The Dubstep Forum Production Bible V2.0 Page: 1

Page: 1
The Dubstep Forum
Production Bible V2.0
The old version of the bible is still available there.
(Please help with the unlinked chapters by going here - and updating missing info as
1. Basic Studio Setup
1.1 – Monitors
1.2 – Headphones
1.3 – MIDI controllers
1.4 – Soundcards
2. Tools
2.1 – Free software
2.2 – DAWs
2.2.1 – Ableton Live
2.2.2 – Cubase
2.2.3 – FL Studio
2.2.4 – Logic
2.2.5 – Reaper
2.2.6 – Reason
2.2.7 – Renoise
2.3 – Production effects explained
2.4 – Hardware (later)
2.5 – Samples
2.6 – Free frequency analyzers
3. Techniques
3.1 – Bass
3.1.1 – Sub-bass
3.1.2 – Wobble
3.1.3 – Reese
3.1.4 – Random bass tips
3.2 - Resampling
3.3 – Drums
3.4 – Sidechain Compression (later)
3.5 – Gain Structure AKA the Money-shot Thread
4. Theory
4.1 – Song Structure
4.2 – Mixdown (later)
4.3 – Mastering (later)
4.4 – Music Theory
4.5 – Random tips & best piece of advice thread
5. Resources
5.1 – Books & Magazines
5.2 – Wiki
5.3 – Other recommended production forums
6. Distributing Your Music (later)
1. Basic Studio Setup
1.1 Monitors
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I see a lot of questions on studio monitors so I'll do my best to share some knowledge... Section 0 - What is a Studio Monitor and Why do I Need Them to Make Killer Beats that would
make my big boned Italian grandmother shit in her diaper. You can skip this part if you know the dynamics of making grandma shit her diaper. Studio reference monitors are like your ears. They let you hear the music. If I cut your ears off, or
stick pencils through your eardrums, you don't really know what your music sounds like. That is an
extreme. If you have ears that don't work well, you will write music that sounds good to you, but
that probably won't sound good to other people's ears. This won't make my grandmother shit in her
diaper. I'll get more technical about getting grandmother to shit in her diaper now. Let us say you are writing a song on speakers that accentuate 10khz by 2 db, and cut 100hz by 2
db. You have wrote your tune and now you are trying to make your track sound really really good grandma shit herself good. when you mix down, you will be trying to get the sound to sound good
on your speakers. Because your speakers accentuate 10khz by 2db, you will tend to find the sound
harsher here or too loud so you may cut these frequencies with eq. Likewise, when you are mixing
the bass frequencies, you will be trying to get the kick to make grandma shit without boom. But
because the speakers cut the sound at 100 hz, you will tend to incease the ammount of frequency
at 100hz. When you then take that song in your car and drive around with grandma, the extra 2db of 100hz
that you added to your mix to account for the lack of 100hz in your speakers at home will be
noticable in your car. It will make your track sound 'boomy'. You won't know why - it sounded so
good at home. Grandma no shit because of boom. Likewise there will be a big gap in the upper
frequencies so granma can't make out the lyrics - she turn up her hearing aid and keep turning over
to you going 'huh? huh?' because she can't figure out what is the music and what is her own farting
and what is your voice. So basically, by writing on good quality monitors (preferrably in an environment with some sound
treatment, and with proper speaker placement) you will create a mix that will transfer well on to
other systems, rather than it only sounding good on the system you are working on. You won't
really understand this unless you've had a lot of problems mixing down in your music. If you're
reading this, likely you've had problems with translation and now see the advantages. Hopefully this clarifies. Section 1 - I don't know a god damn thing about monitors but I want to learn more - what the
fuck do I do! Jesus Christ! First, if you want to learn a bit about monitors, the best place for reviews imo is sound on sound
( It should truly be your first source of reference for looking for
information on any potential purchase. Now here are the big boys that you'll hear everyone talking about. ENTRY LEVEL MONITORS:
Behringer B2030/B2031 series. The Behringer series are really fucking entry level. If you're seriously strapped for cash, these might do. I've spent a very small ammount of time on
the smaller ver and they're not smooth, but they're a bit better option than hi-fi. Similar to most of
Behringer's other gear, thier market stance is low quality low price with a lot of un-needed bells and
whistles. I would recommend against these. KRK RP5/RP6/RP8 series. I own a pair of RP5s and have spent a small ammount of time with the RP8s. The KRKs have a slight
aggressiveness in the mid-highs which most people find very pleasing (myself included). They're a
real joy to work on. I notice that the RP5s definately have have a 'boxy' quality, which becomes
extremely obvious next to my HRs. They have a pretty average bass response (RP8s go down to
45hz, RP5s down to 57hz I think - check SOS). Good speakers - great value. Page: 3
Event TR8. These things are bass. frequency response down to 35hz - which is lower than pretty much every
other 8" reference monitor around. Due to the nature of speakers, deeper bass response means an
inhibited ability to produce higher frequency sound. The result is a slightly 'unclear' mid range. All
speaker design is about compromise and balance. These guys go for the deep tones rather than
clarity. Not a bad choice necessarily for dubstep producers. My recommendation would be the KRK
RP8s or Samson Rubicon 6As and save for a sub instead of going for these - a bit more long term
and you'll get a more physical bass response with better mid and high end image, but it will
obviously cost you more. Tapco S5/S8s. The new guys on the block. I've spend a bit of time with these - had the S8s in my studio for a bit
but brought them back to the store. I'll discuss the S8s. I think mackie have managed to create some hype with these (Tapco is mackie's entry level brand)
Don't listen to the hype/reviews. These speakers have a really hollow and far away quality that is
exactly the opposite to the KRKs and Rubicons 'visible' image. These do have good bass response down to 40hz. They really lack the ability to show you what's going on, even if the frequency
response is deep and flat. Not a bad choice on a budget if you really want the deeper bass, but
listen to them first. I would really recommend against them if you've never spent time with
reference monitors. Again, would recommend a speaker with better image/less bass paired with a
sub. Samson Rubicon 5A/6A The least talked about reference monitors! No one seems to consider these. you're going to pay
more for the woofer cone size than the others listed here, but they're my fav of the lot. These don't
use a cone for the tweeter - they use a traditional ribbon tweeter design (different than adams ART
ribbon tweeter). The design is good - a bit too above my head to express, but apparently these lack
a lot of the negatives associated with ribbons (delicate, quiet) These speakers give an incredible
image of equisite quality. They're very airy - you can see really deep into the sound. Best bang for
the buck IMO - these are fantastic with the 6As at $600. Go listen to them - you'll see what I mean.
The only problem is the bass response is not deep at all!! Grab a sub - when people come over and
look at your monitors and go 'what are those' they'll walk out talking about how your studio is the
best sounding joint around MID RANGE I'm just going to discuss a couple big ones here. Adam A7 Now we're breaking the $1000 mark. These are a compromise between cost and quality. Adam have
stuck thier infamous(ly expensive) new fangled ribbon tweeter design into a less ideal enclosure/
woofer combo. You're going to get that impressive depth and visibility on the highs, but you might
find some holes in the rest. You'll probably want a sub as these guys are only 6+"s and won't have a
real deep bass response, although it is still impressive for a smaller woofer ( I think 47hz) Mackie HR624/HR824 (MKI or MKII) Mackie recently redesigned thier HR series. They're now quite possibly the sexiest looking monitors
on the market. I own a pair of the HR824MKIIs and I love them. These use a different design than all
of the above. They're unported with a 'radiator' which is basically a big oval inside the enclosure
which you can't see. This allows deep bass response (37hz on the mkIIs, I believe, or 39hz). The
design is good, the quality is reliable. While Mackie may have you believe they're the best on the
market, they're not. A lot of people find them brash - I think they're quite smooth so listen to them.
