Occupational Therapy Goals & Objectives Bank

Occupational Therapy Goals & Objectives Bank
The following are examples of Annual goals and objectives that can be used for OT intervention on the IEP. Goals and
objectives need not be limited to those included.
Annual Goal: The student will demonstrate functional motor skills (can specify fine motor, gross motor, visual-motor) in order to
participate in school activities as measured by the following objectives:
Check “Access Skills” on goal page on IEP
(Choose one of the following
Determined Determined
Individually Individually –
to include
typically Written
number of
numbers of
Paper and pencil
- Imitate simple shapes
- Copy simple shapes
- Copy the first nine pre-writing shapes (or specify which prewriting shapes)
- Draw simple shapes with stencils
- Copy numbers 1-10 legibly
- Copy numbers 1-10 without verbal or visual prompts
- Copy numbers 1-20 legibly with no reversals
- Draw a person with at least 5 different body parts
- Draws a horizontal line from left to right within the given space
A coloring task
- Use a variety of color choices
A writing assignment
- Draw a simple picture using a stencil
- Imitate a simple picture
- Draw a simple picture that can be recognized by an adult or
- Draw a picture with at least three details
- Color using consistent directionality in his/her coloring strokes
- Colors within a given space
- Use a ______tool grasp with or without a pencil grip (primitive,
transitional, mature/functional)
- Use a functional grasp on classroom tools.
- Demonstrate consistent hand dominance
- Imitate Upper Case letters legibly
- Print Upper Case letters legibly
- Imitate Lower Case letters legibly
- Print Lower Case letters legibly
- Place letters on the writing line
- Produce legible letters of consistent size for upper and lower
- Begin at and return to the left margin of the paper
- Begin at the top of the page and progress to the bottom
- Accurately copy with a visual model
- Copy written information accurately
- Organize writing to fit in space provided on a worksheet
- Print first and last name legibly on work papers
- Erase pencil marks without tearing the paper
- Produce Lower Case cursive letters
- Produce Upper Case cursive letters
- Write first and last names in legible cursive
- Produce legible cursive writing placed on the writing line
- Produce legible cursive writing using smooth connections
between letters
A daily oral language or journal
(Choose one of the following):
Physical Education Class
Recess Break
A 2-3 step fine motor activity
- Produce legible written work
- Use a variety of locomotor movments
- Use a variety of non locomotor movements
- Skip______feet with smooth movement
- Demonstrate_______coordinated jumping jacks
- Throw and catch a playground ball
- Trap a ball against his/her body
- Dribble a playground ball
- Hit a target from ________feet away with a tennis ball
- Kick a stationary ball ______feet
- Kick a rolling ball _______feet
- Kick a playground ball without loss of balance.
- Catch a playground ball from 3 feet away
- Complete a 3-4 step obstacle course
- Pump on a swing
- Demonstrate controlled balance on stationary equipment
- Demonstrate controlled balance on a variety of moving
- Demonstrate safe use of playground equipment
- Access _____ pieces of playground equipment
- Move across ______ rungs of the monkey bar
- Hang from the monkey bar for _______seconds
- Will run ______ feet with minimal fatigue
- Will run ______ feet demonstrating smooth coordinated
- Will perform _____ push-ups
- Will perform _____ curl ups
- Demonstrate effective planning to complete the activity
- Effectively use sensory motor strategies to focus and complete
A classroom
A cutting task/activity
A keyboarding lesson/a typing
- Classroom project
- Classroom tools
- A classroom job
- An opportunity
the task
- Demonstrate the ability to maintain an organized work space by
using color coding for separate subjects/assignments
- Demonstrate the ability to maintain an organized work space by
using a folder system for complete work, incomplete work, and
homework assignments
- Develop self regulation strategies to use when overwhelmed
- hold scissors correctly (or Correctly position scissors for
- snip across a piece of paper
- cut on a straight line_____ inches
- cut out simple shapes with straight lines
- cut out simple shapes with corners
- cut out simple shapes with curves
- cut out simple shapes following a broad line, using a dynamic
hand assist
- Cuts on a 1/4” wide, 6” long line, going off line 3 or less times.
- Cuts out a 4” circle on a ¼” line, going off line 3 or less times.
