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Content S No 1 Title 2 Evaluation of biochemical indices in chronic alcoholism 3 महामित प्राणनाथ की सवर्धमर् सम वय की
अवधारणा 4 Authors Socio-Cultural Perspective in Girish
Karnad’s Naga-Mandala Ruchi Midha,
Vinita Singh
Akanksha Dubey,
Bhawna Bhimte Page No 1‐6 7‐11 t; izdk'k 'kkD;
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17‐19 Santosh Ambhore,
H.C. Kataria 20‐25 डा. नागे द्र की समीक्षा पद्धित
5 An investigation –The level of
contamination caused by Heavy
Metals in Drinking Water of Gandhi
Nagar and Bairagarh Area of Bhopal
with Environment and Human Health
aspects. 6 mRihM+u ds ifjis{; esa dkedkth efgykvksa dh
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26‐28 7 स तक का य परं परा : एक अ ययन
चंदा मोदी
29‐31 8 Fixed point theorem in Fuzzy metric
space by using compatibility of type
beta Environmental Management
Systems And Business M S Chouhan, Manoj
Kumar Khanduja and
Bharat Singh
Pavan Mishra
32‐39 9 40‐46 International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (1 – 6) Socio‐Cultural Perspective in Girish Karnad’s Naga‐Mandala Ruchi Midha* Vinita Singh Chawdhry** *Research Scholar, UIT-RGPV, Bhopal
**Professor (English), Govt. Hamidia Arts & Commerce College, Bhopal
ABSTRACT Girish Karnad is the most eminent dramatist of the contemporary Kannada theatre. He has given the
Kannada theatre the variety that could probably be possible only with his talents as an actor-director. He
has always used myths and legends and made them a source of a new vision. By using these myths and
folklores he tried to show the absurdity of life with all its fundamental passion and disagreements and man’s
everlasting struggle to develop a symbolic form out of tension between the typical and a mythical
experience and a living reaction to life and its values. Contemporaneity in Karnad’s plays shows itself
through its functional sensibility in his attempt to give new meaning to the past from the vantage point of
present time. He has presented an image to the Indian theatre community and to the world theatre
community how our past and present give our present day existence a sense of purpose and to theatre
activity a direction.
Karnad pays a lot of attention to his characters. His characters are full of life and variety. They are
living characters. Karnad highlights those qualities of his characters which supports the development of his
plots. His characters and plots are interrelated. For his character description Karnad has used various
devices such as dialogue, irony, contrast and parallelism.
INTRODUCTION Naga‐Mandala is return in the process of development of Karnad’s vision regarding human relationship. Karnad in this play, takes his examination of human relationship a step forward with the help of folk theatre tradition. The play beautifully generalizes the particular truth and in the same manner particularizes the general truth. The play examines the changing and growing of a newly married couple and their eventually understanding of the role, function and responsibilities of their marital bond. With the help of the ethnic theatre tradition Karnad describes the multiple aspect and psychological self‐division of the human being. With P a g e | 1 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected] International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (1 – 6) the help of the age‐long myth of snake lover the sexual aspect of the hero, Appanna, has been projected. The same man who loves and caresses during the darkness of the night is harsh, brutal and inconsiderate during the light of the day. The wonderful use of the ‘symbols’ like snake dark long tresses, night, day, blindness and stag helps Karnad in his description of the deeply distressing experiences and sufferings of a newly married couple. The desire of Rani for her parents finds a superbly metaphorical expression in the opening of the play: “Where are you taking me? And the Eagle answers: “Beyond the seven island is a magic garden. And in that garden stands the tree of emeralds. Under the tree, your parents wait for you.” So Rani says: “Do they? Then please, please take me to them‐ immediately. Here I come.” So the Eagle carries her clear across the seven seas.”(Naga‐Mandala, 25) Rani seems to be distressed at the beginning of her entrance in the new role assigned to her by the marriage, and she is equally unaware about the physical aspect of relationship. In Naga‐
Mandala the psychological self division of Appanna has been revealed. The play seems to be a beautiful generalization of man‐woman relationship and it seems that every woman in the play is one woman and every man one man. Appanna, Naga and Kappanna are likely various aspects of man. While Appanna put forwards domineering aspect of manhood. He kept his wife locked up like a cage bird and orders her to do things like to serve food etc. And use to visit a concubine every night which reflects his awareness of the biological aspect of sex. At the same time he seems emotionally under‐developed as he deals with Rani always unfairly. Karnad says that Appana and Naga are two aspects of a husband the social front Appanna and the private‐self Naga. Whereas at the social situation a husband is unable to come out of his narcissism, with the arrival of the darkness of night, he feels his quest for completeness stirred up. Appanna’s behavior brings out the nature of the male in general for whom neither of the relationship is complete and satisfactory. Appanna seems unable to accept his marital life comfortably whereas the arrival of the Naga in the darkness of night creates the huge conflict. Karnad uses the folk tale to bring out the psychological divide of a person. Naga‐a Cobra being the age long symbol of male sexuality, projects the truth and the inner conflict of the protagonist. Naga talks in a very soothing way and it is a mystery for Rani to accommodate with two selves that are Appanna and Naga; this trauma is particularization of the situations where the husband is sweet and soothing during the darkness of night, harsh and bullying during the light of the day. Naga himself says: “No, let’s say, the husband decides on the day visits. And the wife decides on the night visits. So I won’t come at night if you don’t want me to.” (Naga‐Mandala, 42) Discussion The irony remains undamaged throughout the play.
