveys within the US have linked patient satisfaction with their healthcare experience
with staff satisfaction in their work environment (Press Ganey 2003).
An evaluation of the literature revealed the need for a twofold approach, the first concerning the
patient perspective:
• What particular elements of the interior environment contribute towards patient
The second focusing on the staff :
• Is our concentration on the patient experience alienating staff in healthcare facilities?
As a consequence, a satisfaction questionnaire was developed from validated sources (Janssen,
Klein et al. 2000; Lawson and Phiri 2000). It was distributed to a purposive sample of birthing
mothers, birth partners (n=200), medical staff, midwives, hospital management and
housekeeping/ancillary staff (n=150) at Forth Park Maternity Unit, Kirkcaldy. The patient selfreport forms were correlated with their medical records to see whether there was any link
between satisfaction with the interior environment and clinical outcomes. Focus groups and
interviews will then take place to further discuss the issues raised in the questionnaires. In
addition a Post Occupancy Evaluation will be carried out using, the NHS Estates ‘Achieving
Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit’. This toolkit will be refined and adapted for assessing the
interior environment.
We are currently analysing data from our pilot study at Forth Park Maternity Unit. We have
received multi centre ethical approval to conduct the study at other sites throughout the UK, and
are in the process of submitting R+D applications to the other sites. We have conducted
preliminary visits to three sites in the south of England and are in the process of customising the
presentation of our questionnaires to suit the layout and type of maternity facilities involved.
DoH (Department of Health) (2000) The NHS Plan: A plan for investment, a plan for reform.
London: HMSO
Janssen, P. A., M. C. Klein, et al. (2000). "Single room maternity care and client satisfaction."
Birth 27: 235-243.
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Lawson, B. and M. Phiri (2000). Room for improvement, 2000 Emap Healthcare Ltd. 2003.
Ulrich, R. S. (1984). "View through a window may influence recovery from surgery." Science
224: 420-421.
Review Body for Nursing Staff, Midwives, Health Visitors and Professions Allied to Medicine
(2002). “Nineteenth Report on Nursing Staff, Midwives and Health Visitors 2002.” Her
Majesty’s Stationery Office
Lee, B. (2003) “K.E.E.P. Your Nurses for Life” The Satisfaction Monitor Press Ganey
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# 657
Stella Wisdom
3rd Year PhD student
Landscape Architecture, Edinburgh College of Art
[email protected]
Supervisors: Professor Peter Aspinall and Professor Catherine Ward Thompson
Awareness, Understanding and Communication of Tactile Pavement Usage within the
United Kingdom.
The purpose of this PhD research is to examine street environments and more specifically the
pavement, which pedestrians walk upon. The investigation focuses on accessibility requirements
relating to the needs and experiences of visually impaired pedestrians. The central aim is to
understand how visually impaired people use tactile pavement and to define tactile pavement's
relationship with other mobility and navigation systems. The research objective is to investigate,
analyse and compare, manufacturers', implementers' and users' awareness and understanding of
tactile pavement, within the UK.
In 1986 the first tactile pavement was implemented in UK, to signify controlled road crossings
and initially it had the legal status of a road sign. However, due to widespread trends for
dropped kerbs (to increase wheelchair users opportunity for crossing roads), tactile pavement use
was extended. In an effort to distinguish between tactile pavement at uncontrolled and
controlled crossings, it was produced in contrasting red and buff colours. This caused much
confusion for town planners and in 1991 tactile pavement lost its legal status. Officials thought,
that it could not be practically upheld, due to the increased variety in tactile pavement surfaces.
Expansion of usage has continued and there are now seven different types of tactile surface used
in the UK:
Blister surface for pedestrian crossing points
Corduroy hazard warning surface
Platform (off street) warning edge surface
Platform (on street) warning edge surface
Guidance path surface
Information surface
Segregated shared cycle track/footway surface with central delineator strip.
Despite the loss of legal status, the UK government appears keen to support standardized usage
of tactile pavement. In 1998 the Department for Transport produced guidelines: "Guidance on
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the Use of Tactile Paving Surfaces", to assist streetscape designers and town planners in their
Research Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: Many visually impaired people are not fully aware of the different meanings of the
tactile surfaces.
Hypothesis 2: Many visually impaired people have not received detailed mobility training about
how to use tactile pavement systems.