- identify basic key locations, such as space, return, delete, and
shift key
- identify basic key functions, such as space, return, delete, shift,
and arrow keys
- use two hands to type
- locate and use correct finger position on home row keys
- increase typing speed to ______ wpm.
- increase typing accuracy to less than ______ errors
- demonstrate functional use of classroom tools, such as scissors,
glue, tape, stapler, pencil sharpener
- use a stapler to fasten 2 or more pieces of paper
- use a pencil sharpener to sharpen a pencil
- use tape from a tape dispenser to tape two items together
- A fine motor task
- An object or toy
- A structured fine motor
- A book
- Classroom manipulatives
- A visual tracking activity
- Two objects
- A drawing task
- A writing task
- A self-care task
- During lunch/snack
- When toileting
- use both hands to accomplish a classroom task such as, stapling,
sharpening pencil, passing out papers, cutting, filing, gluing,
opening markers or glue stick
- bring hands together at midline to manipulate a toy
- visually track an object across midline
- visually look from one object to another
- use two hands to mold and shape clay, putty, or playdough
- visually attend to object placed in hand
- reach for and explore object/toy with hands
- demonstrate increased finger strength by putting together and
pulling apart manipulatives (unifix cubes, legos)
- demonstrate finger isolation by pointing to a picture or object
- demonstrate finger isolation by pressing a switch or key on a
computer or a tape recorder
- open/close a book
- turn pages of a book (several, one) at a time
- establish a consistent hand preference
- hold head up in 45 degrees, while in prone position for _____
- retrieve a fine motor task box and return it after use
- draw a self portrait with _______ number of body parts
- demonstrate opening/closing containers, such as playdough,
mile carton, pencil box, glue stick, snack wrappers
- stabilize writing paper with non-dominant hand for duration of
a writing task
- fold paper with a definite crease
- separate a single piece of paper for use
- carry hand-held objects from one location to another
- demonstrate functional grasp and release of lunchroom utensils
- use adaptive eating utensils
- Toileting opportunities
- Mobility opportunities
- Traveling opportunities
- During passing period
- When standing in line
- During transitions from class
to class
- A motor activity
- A multi-step task
- During group time
- During recess
- Multi-step motor task
- During seat work at desk
- carry lunch tray using 2 hands
- demonstrate zipping/unzipping backpack to retrieve/place
- put on/take off coat, hat, mittens/gloves, shoes, boots
- pull pants up/down
- will demonstrate independence with fasteners (zipper, snap,
button, buckle, Velcro)
- move through lunch line gathering needed items within ______
- carry tray/liquid in a container without spilling
- maneuver wheelchair/walker/stander for _____ feet
- maneuver wheelchair/walker/stander safely around obstacles
- stay in own personal space in line, keeping hands and feet to
- will move on uneven surfaces, such as lawn, gravel safely
- will move through congested areas without bumping into
people or obstacles
- complete a gross motor ______ step sequence
- imitate a ______ step rhythmic pattern
- maintain a weight bearing position on both forearms with open
hands, while in prone prop for ______ minutes
- manipulate door knobs to open and close doors
- access school environment, including opening/closing all types
of doors
- maintain trunk stability and balance by picking up small items
on the floor from a (sitting, standing) position
- access school environment by walking up/down stairs
(with/without) support
- play on low, stable playground equipment
- play on movable playground equipment
- play on high playground equipment, such as climbers, monkey
bars, slides
- complete a 2-3 step fine motor task with verbal cues
Goal/Objective Examples adapted from: Los Angeles Unified School District Related Services Department “Writing Goals to
Standards” document dated September 2003, shared with DCSD by Kim Fakler, OTR
Neuromuscular - To
- Transition from sit to stand with 25% assistance, 3/5 trials (maybe PT)
demonstrate increased balance
- Initiate activities that require balance, such as kicking a ball, hopping on one foot, or walking
and postural stability, student
on a narrow curb without prompting, 75% of the time, without demonstrating loss of balance.
Neuromuscular – To
- Maintain an upright seated posture in her chair without propping herself up on her hands, while
demonstrate improved postural seated at her classroom desk, 75% of the time, with no more than 2 verbal or physical prompts.
stability, student will:
Neuromuscular – To
- Use a purposeful and accurate reach pattern, 4/5 trials with no more than 25% physical assistance.
demonstrate improved upper
extremity strength and
control/proximal stability,
student will:
Gross Motor/Balance: To
- Demonstrate improved balance while walking along a 10 ft. line, stepping off no more than 3
demonstrate improved gross
times, 4/5 trials.
motor skills, student will:
- Improve his/her dynamic balance by squatting to pick up an object, resuming standing, and
walking to place object in a bucket with adult supervision 4/5 opportunities.