The tweeters are aluminum/titanium depending on the version which colours the sound differently
than the silk and ribbon designs in above speakers. These are very flat, very reliable. The image is
reasonably upfront - not hyped or aggressive. The image could be a bit easier to look in to. I like
the ribbon design of the Samson/Adam for this. All in all, looking at price vs quality, these are probably more on the price side with speakers like
the KRKs popping up. TOP END SHIT I'm not getting into this stuff. If you're looking at Dynaudio, Genelec, top level adam shit, then you
know what you're doing and don't need my help[/b]
Page: 4
1.2 Headphones
If you want to add a model plz give its name, pros, cons & average price (new). Thanks everybody! AKG K-240s ~120$ Pros: Wide frequency response, removable cables, used a lot. Much better for producing (than the HD-25s), a lot flatter, so it doesn't have the beautiful (but fake)
bass of the 25s. Also doesn't crush my ears like a 150kg boxer. Cons: Tend to make you a bit hot lol Beyerdynamic DT990 PRO ~220$ or 150 Euro Pros: comfortable, very solid bass response, wide frequency range Cons: haven't found any so far! I find them suitable for mixdowns Samson RH300 Pros: Cost-effective, auto-adjust mechanism so very light and comfortable, can balance well bass
levels on it. Sounds muddy if mixdown is not well balanced Cons: Aggressive, fatiguing high end. I shelf highs while producing because they're pinching. This is
not to be compared with AKG-240s and likes, its a bargain (can find it as low as 25€) CH70/700 Pros: The most cost-effective 'studio' headphone. Enough comfortable, similar in behaviour to
rh300. Very small, the ideal for the nomadic producer I think. Not fatiguing as the RH300. CH700 is
the bigger brother of CH70, you only get bass and more distinct stereo image. Gets VERY muddy if
mix is not perfect. Its difficult to calibrate decaying sounds on it (reverb/delays) Cons: It costs really low so its cons are a consequence of it Sennheiser HD-25 ~ €150 Pros: solid built, great for djing, good for producing by night if you have thin walls and neighbours
on the other side. Cons: not suitable for mixdowns, some people complain they can't wear for more than a couple of
hours (tho I have no problem after several hours). HD 600 ~ £180 Pro's: Sound like sex. Comfortable, Frequency range is amazing goes all the way from 20-2000 Hz
(and made my ears bleed at 15,000Hz !) Con's: Expensive at around £180 HD 600 crew - get the HD650 cable, makes a very nice difference for only £20 or so
1.3 Midi Controllers
If you want to add a model plz give its name, pros, cons & average price (new). Thanks everybody! ________________________________ KEYBOARDS ________________________________ AKAI MPK49 £280 new 49-key, semi-weighted keyboard with aftertouch and full-sized keys 8 360 degree rotary dials each with 3 banks = 24 total 12 MPC style pads, velocity and pressure sensitive, 4 banks = 48 total 8 sliders each with 3 controller banks = 24 total note repeat and arpeggiator 8 assignable switches with 3 banks each = 24 total MMC/MIDI Start Stop transport buttons USB powered. Page: 5
great all in one midi controller/keyboard although you do pay a bit, typical price is around £280
new. Also as someone who has owned an MPC I can testify that the drum pads do note respond like
an MPC, although they are the closest out of all the keyboard controllers I looked at, apart from that
I can't fault it. Evolution MK-449C Pros: 9 faders, 8 knobs, 10 assignable buttons, pitch and mod wheel add up to 29 controls, works
as a charm, cheap. Cons: Configuring it can be annoying as fuck.(I mean the configuring of presets and other stuff) Evolution MK-425C It the same as MK-449C, but without the faders and with only 2 octaves. I'd say that it is an
awesome starter controller. Keys are a bit plastic ish and light, but it is good for it's price. Korg K24 ~ £40 Pro's: well it's Bus powered + Plenty of octaves (5 up and down if i remember rightly), Con's : none, it does exactly everything you expect from a basic midi controller, more expensive
ones seem to have no better functions other than more of the same...unless you want weighted
keys. Korg Nano Series all usb $59.99 nanopad - 12 pad drum controls + x/y pad $59.99 nanokontrol - 9 knobs 9 faders 18 switches $49.99 nanokey - 25 key midi keyboard, pitch and podulation controls adjustable velocity curves suited for portable rigs and saving space + low cost M-Audio Axiom £150-£170 Pros: The keys are FANTASTIC. Aftertouch is great. Pitchbend and mod feel very nice. Having transport controls was enough to convince me to sell my UC33e to buy this. The tap pads also were a strong selling point. Cons: The knobs are straight useless. You can't go from 0-127 in one turn. They're loud, as well. All of the output from the keyboard seems random, and alot of people have trouble setting them
up. M-Audio Keystation 61es ~ £115 / €135 It has got one volume fader and 5 octaves. It's keys are much better than the MK-425C ones M-Audio MidAir25 Around 200 in all currency. I got it for 70 in a deal though, wouldn't say its
worth 200 new but cheap 2nd hand, bargin. Pros/: 8 Assignable knobs. Mod wheel, sustain button & jack for sustain peddle, pitch shift,
assignable slider too. (note: I haven't used all the functions of it, you can go into "select mode" but I
don't know how to use it, so if someone did, it might be of use) its wireless too so you can go sit
across the room / in another room and play , might be good for live work if you want a little
controller quite far away from the laptop or something. Cons: Only 2 Octaves, plastic-feel to the keys, drivers were a trouble to get working, only midi out. M-Audio Oxygen Possibly one of the most classic portable midi keyboards in existence. I've had my Oxygen 8 for years, and it's still going strong. Well worth the 80 buff I spent on it Novation Remote/SL Novation Remote Zero Price seen em go for £150 -£199 i paid 120 from ebay Pro's: Infinate and 270 degree assignable knobs, drum pads and faders and toggle/gate buttons.
Good for controlling everything i use in reaktor for live gigs (automap assignment function for big
named applications) automap software for creating your own midi maps on screen which is useful
for when you make your own synths in something like reaktor. it's also Bus powered. Cons: faders a bit small, and bit plastic...needs a bit more length on the fade. Novation X-Station ________________________________ OTHERS ________________________________ Page: 6
Behringer BCR2000 (knobs controller) ~ 150 EUR Pros : user friendly, cheap, 32 user presets (assign 24 knobs per instrument for up to 32
instruments) Cons : have to do more than 1 rotation to go from 0 to 100%, cheap built Behringer BCF2000 (faders controller) ~ 180 EUR Same as BCR2000 but with 8 faders instead. Evolution UC-33 (knobs & faders) ~ £140 Pros : easy way to use, cheap, easy portable. Cons : If you're a goof itll break quite soon. In other words. With lots of traveling the thing gets
paranoid after some bumps
1.4 Soundcards
If you want to add a model plz give its name, pros, cons & average price (new). Thanks everybody! Apogee Duet Pros : Good quality 24bit converters, Small and portable, easy to setup, works within Logic. Cons : Only has 2 XLR inputs and 2 hi-z jack inputs, pricey, FW400 input to computer Audiotrak Maya 44 USB $96-120 SOS review pros: analog rca ins/out, easy to connect turntables too cons: no 24 bit converters Digidesign Mbox 2 does the job, as the audio sound much more crisp and there's no static in the background. E-MU 0404 USB ~ 200 $ Pros: good D/A converters, driver support for many OS, volume knobs for headphone and monitors,
simple and user friendly control, good headphone amplifier Cons: ASIO drivers and multimedia drivers not working at the same time. I bought it mainly for the driver support, works with Win XP x64 and also OSX Leopard. Would I buy it again? yes E-MU 1212m ~ €140 Pros: the sound quality, the price, the DSP effects Cons: takes 2 PCI slots, the Patchmix software is a bit tricky at the beginning. E-MU 1616m
Rad, basically. E-MU 1820m have the emu 1820m which is basically then same as the other two nbut with lovely mic pre's and
an external box, most of the problems ive had with it can be traced back to the cable for the
external I/O. other than that the card is wonderful, so therefore can recommend the other two. M-Audio 1010LT ~ €190 Ive had an Maudio 10/10LT for 5 years and have had no problems with it. More than enough ins
and outs for most home studio uses and had been totaly stable. M-Audio Delta 1010 with the breakout box solid, solid as a rock and it sounds great. loads of I/O as well, in fact too much for me tbh. M-Audio Audiophile 2469 around $120. Quite a nice soundcard, easy enough to set up. Had some trouble with it once though. My PC kind
of stopped recognizing it (and this is where MY own personal mistake comes in) and I tried
reinstalling it without removing it, when the manual clearly says that you should install the drivers
before plugging the card in. The only drawback of the card is lack of I/Os... I really need a second out, and it only has one
analog and one digital out. The digital one seems kind of useless to me right now. So... yeah...
that's the only drawback I can mention. M-Audio Delta Audiophile 192 Page: 7
NI Audio Kontrol 1 ~ €300 NI Audio Kontrol 1 is well worth a look. Rock solid, done untold gigs with it, built like a tank and
sounds excellent. Cirrus Logic's 2nd best convertor chips in there, well designed, three big buttons,
a big knob and flashing lights. Bosh.
2. Tools
2.1 Free Software
The Big Thread of Free VST Plugins!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Everyone likes free software.
Below you will find a list of sites dedicated to providing free music software. They are listed in order
of useability and the amount of free plugins they list. truly excels in
listing every new freeware plugin released.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Amazing Free Audio Software Site!
Some Other Good Sites to Browse Through (If you really need too...) (Mac only)
Some Alright Sites (These sites simply repeat the ones listed above, yet are more difficult to
navigate and feature fewer links...)
Some Desperate Sites (Poorly laid out and pretty boring. Only dig through these if you're a
audioware junkie!)
Threads Concerning Free VST's (Lists individual plugins and plenty of plugin developers...
Provides links to many of the plugins that can be found more easily above).
2.2 DAWS (Digital Audio Workstation)
DAW Question specific threads:
2.2.1 – Ableton Live
2.2.2 – Cubase
2.2.3 – FL Studio
Page: 8
– Logic
– Reaper
– Reason
– Renoise
2.3 Production effects explained
Common Production Effects
------------------------------------------------------------------------Click on each link for more in-depth information about each effect.
------ Filter Effects -----EQ - (EQ types - Graphic EQ, Parametric EQ, Shelving EQ, Linear Phase EQ)
Filters - (Filter types - Low Pass filter, High Pass filter, Band Pass filter, Band Reject filter, Notch
filter, Comb filter, All Pass filter, State Variable filter, Peaking filter, Moog filter, Formant/Vowel
Phase Inverter
Harmonic Exciters
------ Delay Effects -----Delay/Echo - (Delay types - Ping Pong delay, Multi Tap delay, Slapback delay, Bucket delay
Crossfeedback delay)
Reverb - (Reverb types - Spring reverb, Plate reverb, Convolution reverb, Impulse Response reverb)
------ Modulation Effects -----Chorus
------ Dynamics Processing Tools -----Compressors
Limiters (Brick Wall)
Transient Shaper/Signal Modellers
Companders / Noise reduction units
------ Distortion Effects -----Distortion - (Distortion types - soft clipping, hard clipping, overdrive saturation)
Ring Modulation
Bit Destruction
------ Pitch & Time Effects -----Pitchshifting
------ Panoramic Effects -----Auto Panners - (Panning fields - Stereo, Surround Sound/5.1/6.1/7.1)
Leslie Speaker/Dopplers effects
------ Other Effects ------
Page: 9
Trance Gate
Buffer / FSU randomisation
2.4 Hardware (Coming Later In Production Bible v2.1)
2.5 Samples = Musical Composition Guide http://music.bip/samples.html <-- Another mixed site Page: 10 <-- Another .wav search engine (sweet stuff!!) (excellent website!) (the best!) http://www.arts-entertainment-recre...ples_and_Loops/ (jungle massive) Page: 11 Nice little Freeware Loop mangler - what it says and more + home of <-- Movie and television samples (massive!) (wicked sounds!) Page: 12 - wav search engine (wicked!) Nice little freeware Sample Cataloger (pro loops!) - tabs & links for guitar players + links, info & more - for freeware, shareware, and demos of all the big boys... Page: 13 big ups to my m8 luna-c! (wicked) (excellent!) - more links (massive) Mac site (Articles, downloads etc ...) + wav search engine <- wav file search engine drumsamples Page: 14 (quality loops!) (old skool breakz!) + downloads, links etc. ACHTUNG; in deutsch (quality drums and more!) (Shouts to Arctic^) + home of sound on sound <- lots and lots and lots of FX and samples made for media work an
stuff Page: 15§ion=2 links, tutorials etc. + links to drum sounds <-- Mixed sample formats There is a pretty good article I wrote that mentions
her. - lots of links info, links etc. Page: 16 www.arts-entertainment-recreation.c...ples_and_Loops/ vocoder app www.computermusic scratch studio setup guide (basic) Page: 17 big ups to my m8 luna-c! for surround 5.1 (old skool breakz!) Page: 18 (quality drums and more!) (not a piss take!!)§ion=2 - Shareware and freeware software Page: 19 Apparently some of these don't work and I don't have time to get through this list, so if somebody
can filter them out it would be appreciated. Thanks to for these links! 2.6 Free Frequency Analyzers
Sometimes people like to 'see' the sound they are working with. That is where spectrum analysers come into play. There are different kinds of analyser, but the most common after the humble VU meter is the
frequency analyser. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Here is a list of the most popular freeware analysers available: Voxengo SPAN Bluecat Audio Freqanalyst Roger Nichols Inspector Page: 20
For a long list of other free analysers, visit
3. Techniques
3.1 Bass
3.1.1 Sub Bass
"Sub-bass is a term used to describe audible sounds below 90Hz - sound in the range below this
(under 16-17Hz) would be termed infrasound. Sound systems often feature a subwoofer that is
dedicated solely to amplifying sounds in the lower bass and sub-bass range." Source : Wikipedia So the idea is to have the sub going up to ~90Hz. The exact frequency it should be cut at depend
on the kick's frequency. Let's say you HP your kick at 100Hz, then the sub should be LPed at 100Hz so they compliment
each other without clashing. There are several ways of creating a sub, here are the most common: 1 - using a unique waveform (sine, saw, square or triangle) will give you a nice linear sub. NB : You don't need to filter out a sine wave as it doesn't have overtones. 2 - using detuned waveforms : take 2 identical waves (sine, saw, square or triangle) and detune
them - let's say -.25 / +.25 semitone. This will produce a phase effect and give movement to your sub but it'll also cause large volume
amplitude and you'll need to compress it after filtering. Great Massive tutorial by Subfocus here 3 - using a 808 kick : you don't have a TR-808? Grab that pack! jobbanaught wrote:An easy option to get a powerful subbass is to take a 808 kick sample, put it in your
favorite sampler and loop a single cycle of the waverform somewhere in the middle of the sample. The
808 kick is made of a sine and some additional white noise. The sine gives your sub that rattling low end
pressure, and the noise adds overtones/grittiness = instant badass subbass!