Hypothesis 3: Visually impaired people, who are aware of tactile pavement and use or have
previously used it as a mobility cue; cease to rely on it, if they experience too many examples of
inconsistent, incorrect and misleading tactile pavement installations.
Hypothesis 4: Designers, town planners and other professionals, who are responsible for
installing and maintaining pavement, are not fully aware of and do not consistently follow
government guidelines relating to tactile pavement use.
Research Methodology
For this study a qualitative data collection method; individual interviews, was selected.
Interviewing was chosen, because more quantitative survey methods, such as printed postal
questionnaires, could have caused problems for many visually impaired respondents, who may
not use print as their preferred reading method.
To gather visually impaired interview respondents, volunteers were requested from local visually
impaired peoples' organisations. This was an ethical method of contacting potential interviewees
and did not break the UK Data Protection Act. However, it had the possible disadvantage of not
reaching and including the least independent and mobile visually impaired people.
Due to time and financial constraints, it was not feasible to extend the interviewee sample to
cover the whole of the UK. Therefore the research is a comparison study of the cities Glasgow
and Birmingham.
Progress to Date
This PhD project started in 2002 and is currently in the data collection stage. Initial findings
indicate that visually impaired pedestrians do not know how to interpret all of the tactile surfaces
used within the UK. This seems to be less of an issue with surfaces that have been installed over
a longer time period, such as the red "blister" pavement used to indicate road crossing points.
Yet for newer types of tactile surface, such as the "lozenge" surface for on-street platform edges,
there appears to be a lack of awareness of their existence and confusion regarding their correct
interpretation. One can anticipate that this lack of recognition may be less of a problem in
future, when these surfaces are more established and when more people have received training
about how to use them.
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The central issues of this study are understanding and communication. The research aims to
provide useful information about how visually impaired pedestrians use and learn how to use
tactile surfaces. Furthermore it attempts to assess user awareness amongst those involved in the
planning and implementation of tactile pavement systems. It is anticipated that the PhD thesis
will be submitted in 2005.
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Tsai-Shiou Hsieh
Ph.D Program in Environmental Psychology
Graduate Center, City University of New York, USA
Email: [email protected]
Dissertation advisor: Roger Hart
Recycle me, Recycle me not—A cross-level analysis of New York City’s recycling policy
change: individual, organizational, governmental, and political economical
New York City stopped recycling certain materials in 2002 due to financial concerns, but restarted recycling some of them after one year. The confusing story of the “suspension” invoked
wide responses and public discussion. The policy swirl changed not only the way New Yorkers
did recycling, but very likely also the way they valued recycling. My dissertation aims at
unraveling a whole picture of the policy changes, and how these changes affected people’s
recycling attitude and behavior. The projected research method is a combination of multiple
methods, including archival studies, short surveys, and interviews. It also includes the analysis of
dynamics of different agents in government, local and national environmental groups, and city
residents. This study also aims at providing some policy implication for New York City
recycling program from an environmental psychological viewpoint.
Theoretical Background
As a response to emerging environmental awareness, there has been increased psychological
studies on pro-environmental behavior over the past few decades. Aiming at understanding and
predicting people’s environmental attitudes and behavior, these studies mainly took four
different approaches: rational-economic, social dilemmas, attitude-behavior models, and applied
behavioral analysis (Kurz, 2002). Among all the pro-environmental behavior studies, recycling
seems to be the most frequently used perspective.
In contrast to the most common approaches, I will adopt the ecological psychology perspective,
especially Gibson’s notions of “affordances”(Gibson, 1979). I intend to use this idea of
affordances as a lens for viewing recycling, This means that instead of focusing on the individual
level (whether a person recycles or not or how much environmental concern s/he has.) I will
investigate “person-in-environment” as my fundamental unit of analyses. I intend to develop the
argument that people’s conceptualization and determination of recycling are shaped by
interconnected aspects of recycling affordances: physical affordances, social affordances, and
informational affordances.
For a more macro view, recycling itself can hardly be conceptualized as an individual behavior.
It is directly connected to environmental policy (both state and federal,) and related to industry
and the global market. There has been scarce discussion on how the “backstage” of recycling
(industry-, economy- and policy-wise) is connected with post-consumer recycling practice.