- Ascend and descend 10 steps with a reciprocal pattern using 1 guardrail with adult
supervision 3/5 times.
- Maintain balance on playground apparatus independently for 5 seconds without falling 4/5
Functional Mobility: To
- Negotiate inclines and 2” changes in surface level independently 4/5 opportunities.
demonstrate improved
- Ascend and descend a flight of stairs with one hand on a rail in a reciprocal manner with no
functional mobility, student
more than 3 verbal cues 4/5 trials.
- Negotiate around school campus including ascending/descending stairs, ramps, and uneven
(May be PT)
terrain between classes without falling 4/5 opportunities with supervision.
Bilateral Coordination: To
demonstrate improved bilateral
coordination skills, student
Visual Motor/Perceptual- To
demonstrate improved visual
motor skills, student will:
Hold scissors and paper independently and cut a complex shape with changes in direction,
with no more than 2 errors or deviations from the line, 4/5 trials.
Hold scissors to cut an 8.5” paper in half, with 1-2 verbal cues, 4/5 trials.
Independently cut along an 11” line (1” wide) with no more than 2 physical/verbal prompts
4/5 trials.
Cut a circle entirely within 1” of the border, 3 /4 opportunities, with no more than 1-2 verbal
or physical prompts.
Snip paper independently while stabilizing the paper with his other hand 3 of 4 trials.
Cut 3 simple shapes (square, circle, triangle) staying within ¼” from the line, 3 /4
Carry lunch tray from cafeteria to table without dropping any items, given 1-2 verbal cues,
4/5 attempts.
Rotate paper appropriately while cutting out 1 – 4” circle with no more than 1 error or
deviation from the line in 2/3 trials.
Independently open and close all clothing fasteners, such as snaps, buttons, and zippers, 3 /4
Use his/her non-dominant hand as a stabilizer during writing, folding, and cutting activities,
without prompting, 3 /4 opportunities.
Use both hands together to complete a fine motor task (i.e. pop beads or stringing beads),
with 1-2 verbal /physical prompts 4/5 trials.
Copy 2 lines of written work with proper sizing and spacing, with no more than 2 verbal or
visual cues, 4/5 trials.
Copy 3 lines of written work from the board with 3 or fewer mistakes, 4/5 trials, with 2 or
fewer verbal cues.
Copy 3 words from left to right with no letter reversals, 4/5 times, without cues.
Copy simple pre-writing shapes (i.e. circle, square, cross) with no more than 3 errors, 3 /4
trials and no more than two verbal and /or physical prompts.
Write/Copy/Trace his name with recognizable letters and no more than two errors, with 1-2
verbal prompts, 2/3 trials, with or without adaptive equipment.
Print legibly and appropriately space two lines of written work with no more than 2 errors
and 2 verbal or physical prompts, 5/5 opportunities with or without accommodations
(assistive devices).
Trace a horizontal line, a vertical line, and a cross with no more than 1 error, without
prompts, 3/3 trials.
Imitate simple shapes (circle, square, triangle) with no more than 1 error per shape, 3/3
Imitate vertical, horizontal, and circular lines, with no more than 2 verbal or physical
prompts, and no more than 2 errors, 4/5 trials.
Independently copy a triangle, “x”, and a diagonal line, crossing midline as appropriate 3/3
Produce 4 lines of written work within the parallel lines, with appropriate letter formation,
with no more than 3 verbal cues, 4/5 opportunities.
Reproduce math problems from far point with no errors of omission in no more than 1 minute
in 3 /4 trials
Color in a picture staying within ¼” of the boundary lines, with no more than 3 deviations, 3
/4 opportunities.
Color 75% of a picture staying within ½ inch of boundary lines with no more than 2 verbal
and visual cues 4/5 trials.
Color in a 3-inch shape (circle, square, triangle) with no more than 3 deviations, 3/ 4 trials,
Cut out a circle within 1/8” of the line, demonstrating smooth, continuous cuts, rotating paper
with non-dominant hand 3/3 trials, without cues.