You can find more tips about mixing your kick n sub in the Random bass tips thread.
3.1.2 ‘Wobble’
Page: 21
Wobble Guide
Wobble Bass 'Wobble Bass' as it is known is simply a bassline that has an LFO assigned to a Low Pass Filter as
an insert effect. LFOstands for 'Low Frequency Oscillator' and is used to change a sound by a
defined speed (measured in either Hz or synced to the Tempo in relation to the bars/notes
through quantization.) The way the LFO changes the sound is up to you, you can make the LFO adjust the Volume, the
amount of Saturation, Filter Cutoff etc. Basically any parameter you link it to. Essentially you are just using the LFO to send a changing
value to a parameter. -------------------- How to get a simple wobble bass. 1) Choose a simple sound on your synth. (Anything apart from a Sine wave ) 2) Select your LFO and set it to the speed you want (1/8 would be a good starting point) 3) Now assign the LFO to the Filter Cutoff. Which should for this example be a Low Pass Filter* as
the sound we're going for is a deep bass. 4) You now have a basic wobble bass, from here the possibilities for tweaking this sound are
endless. -------------------- A quick breakdown of what's actually going on. Essentially you are taking a sound (that can be an
audio files, generated by a synth, etc) and then passing it through a Low Pass Filter. Now what exactly does a Low Pass Filter do you ask? * A Low Pass Filter allows Low Frequency signals to pass through it, but reduces the amplitude
(volume) of all the Frequencies above the cutoff point. In general most plug-ins have various Low
Pass Filter settings, where the more poles it has the more Dbs it will cut and will yield a harder knee
to it. Example: 1 Pole Filter with a -6dB/Oct reduction Vs a 2 Pole Filter reducing -12Db/Oct. However, you don't necessarily need a LFO controlling your Low Pass Filter Cutoff frequency value,
you could just draw in the Automation yourself, but a LFO will yield a loop of consistent values and
prevents the possibility of human error. All the LFO is doing is sending a value to your frequency
cutoff to keep it consistently changing. -------------------- Tips & Advice 1.) Sub bass wobble would normally be a Sine wave at around the 40-50 Hz range which would
repeat the same chords as the mid-range bass wobble. The only difference being that with a sub
bass wobble there is no point in assigning the LFO to a Low Pass Filter because the sound is too low
for the low pass filter to have any effect, so theLFO is assigned to the amplitude (volume) instead.
Another reason for not applying a Low Pass Filter to the Sub bass is because it would typically be
a Sine wave which possesses no Harmonics to be adjusted by the Filter. 2.) The sound of an LFO can also be adjusted by the wave type you choose. The default setting for
an LFO generator is a Sine wave, although on most synths you can chose from Triangle, Sawtooth,
Square wave, Random, Noise. To get a nice sounding bass, it is a good idea to use as many
oscillators as possible on different octaves. 3.) Try messing around with the attack and release of your sound as this can have an impact on the
sound of the bass. Long attacks tend to create a more ambient sound, and is a technique
traditionally used with ambient pads. Page: 22
4.) Something that I find useful is to bounce the bassline to a .wav file, so that it can be chopped up
and put in-sync with other elements of the song; because the majority of the time you will find the
first wave of sound in the wobble bassline will will be half the length of the other waves due to
attack rates. So the best thing to do is to chop that freak sound off the beginning of the file in
your DAW (Logic Pro, Reason, Cubase etc) and start off with the second wave which should be fully
formed. This way it will not be too early of late when keeping in sync with other elements such as a
second bassline. 5.) Another method you can use is creating a clone layer of your original sound and setting up a
new LFO setup for that to beat alternatively in the space left by the original LFO. Or go that crazy
Drum & Bass Reese route and split the frequencies to Low, Mid and High, then set
different LFO rates for each band then recombine into one sound. 6.) For more variation automate your LFO speed and intensity. 7.) Where you place insert effects in relation to the filter (pre or post) will yield different sounding
results. 8.) Other methods to achieve a wobble like sound: Tremolo, (This effects volume rather than frequency) FM Synthesis, Modulation of PWM, Oscillator Pitch assigned (in a liberal amount) to LFO. Filter Envelope assigned to LFO (using a re-triggered envelope). (submitted by Faun2500) 9.) Assign a second LFO to modulate the speed of the first LFO. LFO Shapes
Sine wave: The smooth value change possible.
Triangle: Similar to a Sine wave but slightly more ramped & synthetic sounding.
Random: A mixed bag.
Sawtooth: Will have a very fast attack with a slower release which will sound very rugged. Square wave: Will be a simple open close style. Very harsh and will generally cause a very harsh
sound. (Often used in DJ Hazard style bass-lines). Detune two square waves for a nice dark
sounding bass. Waveforms submitted by Skells. wrote: ... /clean.jpg
Simple Filter Sweep ... /Sweep.jpg
Saw Tooth ... wobble.jpg
Sine Wave LFO assigned to Filter Cutoff
LINKS etc Fruity Loops Wobble Tutorial (Link submitted by Wub) Massive Wobble YouTube Tutorial (Video created by thesynthesist) Pause & Play Wobble Tutorial (Link submitted by dubmo) Albino3 Wobble Guide (Guide created by axon) By Rendr & Deadly Habit ...and a little help from Macc.
3.1.3 ‘Reece’
The Reese Bass Page: 23
History Lesson The Reese bass was a form of huge sounding synth-bass first used by the Detroit Techno producer
Kevin Saunderson a.k.a Master Reese a.k.a. Reese Project a.k.a. .... on the track "Just Want Another
Chance" and immortalised in the classic DnB track "Terrorist" by Renegade. Since then it has been
(over)used in many a DnB track and continues to evolve even nowadays through Dubstep and Jungle. It is said to be as influential to DnB as the Amen break and probably as used and
abused as the Amen. Capturing the Beast 1.The Oscillator Stage To nail the Reese you need a synth with at least 2 oscillators but for better-bigger results use as
many oscillators as you can (not really but 4 oscillators give a nice deep rumble - ahhhhhh). All the oscillators are playing sawtooth waves and all except one are detuned by 25-50 cents so that all
oscillators are out of phase with each other. 2. The Filter Stage The signal is then sent to a low-pass filter with the cutoff freq set around 150-200Hz (experiment
with that , you want the growl of the mid-frequencies but you also want it as deep as possible
without sacrificing the midrange). The resonance of the filter should be cranked up almost all the way (but again tweak accordingly to
your filter/synth). 3. Fuzz it Up The second most important aspect of the Reese (after the detuned sawtooths) is distortion. Tube distortion and tape saturation work extremely well but don't hesitate to use other more
extreme distortion units (don't forget that the Reese has been done a million times , you have to add something original to it) . Again adjust to taste. 4. Spices and Herbs Now that is the main recipe for the sound but like all haute-cuisine there are more things you can do to spice up the Reese. Namely effects. Effects that have been associated with the Reese are: Phasers - to accentuate the phase-shifting effect of the detuned sawtooths. Unison - a great way to make it even bigger Chorus - again a good way to phatten it up 5. And Some More Synth Magic Another thing to do so you can bring out the old-school jungle character of the Reese is to use Legato and Portamento/Glide if your syth of choice has them available. These are both great ways to move from one note to the next without listening to the transition. To put it simply when legato is on and you play a sustained E followed by a sustained G the
transition between the two notes gives the listener the impression that they heard a single note
being sustained that has just changed its pitch from E to G without pausing at a certain point. Always remember though that if you use Legato you have to turn the polyphony of your synth down
to 1 (something you should almost always do with basslines because two bass-notes playing
together almost never sound good in electronic music, bass chords are more the realm of progrock shit than dubstep) For the more technical minded legato in synthesizers is "a variation of monophonic operation. In
contrast to monophonic mode where every new note restarts the ADSR envelopes, in legato mode
they are not if the previous note remains depressed when the new note is played. This causes the
initial transient from the attack and decay phases to sound only once and the ADSR's to remain at
sustain stage for the whole sequence of notes until the final note is released." (Wikipedia) EDIT I just found out that in one of the free vst links on the bible there is a thing called the
"Hotelsinus Reese Bassline" Synth. So I didn't miss the opportunity for a mini review. The software
itself is small (like most free vst-i's) and quite easy to install (you just drop the dll in the vst folder).
As for the sound, weeeeeeell.... the sounds it produces are definitely Reese. But... weak somehow.