It could be seen in the beginning when Rani throws
the juice of the medicinal root in the anthill and it is
devoured by the Cobra king. Kurudavva seems to
be another aspect of the same woman putting in
efforts in every way to harmonize with her man.
Kurudavva’s blindness seems to carry a deeper
meaning and that is inability of female to peep into
the heart of the truth. The isolation and
communication gap between Rani and Appanna,
and Rani’s wish for fulfillment arrives at climax
with the disclosing of her pregnancy.
The result of this medicinal root could be
seen in the arrival of the Naga during night. He
started visiting her during night and Appanna
during day. It’s brilliant mixture of dream and
reality and Rani seems to dream during day for
dream like reality of the night and is distressed by
P a g e | 2 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected] International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (1 – 6) the nightmare like reality of day during the night.
She could not form anything of Naga’s statement:
“Of course. There’s always that. Listen,
Rani. I shall come home everyday twice. At night,
wait for me here in this room. When I come and go
at night, don’t go out of this room, don’t look out of
the window –whatever the reason. And don’t ask
me why.” (Naga-Mandala, 45)
Karnad in his introduction to Girish Karnad
Three Plays: Naga-Mandala, Hayavadana, Tughlaq
writes about the position of Rani. He relates the
play with the psycho-social reality only. He says:
“The position of Rani in the story of NagaMandala, for instance, can be seen as a metaphor
for the situation of a young girl in the bosom of a
joint family where she sees her husband only in two
unconnected roles-as a stranger during the day and
as a lover at night. Inevitably, the pattern of
relationships she is forced to weave from these
disjointed encounters must be something of a
fiction. The empty house Rani is locked in could be
the family she is married into.” (Naga-Mandala, 17)
The Naga Rani relationship passes through
various modes. Rani is visibly sad with the drops of
blood on Naga’s visage. The maternal feeling of the
lady could not see the blood on the visage of the
concerned male. Whereas she is unaware of the
physical aspect of love, Naga seems to know and
accept it as an essential part of marriage and love.
Karnad appears to contemporaries his exploration of
human relationship by violating the sanctity of the
marital bond. Naga, if we accept him as the
intruder-lover crosses the sanctity of nuptial bond.
He relates the hunger of his blood with the hunger
of surrounding. He takes the trouble making Rani
understand that sex is natural and obvious outcome
and symptom of our growth. But false belief is
broken and reality overpowers the situation. Rani
got pregnant by Naga. She feels upset with her
husband’s reaction. The reality, illusion and truth
are face to face. Naga, the other-self of Appanna,
was satisfied with illusion and he never wanted an
issue as a real proof of his true illusion. But Rani
knows well that the quest for completeness could be
meaningful with once palpating proof of the
Ultimately Appanna comes across the truth
but it was impossible to him. The isolation and
communication gap between Rani and Appanna,
and Rani’s wish for fulfillment arrives at climax
with the disclosure of her pregnancy to him.
Whereas Rani does adapt with the shifts of the
roles, Appanna could not. Rani achieves fulfillment
with the disclosure of her own pregnancy. Rani’s
capacity to synchronize the dream and reality and in
this way she is superior to her husband. Rani very
smoothly accepts the role but the rebellious mood
she could not get rid of this again.