Appropriately position scissors in hand independently and make 10 1-inch snips on a paper
with no more than 2 verbal prompts, 3 /4 trials.
Snip paper in two using continuous snips, with no more than 1 verbal cue, 3/ 4 trials.
Cut across a piece of paper within ¼ inch of the line drawn with no more than 2 prompts, 4/4
Snip 1” lines, staying within ¼ inch of the line with no more than 2 prompts, 2/3 trials.
Produce all the letters of his first and last name with correct formation without cues, 3/5
Cut a curved line within ½ inch of the line with no more than 2 verbal cues, 2/3 trials.
Cut out a circle within 1/4” of the line, using appropriate finger placement on her scissors,
Visual Perceptual: To
demonstrate improved visualperceptual skills, student will:
Fine Motor – To demonstrate
improved fine motor skills,
student will:
demonstrating smooth cuts with no more than 2 prompts 4/5 trials.
Independently cut a 4-inch circle, staying within 1/8 inch of the line, with no deviations, 4/5
Use her left hand as a functional stabilizer as needed, independently, while participating in
tabletop activities for 15-20 minutes, 3/3 trials.
Copy a math problem from far point with only 1 omission with no more than 2 cues, in 4/5
Recognize and sort objects into 3 different categories by size, shape, and color 3/ 4 times
with up to 2 errors.
Visually scan a written document to locate specific information (i.e. words, symbols, etc.) to
complete a classroom task with no more than 2 prompts 3/3 trials.
Visually scan the keyboard to accurately locate letters when completing written work in the
computer lab with less than 3 prompts on 3 consecutive days.
Copy 5 sentences from a vertical surface at least 3 feet away (i.e. the board) without missing
any letters or words, within 4 minutes or less, with no more than 1 verbal prompt, 3 /4
Type the complete alphabet using an isolated finger to depress keys (and using his key guard)
in 60 seconds, with no more than 2 errors, 4/5 trials.
Independently write three lines of written work with no letter reversals 5/5 trials.
Identify his/her name on cubby ¾ times with 1 verbal prompt.
Independently place 2-3 puzzle pieces in the correct spot 3/5 trials.
Use a functional writing grasp with no more than 2 prompts, 3/3 trials.
Hole a writing utensil with a mature, functional grasp for 4/5 opportunities, with 1 verbal
Pick up and correctly position a writing utensil in one hand, 3/3 opportunities, with no more
than 1 verbal prompt.
Pick up 5 small objects (e.g. beans, coins) with one hand and place in container without
dropping (complex transition) given 1 verbal cue, 4/5 attempts.
Roll a small ball of clay or paper between his/her fingers to complete a small craft project,
with no more than two verbal or physical prompts, 3/3 opportunities.
Open or close food containers, independently 4/5 opportunities.
Open or close snaps/buttons, with 1-2 verbal or physical prompts, 3 /4 opportunities.
Utilize consistent hand dominance and maintain a functional, dynamic pencil grasp, with or
without adaptive equipment, when completing a 10-15 minute written task, 3/3 trials.
Utilize a functional, dynamic pencil grasp to write 2-3 lines of written work, without fatigue,
demonstrating grade-appropriate sizing and spacing on a line with no more than 1 prompt,
3/3 trials, with or without assistive devices (i.e. slanted writing surface, pencil grip).
Color using a functional grasp, with 2 verbal cues 3/ 4 opportunities, using adaptive
equipment as needed.
Use scissors with appropriate wrist and forearm positioning, with 2 physical prompts, 3/ 4
Independently pick up and grasp a small toy from a selection of 3 toys with only 1 verbal cue
3/ 4 opportunities.
Use school writing utensils (pencil, marker, pen, crayon) with a functional grasp and apply
appropriate pressure 3/5 times.
Use a functional grasp with or without adapted strategies (i.e. pencil grip, slant board, wrist
weight) to trace vertical, horizontal, circular, and crossed lines with no more than 2 errors 4/5
Hold and maintain a functional grasp on eating utensil to feed self 10 bites of meal 4/5 trials.
Put together 3 pop beads, 3/ 4 opportunities with no more than 1-2 physical/verbal prompts.
Sit and attend to a teacher-directed activity for 10 minutes with no more than 3 verbal
prompts, 4/5 trials, following appropriate sensory strategies.