Its like listening to Terrorist from a battered, cheap old cassette from 93 or something. It has a
tinny and tiny sound when compared to what you can achieve with powerhouses like Albino or
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Massive or (one of my personal favorites for Reese) Cakewalk Rupture. You can try it if you want but
i don't think it will impress 'steppers that much we are bass-headed folk
3.1.4 Random Bass Tips
Plz add yours or others you've spotted on the forum. miss_molinari wrote:basically i have been experimenting with cutting (not sidechaining) a notch (band
reject) in the bass starting at 60hz and ending just before 70. this is only for those bass lines which only
hit on the kick (quite specific). also the bass is then high passed at about 220hz to pretty much 0db which
is where the kick starts (ending the kick with a non-too-aggressive-cut at about 2khz). this essentially
means that the kick and the bass do not share any frequencies above abot 200hz but also between 60 and
70 and with them always hitting at the same time, this gets around the fact that sidechaining this type of
sequencing would leave you with no or little bass...
this has worked well so far but is useful mainly for sub basses ending at around 250hz, would not be as
good for full spectrum wubs...anyone else got any tech tips regarding the bass and kick?
futures_untold wrote:I simply cut everything under 90Hz on my kicks and roll off slightly at 1KHz.
Sub I cut under 40Hz and roll off at 200Hz
I always compress both seperately, and keep my levels low in the mix to create plenty of head room later
whilst adding sounds with higher frequency content.
Anything above 150Hz is what I consider midrange... Anything above 150Hz can be heard on mobile
phone speakers. We all know that they're designed to play heavy bass lol Wink
miss_molinari wrote:
Daft Cunt wrote:To me, it feels like cutting the kick above 80 hz makes it sound weak. I guess it depends
on the style. I rather cut below 60 to 80 depending on the tune.
yeah its all about context. in a 'dry' minimal setting im of the opinion you can make a kick punch
right up to about 180-200hz, but yeah, depends on when and on what kind of 'punch' (im usually talking
a 'bass' hit at about 200hz coupled with a 'knock' hit anywhere up to about 1200hz). i imagine you true
dubsteppers prefer a denser 'thump' from 60 through to about 300hz. Daft Cunt wrote:I began recently the band-reject thing on the sub. Little details that make big difference.
And do you people cut the bass where the snare peaks?
my basses aren't usually middy enough to need that but yeah, a slight sidechain on the main snare and
say midbass/pad/wothavyer is nice, especially if the limelight is stolen by a deeper sidechain on the kick
and midbass/pad/wothavyer. can create a nice flow (especially when used with long decay reveb linked to
the midbass/pad/wothavyer so that it sounds louder and longer the higher the frequency played - might
have to post some piccies of that one )
Shonky wrote:What I've been doing lately is bouncing down the kick track, lowpassing one somewhere
between 100-140 depending on the highest frequencies of the low sub and then sidechaining the sub to
the low kick
Then take a copy of the kick track, highpass between 300-1000 and this will give you the beater noise to
make the kick cut through. I then sidechain this to the more middly basses. You can also send a small
amount to a reverb bus which allows you to avoid mud on the lower frequencies whilst still giving you the
Doing it this way seems to make sense to me cause the sidechains work on the corresponding kicks in the
same frequency range, so it doesn't cause loads of unnecessary compression where you don't need it
Page: 25
boh wrote:Always make sure your kicks are in tune with the rest of the track.. u'll hear it pitching up and
down.. and make sure if ur layering that the transients don't conflict(good monitors make this easy) It all
comes down to kick selection.. Whats the point in cutting a kick at 80hz with a fundemental freq of say
60hz. Sure you get whats happening before it, but u won't get the nice thump of the fundemental freq..
Choose other kicks that hit the freq u want (80hz say) instead of cutting them when theres no need to.
Unless you really really know what your doing getting technical like this complicates the situation. Esp for
people with little experience.
sully.harmitage wrote:50 hz hi pass seems a bit high to me, maybe gd for kicky techno or house but for
subby stuff it seems a bit much
defo roll off past 30-35 (most well engineered systems will do this anyways, so any content below this is
definately getting wasted)
if yr gonna go higher make sure its a soft curve
i find levelling subs is the hardest part of a mix - cos more always sounds better! i remember reading breakage saying yr subs shouldnt add more than 3db to yr mix thats seems like a
good guide...
btw, sub in kick an bassline simultaeously is gonna cause clashes (n maybe disortion?) id either decrease
the attack on the bass or cut the sub from the kick...
unklefesta wrote:I rolloff EVERYTHING at 40hz except my bass
wang wrote:Always do it.
Don't forget, you're ROLLING off the frequencies, not cutting them off all together. Just a couple of dB of
bass down there is enough to get some girth without removing all your headroom.
Also analyse and cut off the lows on everything, even if it doesn't appear to have messy lows -You'd be
surprised how much bass there is in some high hats.
Jtransition wrote:All of your tracks are going to be different so don't restrict yourself to a certain
technique,try different things and listen to the results.
Shonky wrote:
wang wrote:Also analyse and cut off the lows on everything, even if it doesn't appear to have messy lows -
You'd be surprised how much bass there is in some high hats.
Yep, this is very true, also worth filtering out the inaudible highs on low sounds as well, found some of my
subs which I'd low passed still showed frequency activity much higher than expected.
Jtransition wrote:Stick a high pass filter on everything apart form the kick drum and bass line.70 hertz is a
good starting point .........move up or down to taste,And remember try to mix at low levels(Walls not
Deadly Habit wrote:
Rendr wrote:Basslines in my experience should be mono, due to the fact that humans cannot easily
decoded the stereo positioning of low frequency's, so panning basslines (excluding bass sounds with high
pitch sounds at around 500Hz+) is not recommended, not only are the low frequency's hard to position
with the human ear, the low frequency sound waves are absorbed by the human head at a much higher
ratio than high pitch sounds which tend to be reflected. Another thing to note is that club systems are
mono. Basslines that pan only belong in Psytrance! sub range should be mono, especially if going to be cut to vinyl
midrange bass on the other hand you can pan and add stereo fx to your hearts content
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3.2 Re-sampling
After a few months of experimenting with resampling, not really getting anywhere in terms of
sound quality i came up with a pretty simple way of getting on the right track. Ive got so much help
since getting on this forum in terms of production i thought id share this for those who, like myself,
are looking into the elusive yet highly rewarding technique of resampling:
All the vst's i use on this (save for the synth itself) are free/native plugs, im using FL but itll transfer
onto every DAW pretty much the same. I'll explain it for a bassline, but it can be applied to any
Step 1:
Make yourself a nice bassline, get it sounding dirty with whatever you can within the synth. Im using
Albino so i tend to play about with the saturation modes/FX's until its sounding pretty good.
Step 2:
Hook up to a mixer channel, then send this channel to a second mixer channel (FL users just click
on another channel towards the bottom of the strip). On the second channel that the synth is
hooked to from the first, add CMt bitcrusher and downsample 3-16x (thanks to all the production
forum users who pointed this out to me when i posted a few months ago on dirtying up basslines).
Then add a chorus. Turn the LFO's off and set the depth/delay/etc to whatever sounds best. Also
set the crossover pretty high so only the treble/high mids are being affected. Then add Camel
Audio Camel Crusher. Turn the compressor off and set the tube/mech to taste. Add a parametric EQ
if needs be to boost the high freqs. Experiment with the chain of these effects swapping them
according to the sound. The chorus/camel/eq in different orders should alter the sound quite alot
depending on where their placed.
Step 3: Set the level of the second affected channel with the original depending on whatever suits. Play
about with adding extra effects to both channels. The way the second channel behaves once an
effect is added to the first is quite extreme in even light application of effects. So its possible to
create a whole array of different sounds just from say, adding a flanger/chorus/etc to the first
channel, then listening to how much it affects the sound as a whole as it goes through both
channels. By now it should be sounding pretty girthy.
Step 4:
Export the riff/sample (i use edison on the master channel in FL but whatever method will do).
Reload and place into a mixer channel. Add another Camel Crusher for abit more grit, EQ and
compress. Set up a reverb/delay send and resample again for extra depth.
Obviously this technique can be applied a 2nd/3rd/4th time to fuck the sound up even more so.
Which is what ive moved onto doing now, into the territory of splitting the sound into bass/low
mid/high mid/treble sections for ultimate control over each part. Something which i was attempting
to do before coming up with the above method but being left with a pile of unlistenable mushy
shite. Hope this is a help to some peeps. I know theres no secret technique to resamping, only a whole
load of practice and using your ears, but this method got me on the right track in terms of hearing
the benefits of it and encouraging me to experiment more in depth and realise that the possiblities
are endless. Im hooked now, i resample pretty much every sound in one way or another. Kick and
snares benefit hugley from it for mega face melting wide drum sounds aswell so its worth trying it
on some nice drum hits.
Keep up the good work folks!
3.3 Drums
Read before reading on: I am in no way entitled to any of those opinions. It is up to you to decide
whether you would like to incorporate them in your workflow. I have just collected them from all the
threads in this forum and will try to keep everything updated. I will update as regularly as I find updates. Page: 27
Misc tips and tricks •
Good drums are usually layered - example 3 snares sounding as one.
The hats are often panned or widened.
Pick great sounding samples, different ones for different parts of the sounds you want. 1
for snap and bite, 1 for body, 1 for thump. distort and MAYBE EQ each to make them sound
the best that they can separately. combine in a bus, MAYBE compress them together,
maybe accent the front and shorten the sound with a transient modifier. 10 minutes, tops.
Do as little as possible with great-sounding bits and your basic sounds will be slamming.
leaves you time to focus on the arrangement. people don't go around thinking 'wow, that
tune has an amazing snare." as long as it's thumping and not masked by a bunch of other
stuff, it'll keep the dance moving.
Listen to other producers work. As its playing, imagine the "1, 2, 3, 4" on the step
sequencer, running in time to what you're listening to. Try to visualize where the producer
put their hits. Not to say you should copy peoples drum patterns, but learn from them.
I've noticed a lot of tunes (more minimal stuff where you can distinctly hear what's
seperately going on) seem to use two differently pitched hi-hats that alternate to sound
shuffley, if you know what I mean, and a less dramatic snare used sparsely in between the
main lazy kick and snare. An easy trick if you haven't worked it out (which to be honest you
should have if you're at all serious about producing dubstep) is to stick a smaller snare or
hat the 1/16th before the kick or snare so it 'steps', if you get me. For example Benga's
Night does this for all four beats in the bar which is part of what makes it so danceable. But don't get stuck in always having kick on 1 and snare on 3, some tracks work with a kick
on every beat, others with a couple big snares, etc. The trick (unless you want proper lazy,
spaced out tunes) is to make sure you're nodding your head on all four beats of the bar.