Appanna calls the village elders to look after
the case. Rani is asked to go through some ordeal,
Naga suggests her to prefer snake-ordeal. After
taking the snake-ordeal she has been proofed not
guilty. According to Karnad it is Rani’s overcoming
the guilt and coming across the innocence. In a way
it also shows the superiority of the intelligence of a
woman. Immediately she was given the status of a
goddess. The villagers adore her. And the dramatic
intensity touches its highest point:
“Yes, my husband and this king Cobra.
Except for these two, I have not touched anyone of
the male sex. Nor have I allowed any other male
touch me. If I lie, let the Cobra bite me.”(NagaMandala, 58)
Later when Naga died Rani requested her
husband to allow her son to perform the last ritual
of Naga. The end of Naga-Mandala is exceptionally
metaphorical. The playwright has suggested two
ends and both the ends convey the same meaning
and equal intensity. According to the first ending
Naga died and the last ritual have been performed
by Rani’s son. The second ending suggests the entry
of Naga into her long black tresses, symbolizes his
P a g e | 3 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected] International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (1 – 6) eternal presence: “This hair is the symbol of my
wedded bliss. Live in there happily, forever.”
(Naga-Mandala, 64)
In this depiction of eternal quest for
completeness and age-long efforts to fill up the
vacuum, Karnad used symbols beautifully. Snake
has been used as age-long symbol of male sexuality,
long black tresses as the female sexuality, night as
the personal aspect of human being and day as
public front. The main plot and sub-plot are well
synthesized by the playwright. The KurudavvaKappanna episode focuses on other aspect of the
human relationship. Kurudavva, the mother is blind
and she needs her son as a support but the son is
hypnotized from a female voice. Karnad appears to
express the subdued sexual self-through the
character of Kappanna. He seems to be deeply
distressed by the horrible aspect of woman. From
his infantile onwards he has seen the woman as a
mother only so the other aspect of woman horrifies
The story is crushed from time immemorial
and at length she librates herself and finds identity
through the man. The conflict dissolves and the
relationship of Appanna and Rani attains social
recognition. Life starts rolling smoothly with the
blessing of a son and acceptance of reality as truth
is achieved. Karnad’s shift was towards the
harmonious relationship between human being and
society. In Naga-Mandala social approval becomes
a part and parcel for the balance of the relationship.
Rani acquires her identity as a wife after
acquiring the identity of motherhood. Her position
has been stored what though Karnad’s vision about
this indescribable, unpredictable human relationship
seems slightly settled. The subtlety could be felt
into the happy ending of Naga-Mandala and the
fact could not be ignored that this is the only play
dealing with man-woman relationship, which ends
if not happily, at least then satisfactorily.
Naga-Mandala is a feminist play. It
questions patriarchal moral code which demands the
faithfulness of a woman to her husband but not the
faithfulness of a man to his wife. It can be
described as a problem play. It puts forward the
problems of a married woman, the position and
status of a woman in her relation to her husband and
home. The dramatist does not express his opinion
about the rights of women or the freedom of
women. He pictures the tragic result of less
importance of married woman to her husband. The
play shows how the woman is excessively
controlled by her husband. Girish Karnad appears
as a dramatist of social realities in this play. Karnad
is on the side of Rani who wins our sympathy too.
In this play the dramatist delivers a message
to the society, that is to say that it should awaken a
sense of individual responsibility among women.
Without allowing a woman to develop her own
individuality, a woman would be really unhappy. If
Rani had lived with Appanna lifelong under the
conditions in which we find her living with her
husband at the beginning of the play, her life would
have been miserable. In Indian society a woman is
expected to perform unquestionable obedience to
her husband as Rani does in this play. She has no
right not only to refuse her husband but also to
question him.
Appanna openly and unashamedly commits
adultery, but nobody objects to it; the village elders
who sit in judgment do not find any fault with him.
Nobody was ready to believe the innocence of
Rani. She sleeps with Naga without knowing his
identity. She does not discover the identity of Naga
who assumes Appanna’s form by using its magical
power. Her failure to discover the truth is the
suppression of her reason and intuition by the strong
warning of Appanna and Naga not ask any
question. If she had discovered the real identity of
Naga she would not have allowed him to enter her
house. Rani is frigid and despises sex. What she
craves for is affection which Naga gives her in
plenty by functioning as a surrogate parent for a
P a g e | 4 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected] International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (1 – 6) while. By using his erotic art Naga cures her
frigidity. Due to which, later Appanna and Rani
could enjoy marital life happily.
patriarchal society of which Rani is no doubt a
References Chastity is a patriarchal concept that has
been used to oppress and weaken women for ages.