Attend for 10 minutes of circle time with no more than 2 verbal/physical prompts with or
without sensory strategies, 3/5 days.
Copy 3 lines of written work from a vertical surface to a horizontal surface with no more than
2 errors or omissions 3 /4 trials. (To improve vestibular processing – should not be stated this
way in IEP as we typically do not identify the goal is to improve the sensory processing)
Tolerate activities that involve various textures, such as paint, glue, sand, etc. without signs
of discomfort, for up to 5 minutes with no more than 1 verbal redirection, 3/3 trials, using
sensory strategies as needed.
Tolerate environmental noises (bells, sirens) without expressing discomfort and/or fear, 2/3
opportunities, with no more than 1 verbal or physical prompt, using sensory strategies as
Maintain appropriate physical/personal boundaries between him/herself and others in line or
at circle time, with no more than 2 verbal or physical prompts, 2/3 opportunities, using
sensory strategies as needed.
Utilize sensory strategies as needed in the classroom to help calm his body when
participating in non-routine/non-preferred activities (i.e. transitions, assemblies), with 3-4
verbal or physical prompts, 4/5 trials.
Interact with wet, sticky textures (i.e. play-doh, paint, glue) during a 7-10 minute classroom
art activity without signs of aversion, with no more than 1-2 verbal prompts, 4/5 trials.
Print 3 sentences within lines without breaking pencil, 4/5 times, with no more than one
Improve attention to sit in circle time for 10 minutes with no more than 2 prompts 4/5
Student will transition from student’s choice of activities to adult directed activities with no
more than 2 verbal prompts 4/5 times, with or without sensory strategies.
Follow classroom routine with no more than 3 verbal prompts for redirection 4/5
Participate in a 5-minute activity center with no more than two verbal cues 3/5 opportunities.
Sit during circle time for 5-8 minutes with 3-4 verbal and/or physical prompts while utilizing
sensory strategies 4/5 opportunities.
Participate in an art/play activity using a variety of textures, without aversion, 4/5
Complete a 5-minute teacher directed activity given 1-2 verbal prompts, 4/5 attempts.
Transition between activities with less than 3 verbal prompts using sensory strategies as
needed, 4/5 opportunities.
Keep hands to self during group activities (2-3 peers) for 30 seconds, 2/3 trials.
Sit and attend to a teacher-directed task for 10 minutes with no more than 4 verbal prompts,
4/5 opportunities.
Will demonstrate improved body awareness by maintaining own space during circle time for
10 minutes, with no more than 2 verbal prompts, 4/5 days.
Organization of
Level/Modulation: To
demonstrate improved
organization of behavior,
student will:
Select and utilize one self-organizing activity from a field of 3 choices, with 1 verbal prompt,
4/5 trials.
Complete a 2-step teacher directed activity with no more than 1 verbal or physical prompt 3/3
Follow movement routine to classroom song with no more than 2 errors on 3/3 occasions
with 2-3 verbal prompts.
Tolerate various classroom textures with or without the use of sensory strategies, 4/5
attempts, with verbal cues only.
Follow 2 steps of a classroom routine with 1-2 verbal cues, 3/ 4 trials.
Attend to a teacher-directed tabletop task for 8-10 minutes with 1-2 verbal cues.
Identify and utilize 3 sensory strategies to attend to an adult directed tabletop task for 20
minutes with 2-3 verbal/visual prompts, 4/5 trials.
Independently transition from one task or setting to another, 3/5 opportunities.
Wait for his/her turn during classroom free playtime and playground activities,
independently, 3/5 opportunities.
Will sit and attend to a structured activity with no more than 3 verbal or physical prompts, 3/
4 opportunities.
Gather all necessary materials (i.e. books, paper, pencils) per teacher request with 1 prompt, 3
consecutive days, using organizational strategies (i.e. checklist, visual schedules, etc.) as
Maintain an optimal level of arousal to independently sit upright on the rug or in a chair
during a 10-15 minute teacher-directed lesson on 3 consecutive days.
Sit with his peers and complete a teacher directed activity (i.e. during circle time),
maintaining his attention for 15- 20 minutes with only one verbal prompt 3/3 days.
Maintain his focused attention to a 15-20 minute teacher-directed task with 1 verbal cue,
using sensory strategies as needed 3/3 trials.