Play around with a hat on every quaver (i.e. 8 per bar on the beat) compared to just four
but on the off beat, as well as adding in the steppy ones every now and then. There's often no need to over-complicate things though, one of the my favourite drum
tracks is the incredibly simplistic 'V' by Distance. It's a rhythm that could easilly be played
by one guy on a real kit, yet it's so banging - check the use of hats and lower velocity kicks
in this to make it nice and bouncy. Also, I once had a four bar drum loop and accidentally moved the sequence one bar to the
right for one section, and it ended up nicely varying the drums in a way you wouldn't
Really tight delays can help claps and snaps sound natural. 5-20ms, etc.
Recycle or phatmatik is your break-chopping friend.
Basically, Hatrixx's method involved chopping everything from the main hits into a sample.
Say you had a 2-step funk beat, like the Amen. You'd start your selection from the start of
the first kick, and select everything up to the start of the first snare. Cut, paste, there's
your first slice. Then take everything from the start of the first snare up to the start of the
second kick - including all the little hats and ghost hits - cut, paste, second sample, and
so on. Then just map the samples onto some keys and bash away. Both of them are quick, compared to chopping Recycled slices, where you have to copy and
drag loads of little notes (one every little fucking tiny hit in the break, arranged
chromatically up the keyboard) around the piano roll. These methods let you just
concentrate on the main hits, which can be both good or bad. You can get a solid beat
down with just a handful of hits, but you're limited to the patterns already in the original
break. For a beginner to breakbeat science like yourself, I'd say try these methods first, but
don't rule out the really anal methods like Recycle/Phatmatik/Fruity Slicer. Sometimes they
are a necessary evil. Of course, some of the drumfunk guys, especially those who post on
Subvert Central, swear by these methods, or the next one. There are those who prefer to chop up the raw audio, rather than bothering with MIDI and
samplers. They literally just drop the break file into Cubase or Logic and start chopping
with the scissors tool and copying and pasting. I can see the benefits of this. You can see
the waveform as you're chopping, and you're not as restriced to the quantize grid as you
are with MIDI. But it takes aaaaages to build a drum track this way, and there's the risk of
RSI from all that Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V you'll be doing. Then of course there's trackers. They really are tailor-made for chopping up loops,
amongst other things. They give you Sample Offset, meaning that when you trigger a
sample, you can set it to start from 256 evenly spaced points throughout the sample. So by
starting a sample a quarter of the way through, you're triggering the first snare (obviously
you can fine-tune it when the snare isn't perfectly on the beat). You can edit breaks in a
tracker without ever having to cut up a waveform, and you can do all sorts of other nifty
things like reverse the sample, retrigger it to make drum rolls, and so on.
If recycle's having trouble, switch the break to mono in your sample editor and then apply
tiny fades between the drum hits (especially useful if there are lots of rides that play over
the other hits to keep things separate). This should help recycle pick up the start points
and with any luck should leave you with a cleaner break.
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Tune the snares so they all hit around the same pitch. Change the Amp Envelopes of each to bring the strongest parts from each separate sample
and build up your sound like that. Compressing all together is a good idea but don't over do it. EQ the master out for the snare as well so you won't have to fuck about when you use the
sample in the future. Don’t just use snares, fling some random sound effects in there. Claps and rim shots also
work well when layered. Make subtle changes to them and export a few snares from the same setup, this helps
when you need a ghost hit or a reverse that sounds similar but not identical.
Watch that frequencies don't build up and make the layered bit sound overly... whatever...
is building up. Really easy to get too much 200hz or 500hz or even 1.2k if you've got
samples that are all beefy/thick/smack-y.
If it's peaking, run it through a Spectrum Analyzer and see where it's peaking. I guess it's
peaking in the tune, rather than just the snare sample playing on it's own?
Sometimes snare samples have a very short peak that doesn't seem to make them sound
any better and keeps you from getting them louder without cliping. Reduce that part by a
few dBs and you're sorted.
Make sure you are using subtractive eq to pull out the frequencies that could be clashing
with other sounds. If your frequencies are clashing, that can "hide" the snare and then you
end up turning it up to compensate and there you are with your snare peaking.
The key is making the frequencies sit right in the mix so that they don't clash and you can
set them right and not have to turn them up.
You could always try clipping the snare, normalise it in a wave editor, amplify it as much as
you can before it sounds distorted, then sample it out. Then replace the snare with the
clipped version, it will almost always sound louder with more body at a lower volume. I would still point out that although this can be used as a replacement to compression,
compression is a vital tool to learn how to use. Also a lot of peeps will say this does bad things to the waveform, and it does but unless
you intend to listen to your tune to be heard at home on an amazing hifi then it doesnt
really matter that much IMO.
Hi-pass, overdrive, limit, and cut away space from other sounds for it.
Layer with it's self or a different snare /Layer with sub / add effect to one layer / add effect
to both layers / layer, zoom right in, drag one wave form back or forth very slightly to
create new snare sound / Pitch up/down / EQ / Filter / distort / reverb / delay / reverse.
Record yourself beat boxing your best snare sounds then layer with snare samples.
A good handclap never goes a miss, or use a nice drum synth to get a very different/digital
Try reversing the snare sample, then changing the envelope settings so it only hits on the
beat. Layer that with the same sample, this time not reversed. Add a little delay to the the
reversed snare. Change the settings til it sounds how you like.
Particularly snares I layer up a lot. I look for one that has the qualities that I want when run
through verb, and then I look for something shorter with more mid "punch" to keep things
physical. After someone notied snares were weak in a tune I've really made a point of
ensuring that when the snares hit it's physical as well as textural. You need to feel them a
bit - so I look for some snares that have that real punch when layering, but usually keep
the more textural snappy one as the focus. last couple tunes I did the standard kick snare
hats w/ odd percussion, and then I took an amen chopped it processed it and layered it
overtop for more aggression and step. (goddess being a perfect example). By removing a
layer and adding it you can create a sense of progression through the tune. Make sure the
bottom layer is sounding really good and then add the top so that you're not mixing them
to be reliant on one another - instead you want synergy. Make sure the EQ on the top and
bottom make sense with each other.
Building a kick in Ableton Live's Impulse machine. Provides some essential information
about layering that can be used with any DAW.
Making fat kicks
remixmag wrote:Whether creating Miami Bass music is your life's fantasy or your greatest fear, you
probably crave the know-how to manifest those car-rattling, trunk-full-of-funk kick drums. In the arenas
of hip-hop, house, techno, downtempo and almost any other electronic genre, molding fat kick drums is
absolutely essential. Like grandma's homemade apple pie, the recipe for kick drums is partially a matter
of taste. However, there's no substitute for quality ingredients. And just like every pie has its staple
ingredients, every slamming kick drum requires some common elements. Let's take a look at the
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shopping list for killer kick drums.
You'll need a basic shell to begin creating a thick, strong kick. The classics always work; if you're fortunate
enough to own a real Roland TR-808, 909 or other famous drum machine with a killer kick, use it
copiously. If you're not one of those chosen few, pay close attention to your original source. For example,
if you use a sampler, understand that not all “808 Kick” samples are the same; some sound great, and
some just plain suck. There are a lot of reasons for that, including how many generations from the
original the sample is, the sampling rate and bit depth of the sampler, how the kick was first sampled and
so on. Be as choosy as possible with your individual samples — don't use a mediocre sample just because
it has 808 in the name and therefore is “supposed” to sound fat. Seek out a better 808 sample, or use
something else that is simply bigger sounding. Remember, the time you spend finding sweet original
sources won't be in vain, especially if you reuse the resulting samples for multiple songs.
An old saying goes, “Good art borrows, great art steals.” A nice way to start out with great raw kick
material is to sample directly from the source. If you don't own, but have access to a 909, then sample it
directly. Or take one of your favorite producer's tracks on vinyl or CD, find a naked kick drum in there and
sample it. Be cautious with that approach for a couple of reasons: Copyright issues around sampling even
small bits have become a dangerously gray area, and I would never personally advise using any source
straight out of the can, even from a royalty-free sample library. While it may be an excellent start, it's
unoriginal. Customize whatever you bite. Treat your samples as a sculptor would treat clay; mold each
one to create a trademark sound for yourself. One effective way to customize a fat kick is to take a tip
from the synth manufacturers: If a sound is thin, pile another (or a few more) on top. When doing so, it's
important to use different sounds; layering two identical kicks will result in a louder kick, but it won't
change the basic tone. Remember the sculptor approach here: Even if you are using two good-sounding
individual samples, they may not instantly sound great together. For example, I find that when layering
kicks, while the thickness may be good, sustain is often overkill. The final result often benefits from a
little doctoring on the tail of one (or both) of the samples and other hands-on sonic surgery.
Once a nice, basic kick is achieved, treating it with two of the mastering engineer's favorite tools is often
the next step. Artfully applying a compressor (to just the kick) can go a long way toward creating a
signature sound and a huge kick. Compression is one of those “secret spices,” and how to apply it is a
whole topic in itself. One recommendation I will make, however, is to use a multiband compressor. With
one of those, you can isolate compression on certain frequency ranges. That is perfect if, for example, you
want to push the sub of your kick without emphasizing the higher frequencies (which often affect the tone
of the attack), or vice-versa. EQ comes after compression in my signal chain. By now the kick should
already sound pretty fat; I aim to shave unnecessary frequencies here rather than artificially boosting too
much. This is also where you can actualize trademark sounds, while also fine-tuning them to work
alongside other elements in specific tracks. I often scoop out mids and highs, especially frequencies
above about 500 Hz. Even though I like thick, deep kicks, unless I'm going for a really dublike sound, I
often truncate the lowest frequencies (usually the sub-50 Hz frequencies). Even when you can't hear the
difference when trimming frequencies, doing so can really tighten up your kicks.
You may ask why, when you're trying to fatten up a kick, would you want to trim frequencies? That is one
of the keys to achieving great mixes, both in the case of kick drums and in general: You want to avoid too
many overlapping frequencies. The more sonic separation you have between elements, the more focused
the entire mix will sound. That can be especially important for club music, which often gets played on
huge, not necessarily audiophile-quality sound systems. If you haven't run into the following scenario
already, I assure you at some point you will: Your bass line and kick drum are competing, and it sounds
like you have a weak kick. You boost the kick, but it still sounds muddy. Take the bass out, and suddenly
the kick doesn't sound so bad. In a scenario like that, solo the two sounds, listen carefully for where
frequencies are overlapping and then try subtractive EQ on one element, then the other and sometimes a
bit on both. By scooping out overlapping frequencies, you will often find that both elements seem to
magically come forward in the mix before even touching their respective volume levels.