Here also in the case of Rani her chastity is clearly
gender based. There are two reasons which lead to
the whole trouble that crops between Rani and
Appanna. In the first place, he regards Rani as his
personal property and adopts a possessive attitude
towards her. Secondly, the lack of communication
between them makes him a stranger to her.
The concept of chastity has been associated
with women since ancient days, almost from the
very inception of human civilization. A woman
especially in India fails to command that social
prestige which she ought to have if she once
regarded worthy of disgrace. What Rani does and
what she suffers is not due to some weakness in her
character. Like Oedipus, who murders his father
and marries his mother unknowingly, Rani also
commits the sin of adultery due to lack of
knowledge of the real identity of Cobra. But the
society, based on the patriarchal norm never
forgives a woman who lost her chastity.
Conclusion Thus it can be concluded that, Rani is a
typical Indian woman who is ready to suffer and
sacrifice for her husband without complaining in the
hope that husband will return to her in the end. She
expects nothing. She is ready to make any amount
of sacrifice. If she comes to commit a mistake, she
holds herself guilty and ever remains repentant for
the lapse. Rani’s character typifies a wife that
accepts suffering as fait accompli. The play NagaMandala reflects upon the contemporary Indian
cultural and social life with the use of myths and
folktales. It is a feminist play not because it is
pathetic story of Rani but because it very brilliantly
captures the insanity of violence against an innocent
woman in the background of a conservative
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Hayavadana, Tughlaq. New Delhi: O U P.
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P a g e | 6 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected] International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (7 – 11)
Evaluation of biochemical indices in chronic alcoholism
Akanksha Dubey,* and Bhawna Bhimte
*Department of Medical Biochemistry, GMC Bhopal.
Chronic alcoholism perturb to pathological condition affecting the nervous, gastro enteric
system. Hepatocytes are particularly susceptible to alcohol metabolism; consequently
abnormalities could be recurrent in liver function test. Present study has been undertaken to
evaluate various biochemical alterations caused by alcoholic beverages on long term ingestion.
Study has been carried out on 50 alcoholic morbid groups of 20-60 years of age compared to 50
age matched non alcoholic control. Morbid group are again classified on the basis of amount
Moderate and heavy drinker’s (90.37±9.09 & 127.61±15.33 respectively) and duration 8-10years
with mean of 9.4±0.74 and >10years with average of 12.26±1.46 of alcohol. Biochemical
parameters estimated were liver enzymes (GGT, AST, ALT and AST/ALT).
Mean ±SD values of GGT for alcoholics were 167.5±95.67 (p<0.001) as compared to controls
(14.01±0.613).The ratio of AST/ALT showed significant raise in alcoholics than the controls
(1.35±0.186, 1.02±0.005 respectively). Parallel results were also observed with Moderate drinkers
compared to heavy drinkers.
Evaluation of hepatic parameters establishes that alcohol interfere with liver functioning. The
data suggest that elevations of enzymes can be a particular and specific marker of alcohol abuse.
However detailed studies with large sample size may be required to establish LFT as marker of
Chronic consumption of alcohol causes multiple
structural and functional derangements. A wide
parameters are affected by regular and
excessive alcohol consumption. The blood test
most commonly used as markers for recent
drinking are the liver enzymes GGT, AST, ALT
and ratio of AST/ALT. The liver is known to be a
major site of ethanol oxidation; it is first oxidized
to acetate by liver acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.
These metabolic changes and generation of free
radicals are responsible for alcoholic liver
diseases [1]. GGT is induced by alcohol and serum
level rise in response to acute hepatocellular
damage. These are especially high in patients
with regular drinking patterns rather than
episodic drinking [2] [3]. The serum AST and ALT
Page |7
levels are often raised in patients who are
alcoholic although generally not more than 2-4
times the upper limits of the normal range [3],[4].
An AST/ALT ratio which is more than 1, strongly
suggests an alcohol induced damage to liver and
a ratio more than 2 confirms this diagnosis [2], [3].