Identify 1-2 sensory strategies to allow for participation in a non-preferred/non-routine
teacher directed activity for 10-15 minutes 3/3 trials. (Collaboration with teacher/behavior
Participate in large group, noisy activity (i.e. P.E., assembly, fire drill) without aversive
reaction (i.e. crying, resistance/avoidance) with 2 prompts 4/5 opportunities.
Body Awareness: To
demonstrate improved body
awareness, student will:
Motor Planning/Ideation: To
demonstrate improved motor
planning, student will:
Maintain own space during 10 minutes of circle time with no more than 2 verbal prompts 4/5
Initiate imitation of peers playing with cause and effect toys 3/ 4 opportunities during freeplay time, with no more than 2 verbal prompts.
Plan, sequence, and construct objects using blocks, legos, etc. with 1 verbal cue 4/5
Independently stack blocks according to shape or color with no more than 1 error, 3/3 trials.
Negotiate from one classroom to the next between periods with 2-3 verbal cues 4/5 times.
Safely negotiate obstacles and people in his/her environment, independently, 3/3
Functionally navigate his classroom environment and playground without tripping or
bumping into objects or peers 5/5 opportunities.
Independently set-up, initiate and complete a 2-3 step novel activity 3/3 trials.
Identify the materials necessary to independently sequence and complete a 2-3 step novel
teacher-directed activity without errors, 3/3 trials.
Independently choose and initiate participation in at least one classroom activity during
unstructured, free-time on 3 consecutive days.
Anticipate and execute the motor movements necessary to strike a moving object with 2-3
verbal and/or physical cues, 4/5 trials.
Sit upright to participate in a classroom activity for 10 minutes, with adaptive equipment
(move ‘n sit cushion) if necessary, 4/5 trials.
Strength/Postural Stability: To
demonstrate improved
strength/postural stability,
student will:
Examples of Goals from “Sensory Motor Integration and Learning with Yoga” by April Merrilee, MA, OTR:
Postural Control
Perceptual Skills
Attention &
Fine Motor/Gross
- Stand on one leg for 5 (or 10) seconds without twisting trunk, waving arms or stepping down.
- Maintain both flexion and extension posture for 5 (or 10) seconds without stopping.
- Smoothly and accurately transition from one physical posture to the next without losing balance.
- Maintain upright seated posture on floor without support of hands for 30 seconds.
- Use drawings to correctly imitate postures with accurate spatial orientation of body parts.
- Sequence a series of physical postures in correct order using visual memory, motor planning and motor
memory skills.
- Organize a series of drawings into correct sequential order.
- Correctly match printed words with drawings of physical postures.
- Maintain steady visual gaze upon relevant object for minimum of 2 minutes without distraction.
- Effectively practice deep belly breathing for at least 10 breaths, independently and without stopping
- Participate in functional activities at table top for at least 10 minutes without leaving the table.
- Demonstrate independent work behavior by organizing materials and staying on task for at least 10
minutes with no more than one verbal cue.
- Participate in structured group activity for at least 10 (or 20) minutes without leaving the group.
- Maintain weight bearing posture on open hands for at least 10 seconds without collapsing.
- Exhibit efficient use of crayons, pencils and markers for 10 minutes.
- Accurately trace shapes with no more than 2 (or 3) errors per activity.
- Maintain upright seated posture at table for at least 5 minutes without slumping or propping on elbows.
- Complete fine motor project within allotted time frame with minimal cueing.
- Accurately cut around small objects using correct scissor grip, with no more than 2 (or 3) errors per
Considerations to keep in mind when writing goals and objectives:
1. What type of service will be provided for the student, ie Direct – Pullout, Integrated in the Classroom, and Consult – are the
activities attached to the objective doable within that service model. For example, gross motor skills are hard to work on for
Integrated service.
2. What skills are you targeting for growth? How will you collect data to show progress (or lack of progress)?
3. Are there academic goals and objectives such as writing goals that can be supported by OT, so that separate OT
goals/objectives are not needed. Make a statement on page 8 to clarify what OT will address.
4. Utilize the resources in First Class for IEP guidelines and writing goals and objectives. Go to ISS Conference>SPED
Conference>Nuts & Bolts Conference>Articles and Resources Folder. All resources in here are helpful to refer to from time
to time.
3/09 jbd