Hi hats
I've been a professional touring and recording drummer for 25 years and just thought I might share a
couple of really simple ways to use fruity loops or fruity studio to create more 'realistic' drum patterns.
For what it's worth, try this out with Fruity Loops:
Page: 30
Take your hi hat tracks (are any tracks for that matter, including melodic synth 'bubbles').
Drop down the bar graph box that allows you to scroll between velocity (volume), pitch, panning, cutoff,
resonance and a thing called 'shift' which allows you to use each of these categories to effect each
individual note that you've programmed. (note: this can be accomplished in other ways in most of the
good midi sequencing apps or software/hardware drum machines).
Drummers, no matter how good they are, just aren't perfect and we can use the fact that each of these
drop down bar graphs can make very,very small changes in a sound to do some subtle things to a rolling
drum groove like 16th notes on a hi hat.
Not all drummers, but many tend to favor their strong hand in a single stroke (hand over hand) drum roll.
Consequently, if you make all odd numbered hi hats be slightly louder than their even numbered hits it
will sound more realistic. Start by making velocity differences that are really clearly audible. Then lower
the velocity until you can barely feel the difference. We are going to make very subtle changes like this on
each of the parameters of velocity, pitch, cutoff, resonance and, importantly, shift.
I can't stress enough that you should make these changes be so subtle that you can hardly notice them.
Just going on the fact that the right handed players start their rolls with the right hand and favor it ever so
slightly (or grossly for effect as well) means that the stroke will be harder with the right hand than the left
When a percussion instrument is hit harder the difference between the transient (or hi pitched attack) of
the sound and the body of the instrument (or the sound that comes after the attack) becomes greater. In
general, on drums, that means that a harder attack tensions the drum very imperceptably (sp?) and it also
means that there will be more treble in the sound. Consequently, the pitch goes up a little teensy bit and
their is more attack to the sound (increased resonance and slightly higher cutoff frequency).
Consequently, you can make the pitch of each right hand be just barely noticeably higher, the resonance
should be just one or two of those little teeny bars higher. The cutoff should be just a few bars lower
(allowing less high frequencies through) on the 'left' handed or even numbered strokes.
Typically, if drums have time inaccuracies they tend to drag the left hand a litte bit. I have to keep
stressing that if you can hear the changes you make, you aren't being realistic. You need to make the
changes subtle enough that you just barely feel that they aren't perfect. You can consequently make each
left hand note shifted one or two bars late.
Tigure out how much you can tweak each parameter before it becomes obvious and then you can just
randomly tweak each one up to that limit. With a little bit of variance in each stroke from parameter to
parameter you will create more of a percolating texture in your programming - this is a great technique to
make synth 'bubbles' (the kind used in techno and house) more interesting and less mechanical feeling.
Now, you can avoid the biggest mistake that non-drummers do when trying to write 'realistic' programs:
turn the overall volume of the hihats until you CAN'T hear them and then slowly bring up the volume until
you just begin to hear them.
Professional producers have spent countless hours trying to figure out how to gate and mix hihats OUT of
tracks. The reason is two fold:
1) Human beings have such a radical peak in their hearing around the 1-2khz range (or the intelligibility
range of human speech) that we can play the hihats at incredible low volumes and they are still audible.
You can't do that with a bass drum.I tell my drum students that you cannot play a hi hat or a snare drum
so quietly that a person sitting in a room with you can't hear it.
2) Hi Hats, the snare of snare drums and cymbals all seriously MASK human vocal intellibility. How many
people have gone to see live shows where they can hear the singer is singing but can't for the life of them
figure out what they are actually singing. That is ususally because drummers (or mixers, which is
frequently the case) are not hip to this
important fact.
So, turn down your hi hat tracks (or any track with a strong mid range,short envelope attack) and you have
much more room for other musical goodies in your mix. When in doubt, make your hi hats quieter than
you think they should be. Trust me, they'll come through the mix even at a quiet volume.
Drum programming:
Dubstep Midi Drum Loops
Breakbeat Programming Guide
Page: 31
Don't know if you can do this in your sequencer, but in Logic you can create a groove
template from your drums and then apply that to your other instruments. If you're using
separate midi channels for snares, kicks and hats, take the 8 bar loop you're using, glue it
together and then take the groove from that and then mute that track. When you click
down the quantize list you'll see the template there and you can apply it to your other
tracks. Also if you do want to change the groove, you can just change the hits in the muted
template and it'll automatically change all other hits to the new changes.
Think if you're clever and organized, you can basically cut breaks up in recycle, load them
into the exs24 (extract sequence) and then do the same with them. That way if there are
breaks you like the feel of, you can just apply that swing to anything. If you make a folder
called grooves in your logic folder, they should load up each time so that you'll have loads
to choose from. Haven't done this myself yet, but always helpful to have a choice of feels
Some things sound better rigid and robotic with equal velocities. Some things sound better
rigid and robotic with differing velocities. Some things sound better with swing. Some
things sound better with everything ever-so-slightly off. It's down to what the track needs.
Drum Break Swing Programming
Nicolas Hall @ wrote:I think most people who make anything funk, breakbeat drum
& bass, or hip-hop would agree that 'Swing' is crucial to the effectiveness of a beat. The other key factors
in a programming sense are 'dynamic' and 'accent'. So many people get wound up when their beats sound
'sterile' or mechanical' this is due to the fact that computers and sequencers lock to perfect BPM. A
computer on it's own does not interpret rhythm the way a good drummer does, There are however, certain
machines that have their own swing parameters like the Akai MPC range of sampling drum machines
which are used extensively by hip hop producers.
Swing is not the easiest thing in the world to analyze but as a general rule good drummers will play
slightly late and that's why in all funky records you get that slight dip at the start of the bar, take
'Superstition' by Stevie Wonder or 'Billie Jean' by Michael Jackson, these are both very simple beats,
'Superstition' is of course live drums whilst 'Billie Jean' was programmed but no less funky than
'Superstition' I emphasize this point to demonstrate that a programmed beat can be every bit at groovy as
a beat played on a drum kit.
Expanding on the Billie Jean point, Hip Hop beats are really very simple. If you listen to the Neptunes they
tend to create the swing in their beats by quantizing the kicks and snares and playing the hi hats in by
hand, this creates a very tight beat which is off set by a loose hi hat, try it works, but don't forget your
accents - As a starting point just take the first snare of your beat and turn the velocity down, then notice
how your head starts nodding and your foot starts tapping a little more, you are giving the beat feel. Also
remember that if you are using reverb the louder snare will push the reverb harder than the soft snare so
your creating more ambience that way. Then try your kick drums, if your not sure which hits to adjust just
pick apart a beat your feeling, I remember me and friend picking apart a Gangstarr beat and were able to
almost replicate it by adjusting the velocities of each hit (admittedly it took a while to get it right!)
If you're a newbie then a common trick when learning to make good grooves is to create a template with
an existing loop. The idea is take a loop you like that's got a good feel to it and then place your own hits
over the break, then take the break out and see if your hits are sounding funky. This can take a while and
it's crucial to think about the strength of each hit, or the 'dynamic'. Each kick will not be the same
strength nor will the snares or the hats, pick the loop apart, dissect it and you'll soon see that there are
certain consistencies in all good beats.
If you're using live loops and like to layer them with drum sequences, you should be thinking about time,
space and frequencies. So if you have a fairly heavy loop then layering it with heavy kick drums is
probably not gonna sound good. Think about filling holes, are their any frequencies that could be filled
up? Or is there space in the loop for extra hits? Try working in layers just adding one hit at a time, also
filtering works well, you could take some of the frequencies out of your loop as you drop your drum
sequences in to make room for them. I think one the masters of this technique is Liam Howlett of the
Prodigy. He runs breakbeats and gives them extra balls by laying a kick drum underneath to add extra
intensity to certain passages in his set, but he's careful not to overlap frequencies to much. A good place
to start if you using breakbeats is the Roland Tr-808 kick drum which is around the 50hz mark, which is
sub bass territory so it will sit underneath most breaks very well.
If your hell bent on making killer beats and loops, then perseverance is crucial, keep at it, it will come
together, listen to beats you like and pick them apart, identify the subtleties that make it happen. I know
some producers get fed up when their beats sound to clean, or they are trying to create a new breakbeat
and then compare it to sample they took from vinyl and get down on there own beat. Think about what a
breakbeat really is, think about its history what has happened to it to make it sound the way it does. I'm
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sure you've noticed how some breaks have a certain something like a magic dust you can't put your finger
on. Let me share what I know with you about that.
Most breaks, though not all, are taken from recordings of live drums, some of them are pretty old, so you
have the ambience of live drums and the room they were recorded in, you have the fact that natural decay
and reverb of each drum is likely to have bled into the other mics on the kit, and that most engineers used
overhead mics which pick up the whole kit with two mics. Then consider that many of these breaks will
have been recorded to analogue tape with saturation which will create extra warmth and harmonics. The
next step comes from old sampling technology like the SP-1200 and the Akai s-950 / mpc -60, these
samplers sampled at 12- bit (bear in mind that most computers now are at least 24-bit if not more) and
that the samples themselves where taken from vinyl and on and on the process goes, with each new
reverb and eq adding more and more to the break. In terms of giving your breaks that character there are
a number of things you can try, for example buying an old four track cassette machine to dump your
beats onto then re-sample it, if your using a sampler like the s-950 then try pushing the input meters a
little harder than usual add reverbs and resample it, each time you put your loop through a new channel
you will be adding something to it. Also distortion is fantastic for breaks, if you have any amp plug ins
then try them, the Amplitude one is particularly good, you don't need to go mad with it just used subtly it
works great.
To finish I would just like to say again, stick with it keep trying, keep listening to records, if you like to
read about technique then do so, you can learn so much from other producers. Remember the strength of
your hits is important as is the way it swings, good luck!
UPDATE 08.09.2008
SOUNDS wrote:Layering real-world sounds with synthesized drum parts puts a new spin on your
drum tracks. You probably already have usable sound effects on your hard drive, because most
commercial samplers have at least a modest collection in their factory library. Beyond that, you'll find
thousands of royalty-free sound effects online. is one of my favorite sources, and it's
free. The recordings don't need to be pristine for layering over drums, so don't overlook cheap sampling
CDs, and consider grabbing your own sounds with a portable recorder.