The present study was undertaken to assess
various biochemical alterations caused by
alcoholic beverages on long term ingestion and
is also an effort to make some contribution to
existing knowledge on this subject.
Material and method:
The present work has been conducted in
Department of Medical Biochemistry in coordination with Department of Medicine Gandhi
Medical College Bhopal associated with Hamidia
Hospital. The study includes 50 chronic alcoholic
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (7 – 11)
patient of age group 26-60 years compared to
non alcoholic controls of same age group.
Morbid group were again sub divided, Firstly, on
the basis of amount of alcohol in which one
group comprised of 80-100 ml/ day with mean
of 90.37±9.09 and other one with more than 100
ml/day with mean of 127.61±15.33. Secondly,
on the basis of duration of alcohol consumption
as 8-10 years with the mean of 9.4±0.74 and
more than 10 years with mean of 12.26±1.46.
They were analyzed as chronic alcoholic on the
basis of past medical history and all were
sufferers of alcoholic liver diseases at some or
other time in their life. Mostly patients were of
low socio-economic status. The control group
consisted of 50 healthy adults who had been
matched for age and socioeconomic status.
Due to socio-cultural values none of the female
has accepted of being alcoholic, hence study is
male dominant. Taking all aseptic and universal
precaution 5 ml blood sample was collected and
biochemical parameters were estimated using
standard protocols.
Exclusion criteria:
The patients of liver disease who were nonalcoholic or occasional drinkers and abstainers
were excluded.
Page |8
Estimation of liver enzymes:
The activities of GGT, AST and ALT were assayed
by kinetic spectrophotometric methods. GGT (EC was assayed on its catalysis of transfer
of the glutamyl group from L-y-glutamyl-3carboxy-4-anilide to glycylglycine with formation
of L-y-glutamylglycylglycine and 5-amino-2nitrobenzoate. The increased absorbance at 405
nm was measured [5]. ALT (EC was
assayed by an enzymatic kinetic method, in
which the pyruvate which was formed from the
transamination of alanine was converted to
lactate by lactate dehydrogenase and the rate of
the decrease in absorbance was measured at
340 nm [6]. The assay of the AST (EC
activity was based on the transamination of
Aspartate to oxaloacetate, followed by the
conversion of oxaloacetate to malate by
dehydrogenase and this decrease in the
absorbance measured at 340 nm. [7]
Statistical analysis:
Results have been expressed as mean±SD.
Statistical significance was determined by
Students “t” test for unpaired data. The value of
significance was evaluated with p values. The p
value (p<0.05) was considered significant.
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (7 – 11)
Table 1. Comparison of Liver Function Test in cases and control
Liver enzymes
17.64 ±0.20
P value
Table no 1 shows comparison of liver enzymes in cases and controls. 50 cases were compared with
50 controls of same age groups. All liver enzymes showed significantly higher (p<0.001) values in
morbid groups when compared with healthy controls.
Table 2. Comparison of cases on the basis of duration of alcohol
Liver enzymes
10 <years
9.4 ±0.74
Table no 2 shows comparison among morbid group depending upon duration of alcohol
consumption. The group of 8-10 years comprised of 17 patients and group of more than 10 years
was comprised of 33 patients. Highly significant (p<0.001) result was observed when they were
Table 3. Comparison of cases on the basis of amount of alcohol
Liver enzymes
Moderate drinkers (80100ml)
90.37± 9.09
0 .001
1.41± 0.16
Table no 3 shows comparison of cases on the amount of alcohol. The group of 80-100 ml comprised
of 27 patients and group of more than 100 ml comprised of 23 patients and they show highly
significant (p<0.001) elevations when moderate drinkers were compared with heavy drinkers.
Page |9
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (7 –
In present study patients with liver diseases
due to alcohol were compared with healthy
controls. Their mean age, amount of alcohol
and duration of consumption were
determined. In this study the GGT, AST and
ALT were significantly higher in chronic
alcoholics when compared to healthy controls
as well in heavy drinkers when compared to
moderate drinkers. A similar change was also
noted in cases of ratio of Aspartate
aminotransferases. Alanine amino transferase
(ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST)
were present in high concentration in
hepatocytes. These enzymes leak into the
circulation when hepatocytes or their cell
membranes are damaged. Although these
aminotransferases are sensitive indicators of
liver cell damage, neither alone is an ideal
marker. The ratio of aspartate amino
transferase (AST) to alanine amino transferase
(ALT) in serum may help in the diagnosis of
some liver diseases. The entire study groups
showed a significant alteration in comparison
to normal healthy individual (1.02±0.005).