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An on-going recycling policy change in New York City provides a good opportunity to fulfill my
interests across different levels. Since July 1st, 2002, NYC suspended recycling glass and plastic
materials because it cost too much money, and around 40% of the collected recyclables ended in
landfills. NYC re-started recycling plastic items in July, 2003, and is expecting to recycle glass
again in a year.
Research Question
How is the recycling policy change understood, translated and practiced at different levels from
the ideology of the municipal government to the NGO’s responses and the residents’ reactions?
In order to answer this big and blurred question, below is a smaller set of questions:
1. Historical: What is NYC’s recycling history? What efforts have been put there? What
difficulties were encountered in the past, and what are their corresponding solutions?
2. Municipality’s perspective: What is the decision-making process behind the current
recycling policy change? Is the change reaching its goals (eg: saving money)? How does the
city evaluate the impact of the policy change? Is this event changing the bigger picture of
waste management policies?
3. NGO’s position: how do different environmental NGOs (international, national, local…etc.)
respond to this policy change? What actions did they take? What kind of alternatives did they
4. Residents’ responses: how did/do people understand the recycling policy change? How did
the change affect their daily practice of recycling, to their attitudes towards recycling and to
teir larger orientation to environmental issues?
This research aims at:
1. An integrated view of urban recycling, connecting the micro with the macro.
2. A critique and a complete record of NYC’s recycling—past, current, and future.
3. Policy implementation suggestions to the city government.
This dissertation research is a case study which is composed of multiple research methods:
1. Content Analysis: analysis of social representation which includes newspaper clips,
official government reports, NGOs’ reports.
2. Interviews: government officials (department of sanitation), city councilors, NGO activists,
and maybe scholars in other disciplines (environmental engineering, environmental
economy, political science…etc.) employees of related industry.
3. (possible) Short survey: questions include “What do you know about current City
recycling policy?” “How do you practice recycling, at home? At your working place?”
“why or why not do you recycle?” “Are you aware of the recycling policy change during
the last couple of years? (if so, ask participants to describe, and ask them why the policy has
been changed; if not, I will explain shortly.)” “How do you feel about these changes? Can
you talk about how these changes affect your attitudes about recycling? About other
environmental issues?”
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Ludigija Boniface Bulamile
[email protected]
Crime Prevention and the Built Environment in Tanzania
Kewwords : Crime Prevention; Spatial Patterns; Urban Morphology; House Design; Town
Planning; Tanzania
Fear of crime is as much a problem as crime itself and is an important policy issue in its own
right. Fear of crime is often associated with fear for one’s personal safety, especially when alone
and after dark. Fear of crime may keep people off the streets, and other public areas. It may thus
constitute a barrier to participation in the public life of cities (Wekerle and Whitz-man, 1995:23). This observation is based on research in planned cities of industrialised countries, but can be
assumed to be applicable also in unplanned areas in poor countries.
In Dar es Salaam – the biggest city of Tanzania with an estimated 3 million inhabitants – the
crime rate is growing, thereby increasing fear of using public space. In order to address this
problem the Safer Cities project has been initiated. In March 2000 two studies were initiated in
Dar es Salaam within the framework of this project. The studies usher some light on the
experience of violence and crime, and the feeling of insecurity. 43% of the respondents stated
that they had been victims of burglary between 1995 and 2000, while 32% stated that they had
been mugged. 61% of the interviewed stated that they felt unsafe in their homes after dark
(Robertshaw et al, 2000:13).
The study further noted that burglary affects more people living in newly established suburbs
compared to those living elsewhere in Dar es Salaam. Generally people with higher incomes and
those owning houses are more at risk. In 78% of incidences victims reported that some-one was
at home when the burglary was committed (Robertshaw et al, 2000:14).
Crime prevention through environmental design
Combating crime is often associated with increased policing, more severe punishment of criminals, social and educational programs, and programs for poverty eradication. In the last
decades there has been an increasing interest in the potential of the built environment to contribute to crime prevention. In research and practical policies it is nowadays often recog-nised
that the design of buildings, streets, parks and other public places can deter criminal activity and
enhance urban safety. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) has become a
well-known concept for the design and management of urban space to reduce the incidence and
fear of crime (Wekerle and Whitzman, 1995:12). CPTED invol-ves detailed situational analysis
to identify local patterns and the micro-environmental con-ditions that might be creating
opportunities for crime. Major factors for CPTED include clear divisions into private, semiprivate, communal, semi-public and public space; a mixture of urban functions so that aroundthe-clock uses occur; design of neighbourhoods for clear overview and avoidance of dark
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corners, and grid-like communication patterns instead of tree-like urban structures with many
dead end streets, which are used only by a few (New-man, 1974; du Plessis, 1999).