Collect and Save
Start by assembling a small Foley library of short percussive sounds divided into typical drum-sound
categories: kicks, snares, toms, cymbals, percussion, and so on. You'll generally want to layer drum
sounds with Foley sounds that have a similar volume contour and frequency range. If you layer a Foley
sound that resembles a kick drum with the sound of your hi-hat, for example, you'll quickly fill up all the
space in your drum track.
Industrial, household, military, transportation, and vocal sounds make excellent fodder, but you will often
want to extract a small slice, such as the last shot in a volley of machine-gun fire (snare) or the first
bounce of a plastic bottle on concrete (tom). A browsing tool like Audio Finder ( is
invaluable if you have a large sample library. That lets you quickly audition clips, make basic edits, and
drag-and-drop slices to your library.
Sticks Up
If your synthesized drum part is step sequenced, you'll need to export its step sequences as MIDI files.
Many drum synths do that, including Sonic Charge Tonic (, Apple Logic UltraBeat
(, and Submersible DrumCore ( All of those come with a large
collection of patterns exportable as MIDI sequences. You'll also need a sampler to play the Foley sounds;
drum-oriented samplers are handier for that but are by no means necessary.
Start by loading a kit in the drum synth. Export one of its sequenced patterns, or create your own and
place it on the sampler track. For some of the drum synth sounds, select compatible Foley sounds and
map them to the same notes in the sampler that they're mapped to in the drum synth. Next, solo the
doubled voices one by one in both the drum synth and the sampler, start the sequence playing, and tweak
the sampler's voice parameters (filter, level, pan, envelope, and so on) to make the sounds work together
(see Fig. 1 and Web Clip 1). Don't tweak global parameters such as effects, because that will affect all
sounds played by the sampler.
High Hoops
Once you've configured your Foley track, you can do several things to add interest. I frequently use a
Page: 33
second sampler for short vocal sounds. I'll have some notes trigger sounds in both samplers, and others
in only one. Many samplers let you group sounds and assign notes and controllers to choose among
them. You can then sequence these notes and controllers, or you can play them live to alter your Foley
Try applying DSP effects to individual Foley sounds. Multitap delays, distortion, phasing, and granular
effects all work well when used sparingly (see Web Clip 2). You can apply DSP effects inside your sampler
or route the voices to a separate output for DSP processing in your DAW. If your sampler doesn't offer
either possibility, spread the Foley parts over several sampler instances on different tracks.
Sidechain compression or gating of the drum track with one or more of the Foley parts will highlight the
Foley part as well as add variety to the drums. With compression, peaks in the sidechain signal will reduce
the level of the drum track. Use a high compression level, say, 20:1, and balance the sidechain-gain and
the compression-threshold, -attack, and -release controls to get the ducking contour you want (see Web
Clip 3). Gating has the opposite effect; the drum track will be heard during peaks in the sidechain signal
(see Web Clip 4). Here too, the sidechain-gain and gate-threshold controls work in tandem to determine
when the gate is opened. Use envelope parameters (attack, release, and hold) to shape the gate's contour.
Keep in mind that once you've created a sampler instrument to complement your drum kit, you can reuse
it with other sequences. You can also change one or more sounds in the sampler instrument without
repeating the whole process.
3.4 Sidechain Compression (Coming Later In Production
Bible v2.1)
3.5 Gain Structure AKA the Money-Shot Thread
4. Theory
4.1 – Song Structure
4.2 – Mixdown (Coming Later In Production Bible v2.1)
4.3 – Mastering (Coming Later In Production Bible v2.1)
4.4 Music Theory
The first thing to remember about music theory is that generally, if it sounds right, it probably
is. There are no rules in music, and Music Theory is not about telling you how to write music. It's
about understanding the music. Broadly speaking, it is fair to say that most music is essentially based upon two crucial factors:
scales and rhythm. Scales make up melodies, chords, harmonies and basslines to name but a few;
whereas rhythm makes up the beat of the song. In this part of the Production Bible, you will learn
the basics of Music Theory that will serve you not only in the production of Dubstep; but for any of
your future musical pursuits. This information is intended to be easy to read and understand, so I
won’t be mincing sentences. But firstly, please make sure you learn every single note on the
keyboard by studying the image below. Otherwise you’ll be completely lost here. Page: 34
Scales: We’ll begin with scales. As I mentioned before, scales are the building blocks of your song; and
without them, your track will be atonal and completely unlistenable (probably not the effect you’re
going for!). There are two main scales that you should learn inside out – the major scale and the minor scale. A
generalisation you’re bound to have heard before is that the major scale sounds “happy”, and the
minor scale sounds “dark”. Although this is not always the case, it is mostly true – and therefore
you’ll usually be focussing on the minor scale when producing Dubstep. However, just in case
you’re writing happy-dubstep (if that exists), here is a quick overview of both scales and how they
are made up. Major Scale: The major scale is really easy to create. It is made by a single rule that is simple to put in to place: “Tone, Tone, Semi-Tone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semi-Tone” In case you don’t know what a Tone or Semi-Tone is, here is a quick explanation: Picture a keyboard (or if you can’t, see the image above.) Say you go from C to C#, that would be a
semi-tone. The same thing goes for if you go from an E to an F – it is still a semi-tone, because you
Page: 35
have gone up one key. A tone is two semi-tones – for example from C to D is a tone, and the same goes for from G# to A#. The scale’s name is taken from the note that it starts on. For example, C major will start on the note
of C. Similarly, A major will start on the note of A, and this is the case with every single scale. Here is a quick list of a few major scales. After having seen a few, try working the rest out for
yourself in order to understand how the major scale is formulated. Ideally, you should practice your
scales on a piano or keyboard so that you can physically see how to make the scale. It might sound
boring, but it’s a small price to pay for a much deeper understanding of your music. Note:
- E# is the same note as F, and B# is the same note as C
- If something has a ## it means it is sharpened twice (raised two semitones) C Major: C D E F G A B C C# Major: C# D# E# F# G# A# B# C# D Major: D E F# G A B C# D D# Major: D# E# F## G# A# B# C# D# E Major: E F# G# A B C# D# E F Major: F G A Bb C D E F F# Major: F# G# A# B C# D# E# F# G Major: G A B C D E F# G G# Major: G# A# B# C# D# E# F G# A Major: A B C# D E F# G# A A# Major: A# B# C## D# E# F## G## A# B major: B C# D# E F# G# A# B Now, by arranging the different notes of each of these scales in any order you please, you can
create a melody, bassline or harmony with extreme ease. Rearranging the notes in the scale will
give you a flawlessly in-key result, and it is then up to you to use the notes in the scale as you see
fit for your tune. Minor Scale: As was the case with the Major Scale, the Minor is made up from a set rule or formula. By knowing
this formula, you can understand how the Minor is made, and how to use it to it’s maximum effect. “Tone, Semi-Tone, Tone, Tone, Semi-Tone, Tone, Semi-Tone” As is the case with the major scales, you should practice your scales as much as possible to make
sure that you know them all like the back of your hand. Here are a few Minor Scales, see if you can
Page: 36
work out the rest. Note:
- E# is the same note as F, and B# is the same note as C
- If something has a ## it means it is sharpened twice (raised two semitones) C Minor: C D Eb F G Ab B C D Minor: D E F G A Bb C# D F# Minor: F# G# A B C# D E# F# G Minor: G A Bb C D Eb F# G Similarly to the Major, now that you know your Minor Scales, you can quickly just take any note
from the scale, rearrange it with another few notes in the scale, and there you have a fat melody or
bassline ready to be played at maximum volume. Diminished Chords: Diminished Chords are really quite spooky and dark chords that are made up of four different
notes; all a minor third apart from each other. That means that for example the Diminished Chord
starting on C would be: C, Eb, F#, A, because to get from one note to the next, you have to use
“Tone, Semi-Tone” (known as a minor third). Because of the mathematical nature of the Diminished chord, there are only three “clusters” of
notes, which can then be rearranged like the Major and Minor Scales. Cluster 1: C Eb F# A Cluster 2: C# E G Bb Cluster 3: D F Ab B Use these clusters and rearrange them as you please. For example you could rearrange cluster 1 as
Eb F# A C, etc. Generally speaking, you can’t make a song based entirely on Diminished Chords, due to the fact
that each cluster only has 4 notes. However, a Diminished Chord is perfect for adding a hint of
darkness to your tune, and is brilliant when mixed with some Minor Scales. Chords: Chords are basically two or more notes played together. They are made up from a specific scale –
for example the C major chord is made up of notes in the C major scale. Usually, chords will include the first, third and fifth note of the scale, as well as possibly using other
notes to give them colour. For example the basic chord of C major would be C, E, G. Then you could
add the seventh note to it (in this case it is B). Really, it is up to the producer’s discretion how he/
she goes about making a chord – just remember to stick to the scale you are using! Chords will more than likely sound like shit if you play them on a complicated or layered synth
patch. You want to be playing chords on sustained sounds such as strings or pads. Chords will
really fill out your sound if used properly. You want your chords to be supporting the melody or
bassline, and more than likely want to add some reverb so that it doesn’t sound too sharp. Make
Page: 37
your chords blend in with the music and you’ll have mastered them! Chord Inversions Quite simply, chord inversions are when you rearrange the notes in a chord so that it sounds a bit
different, and suits your arrangement better. For example, if you were in the key of C major, you could have a drone of E playing underneath
some strings playing the notes E G C E. Due to the fact that the notes are the same, and have only been inverted, the chord will still be in
key with the rest of the music. This is a great way to add a touch of variation to your music instead
of using the same chord structure all the time. Arpeggios: Arpeggios are much easier to understand than they sound! They are quite simply the first, third and
fifth note of the scale played as individual notes. For example the arpeggio of C minor would be C
Eb G C etc. A great example of an arpeggio is the bassline in Benga’s “Crunked Up”. He goes from playing the
F# minor arpeggio backwards to playing the F minor arpeggio backwards. In other words, he is
playing: C# A F#, and then C Ab F Experiment with a few Minor Arpeggios and a couple of Diminished Arpeggios, and you can’t go
wrong in writing a huge bassline. Suggested Reading List of All Scales, With Finger Charts Included Well that’s it folks. That’s basically all the music theory you need to know to start off with. As you
grow more used to the various scales, you’ll notice that certain notes sound good with each other,
whilst others don’t. I’m not here to tell you how to write music, I’m here to teach you the language
of music. It’s up to you to write the poetry. © Bruno Crosier (.klimaxx) 2008 4.5 Random Tips
Random tips & best piece of advice thread
5. Resources
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5.1 Books & Magazines
Hello again people.... Does anyone know of more music production books, magazines or authors we can add to these
lists? Thanks ------------------------------------------------ Music Production Magazines: Computer Music - Music Tech Magazine - Future Music - Sound on Sound - Remix Magazine - Mix Magazine - Electronic Musician - EQ Magazine - Audio Technology - Tape Op - ------------------------------------------------ Music Books: Authors: Curtis Roads ... asp?aid=93 - The Computer Music
Tutorial (Really, really, really good book!) Paul White - ... ul%20White - Basic Series + more. Rick Snowman - ... k%20Snoman - The Dance Music
Manual: Tools, Toys and Techniques. Bobby Owsinski - - The Mixing/
Recording & Mastering Engineers Handbooks. Michael Paul Stavrou - Publishers: Thomson Course Technology - (Click on the 'Music Technology' tab)
- Series published include; Power!, Overdrive!, Ignite! and CSI Series + many more. Backbeat Books - – Power Tools Series + many more. Wiley Publishing - (Enter 'music' in their search bar) - For Dummies
Series. Penguin Books - (Enter 'music' in their search bar) - The Complete
Idiot's Guide Series + many more. MIT Press - - Many books on music theory. Focal Press - - (Enter 'music' in their search bar) ------------------------------------------------ Online Music Book Stores: (We need more links here... Do you know of any that
we can add?) – Excellent source that sells only books about music! Page: 39 - Search for 'Music', 'Audio Recording' etc. - Search for 'Music', 'Audio Recording' etc. ------------------------------------------------
5.2 Wikipedia
A good music lexicon wiki. Search for your term in the search bar. --->
wiki/Main_Page 0-9 1/4” Jack - 3rd Bridge - A Ableton Live - Acid Pro - Acoustical Engineering - Acoustic Impedance - Acoustic Instrument - Acoustic Levitation - Acoustic Location - Acoustics - Acoustic Streaming - Acoustic Thermometry - ADAT - Additive Rhythm - Additive Synthesis - ADSR - Aiff (File) - ... ile_Format Aliasing - All-pass Filter - Ambient (Music) - Amen Break - Amplifier - Amplitude - Amplitude Distortion - Amplitude Modulation (AM) - Analog - Analog Filter - Analog to Digital Convertion (A/D Conversion)- ...
_converter Anechoic Chamber - ARP (Instruments) - Arpegiator - Artificial Harmonic - Art Music - ATRAC - Attenuation Distortion - Auditory Scene Analysis - Auditory System - Audio Bit Depth - Audio Codecs - Audio Data Compression - Audio Filter - Audiology - Audiophile - Auditory Illusion - Auditory Imagery - Audio Signal Processing - Auto-tune - AV Reciever - A-weighting - Page: 40
B Band Reject Filter - Bandwidth (Signal Processiong) - Baroque (Music) - Bass Instrument Amplification - ... lification Bass Guitar - Bass Reflex - Beat (Effect)- Beat Boxing - Beethoven - Belt - Bias Distortion - Binaural Recording - Bluegrass Music - Breakbeat - Brown Note - C CD Player - Circuit Bending - Clipping (Signal Processing) - ... cessing%29 Chanson - Cher Effect - Chorus (Effect) - Classical Music - Comb Filter - Compression - Computer Music - Country (Music) - Crossover Distortion - Cubase - Custom-made Instruments - D DAT - Death Growl - Death Metal - Decibel - Delay - Delay Distortion - Denon - Diffraction - Digidesign - Digital - Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) - Digital Filter - Digital Mixing Console - Digital Recording - Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Digital Synthesizer - Distortion (Effect) - Distortion (Process) - Divisive Rhythm - Dolby Digital - Doppler Effect - Double Bass - Drone - Drum Machine - Drum 'n' Bass - DTS (Audio Format) - Dub (Music) - Dubstep - DX-7 (FM Synth) - Dynamic Range - Page: 41
E Ear - Echo - Effects Loop - Effects Pedal - Effects Unit - Electric Guitar - Electric Piano - Electro - Electronica - Electronic Amplifier - Electronic Dance Music - Electronic Filter - Electronic Tuner - Electronic Musical Instruments - ... nstruments Equalization - Equalizer - Equal-loudness Contour - Equal Temperament - Experimental Music - F Fach - Fast Fourier Transform - Feedback - Field Recording - Filter Types - Flanger - FL Studio - Foley Artist - Folk Music - Folk Music Traditions - ... traditions Formant - Fourier Series - Fourier Transform - Freeware - Frequencies - Frequency Domain - Frequency Modulation (FM) - Frequency Modulation (FM) Synthesis - ... _synthesis Frequency Spectrum - Fundamental Frequency - Fuzzbox - G Gabber - Gain - Gamut (Musical) - ... eval_gamut Garageband - Glass Harmonica - Granular Synthesis - Guitar Amplifier - Guitar Effects - Guitar Isolation Cabinet - ... 8guitar%29 Guitar Pedalboard - Guitar Pickup - Guitar Speaker - Guitar Speaker Cabinet - H Haas Effect - Hammond Organ - Harmonic - Harmony - Hardcore Punk - Page: 42
Harmonic Series - ... 28music%29 Hearing - Heavy Metal - Headphones - Hertz (Hz) - Heterodyne - Hip Hop - HD Radio - Home Recording - Hoover Bass - Horn (Instrument) - Horn Speaker - House - Human Voice - Humming - Hydraulophone - I Infrasound - Inharmonic - Instrument Amplifier - Intelligent Dance Music - Interference - Intermodulation Distortion - Interval (Music) - Irrational Rhythm - J Jazz - Just Intonation - K Korg - Kundts Tube - L Lead Guitar - Lead Vocalist - Leslie Speaker - LFO - Linear Predictive Coding - Line level - List of Electronic Music Genres - ... sic_genres List of Music Software - Listener Fatigue - Logic - Lossy Compression - Loudness - Loudspeaker - Loudspeaker Enclosure - ... entry_horn M Mains Hum - Mandolin - Max/Msp - Megaphone - Melody - Mel Scale - Microphone - MIDI - Minimalist (Music) - Minimoog - Mixing Console - Page: 43
Modular Synthesizer - Mono - Moog Synthesizer - Mozart - Mozart Effect - MP3 - Multiphonic - Music - Musical Acoustics - Musical Genre - Musical Instrument - Musical Mode - Musical Note - Musical Ranges (Frequencies of different Instruments & Vocal Ranges) -
wiki/Range_%28music%29 Musical Scale - Musical Tuning - Music Cognition - Music Meter - Music Sequencer - Music Technology - Music Theory - Musique Concrete - N Native Instruments - Noise Cancellation - Noise Control - Noise Health Effects - Notch Filter - Nuendo - O Octave - Ogg Vorbis - Opera - Oscillator - Oscillator Sync - Overmodulation - Overtone - Overtone Singing - P PA System - Parametric Equalizer - Patch Bay - Percussion - Pinch Harmonic - Pioneer - Pitch - Pitch Correction - Pitch Estimation - Pitch Shifter - ... ocessor%29 Phase - Phase Distortion Synthesis - Phase Velocity - Phase Vocoder - Phaser - Phasing - Phon - Phonons - Physical Modeling Synthesis - ... _synthesis Player Piano - Plosives - Plugin - Polymodal Chromaticism - Page: 44
Polyphony - Polyrhythm - Popular Music - Potentiometer - Power Attenuator - ... 8guitar%29 Progressive Rock - Propellerhead Reason - Pro Tools - Pseudo-octave - Psychoacoustics - Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) - Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) - Pure Tone - P-wave - Q Quantization (Signal Processing) - ... cessing%29 Quantization Error - R Rackmount - Rapping - Rave (Music) - RCA Connector - REAPER - Recitative (Singing) - Recording Studio - Resonance - Reverb - Riddim - Rhodes Piano - Rhythm - Rhythm Guitar - Rijke Tube - Ring Modulator - Robotic Voice Effects - RPM - S Salsa (Music) - Sample Based Synthesis - Sample Rate - Sampling - Satellite Radio - Sawtooth Wave - Schubert - Screaming - Sea Organ - Semitone - Signal Reflection - ... ctrical%29 Signal-to-noise Ratio - Sine Wave - Sing-along - Singer-songwriter - Singing - Singing Bowl - Soft Clipping - Software Effect Processor - Sone - Sonar (DAW) - Sonic Weaponry - Sony - Soul Music - Sound - Sound Design - Sound Effect - Page: 45
Sound Installation - Sound Localization - Sound Masking - Sound of Fingernails Scraping - ... chalkboard Sound Pressure Level (SPL) - Soundproofing - Sound Recording - Sound Reinforcement System - Soundscape - Sound Sculpture - Sound Synthesis - Source Separation - S/PDIF - Speaker Cone - Spectrogram - Spectral Music - Speech Recognition - Speech Synthesis - Speed of Sound - Square Wave - Stage Piano - Stereo - Stomp Box - String Quartet - Strauss - Subharmonics - Subharmonic Synthesizer - Subtractive Synthesis - Subwoofer - Syncopation - Synthesizer - T Talk Box - Tap Harmonic - Tape Recorder - Techno - Theremin - Timbre - Time Domain - Time Signature - Timestretching - Tone Row - Total Harmonic Distortion - Tracktion - Traditional Music - Trance - Tremolo - TRS Connector - U Ultrasound - Unison - V Vacuum Tube - Valve Amplifier - Valve Sound - Vibrato - Vocals - Vocal Folds - Vocal Pedagogy - Vocoder - Voice Projection - Voice Type - VST - Page: 46
W Wah-Wah - Wah-Wah Pedal - Wall of Sound - Warped Linear Predictive Coding - ... ive_Coding Water Organ - Watt - Wav (File) - Wave - Wavecycle - Waveform - Wavetable Synthesis - White Noise - Wideband - Wind Instruments - Windows Media Audio (WMA) - X Xenharmonic - XLR Connector - Y Yamaha - Z Zero Crossing - Zero Crossing Rate -
5.3 Other recommended production forums
for Logic users this is the shit:
I've found both these forums to be full of knowledgeable producers & musicians... ... 8cffbb3b02
Explains lot's about the music industry --->
Page: 47
Ok, so a massive thanks to all the contributors, there are literally
too many to mention! But Thanks to Futures Untold, Johnny
Beat, Klimaxx, Deadly Habit & Junglist/Rendr, Daft Cunt in
Thanks to all the artists, producers and general music geeks
making this early revision of the production bible an essential
There are links missing and will be included in version 2.1
(Please help with the unlinked chapters by going here - and updating missing info as
Compiled by Daft Cunt and Futures Untold. PDF Compiled by