There are two diametrically opposed approaches to CPTED. The one called “target harde-ning”
implies fences, barbed wire, gated communities and privatisation of public spaces. The other
one is based on the idea of planning a city so that people are present in communal and public
places around the clock. The determining factor for design is to avoid dark, unseen spaces and
adapt a grid structure rather than a tree-like structure. The two approa-ches are to a high degree
excluding each other. High fences and gated communities contri-bute for instance to more fear
outside the private realm, which in turn make people use com-munal and public spaces less,
thereby reducing the chance for intervention when crimes occur (Newman, 1974; Coleman 1979;
du Plessis, 1999).
Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory and Coleman’s views on crime reduction strate-gies
have gradually gained momentum among decision-makers and planners in USA and Western
Europe. These theories can be assumed to be relevant to urban areas in poor count-ries as well,
but in order to be fruitfully applied the local context has to be taken into conside-ration. The
contextual factors can be assumed to comprise climatic and cultural aspects (influencing the use
of outdoor space), ownership of land and real estate property, the role of local crafts-men and
professionals, and the influence of planning legislation on urban development. No study with this
focus has been done in Tanzania so far.
Aim of study
The aim of this research is to document the present tendency towards “target hardening” in Dar
es Salaam and to investigate to what extent this tendency goes against the other approach to
reduce crime by environmental design. The study intends to explore to what extent current
CPTED theories are applicable in the Tanzanian context. On the basis of such an analysis
attempts will be made to work out recommendations for house and neighbourhood types that
prevent crime, and to introduce elements of CPTED thinking in physical planning.
Research methods
It is proposed that the research methods will comprise the following:
a) Analysis of aerial photographs for tracing urban patterns where public spaces have high
integration values (assumed to produce good crime prevention) versus tree-like struc-tures
(where less overview is achieved). GIS may be used as a tools of analysing the spatial
characteristics influencing the level of crime.
b) Analysis of statistics on crime, including an assessment of its reliability and coverage. The
frequency of burglary and other types of crime taking place in urban areas should be matched
with the spatial patterns assumed to be related to crime prevention.
c) Comparative studies may be made between high crime districts and low crime districts to
establish factors influencing the crime.
d) Collection and documentation of examples at the micro-level of designs determined by the
two contradictory types of crime prevention.
e) Interviews with key persons such as police officers, planners and mtaa leaders about
frequency of crime, suitable actions to prevent crime, and about spaces that people tend to avoid
for fear of crime.
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f) Interviews with a selection of residents who have carried out constructions because of fear of
g) Interviews with urban dwellers about their inclination to intervene in case of observing crime,
and about the type of spaces they avoid in the city.
Coleman, Alice (1985): Utopia on Trial. Vision and Reality in Planned Housing, London: Hilary
Newman, Oscar (1973): Defensible Space. Crime Prevention Through Urban Design, New
York: Collier Books.
du Plessis, Chrisna (1999): “The Links Between Crime Prevention and Sustainable Development; in Open House International Vol.24 No. 1.
Robertshaw, R., A Louw and A. Mtani (2001): Crime in Dar es Salaam, United Nations Centre
for Human Settlements and Institute for Security Studies, 2001
Salden, O. A. J. C. (2001): Violence Against Women in Tanzania: Opportunities and Constraints for the government to eliminate or reduce the problem, Faculty of Sciences, Leiden
University, The Netherlands.
Spooner J. (2000): Violence Against Women in Urban Areas: An Analysis of the Problem from
Gender Perspective, UMP Working Paper Series 17.
Taylor, Ralph (2002): “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED): Yes, No,
Maybe, Unknowable, and All of the Above”, in Bechtel, Robert and Arza Churchman
(eds): Handbook of Environmental Psychology, John Wiley & Sons.
Wekerle and Whitzman (1995): Safer Cities: Guidelines for Planning, Design, and Management; Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
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