Deficiency of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a
aminotransferases, is common in alcoholic
liver disease. This deficiency decreases
hepatic ALT to a greater extent than AST, with
concentration. Hence, the AST/ALT ratio is a
good marker of ALD [8], [9].
This study shows that chronic intake of
ethanol increases serum activities of enzymes
originating from liver plasma membranes but
has different effects on the enzyme activity in
liver plasma membranes itself, suggesting that
the alcohol mediated increase of serum
activities of various enzymes originating from
P a g e | 10
liver plasma membranes might be due to
different mechanisms.
In case of γGT, both moderate and heavy
alcohol intake groups of alcoholic liver disease
groups showed significantly higher activities
than normal healthy volunteers. γglutamyltransferase (γGT) is a biliary
canalicular enzyme, which is induced by
alcohol, and serum levels also rise in response
to acute hepatocellular damage. γGT
characterizes chronic, long-term misuse of
alcohol. Even significant difference was also
observed between the moderate and heavy
alcoholics. Experimental evidence present
that the determination of γGT activity in
serum is useful in the assessment of alcoholinduced liver disease. With several studies,
serum γGT is the most sensitive, moderate
specificity, most widely employed marker of
alcohol consumption [10] Recently it has been
suggested that subjects with very high γGT
seem to demonstrate a more intense
vulnerability to alcohol, a characteristic that
appears to be stable over time [11].
Thus in the present study, moderately high
level of γGT in Moderate group of alcoholics
and very high levels of γGT in Heavy group of
alcoholics indicating that these patients are
consuming high amount of alcohol and they
are really at the risk or suffering from liver
While traditional markers of alcohol use GGT,
AST, ALT have limited sensitivity and
specificity, they remain useful adjuncts in the
assessment and management of excessive
drinkers. Their levels may indicate
complications of drinking or concurrent
conditions that may be affected by drinking.
Monitoring γGT, ALP, AST and ALT in
combination is a sensitive means of detecting
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (7 –
severity of alcohol induced liver damage
further studies with a larger sample size,
taking into account the type and dosage of the
alcohol which is consumed and including
alcoholics of both the sexes, with and without
any pathological manifestations, are required.
Detailed studies are needed before
establishing GGT and AST/ALT ratio for its
application in clinical medicine.
concentrations of enzymes. Part 3. IFCC
method for alanine aminotransferase. J Clin
Chem Clin Biochem 18 : 521-534.
[8] Das SK, Nayak P, Vasudevan DM (2003)
Biochemical markers of alcohol consumption.
Ind J Clin Biochem. 18(2), 111-118
[9] Nalpas B, Vassault A, LeGuillou A et al
(1984) Serum activity of mitochondrial
aspartate amino transferase: a sensitivity
marker of alcoholism with or without
alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology, 4, 893-896.
[2] Das S.K. Dhanya L., Vasudevan, D.M. 2008;
Biomarkers of alcoholism: an Update and
review. Scan J Clin Lab Invest 68: 81-92.
[10] Rosalki S (1984) Identifying the alcoholic.
In Clinical Biochemistry of Alcoholism, (Ed.
Rosalki S) Churchill, Livingstone, Edinburgh 6592.
My special gratitude to Dr.B.K.Agrawal and
Dr.Bhawna Bhimte for their support and
believe in me.
[1] Tolman KG, Rej R. Liver function. 1999 In:
Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, editors. Tietz textbook
of clinical chemistry. 3rd ed. Philadelphia (PA):
Saunders; p. 1158-9.
[3] Sharpe PC. 2001; Biochemical detection
and monitoring of alcohol abuse and
abstinence. Ann Clin Biochem 38: 652-664
[4] Friedel R, Diederichs F, Lindena J. 1979;
Release and extracellular turnover of cellular
enzyme. In: Advances in Clinical Enzymology
(eds.Schmidt E, Schmidt FW, Trauschold I, et
al), S.Karger: Munich, pp. 70-105.
[7] Bergmeyer H, Bowers G, Horder M, 1977;
Moss DW. IFCC methods for measurements of
catalytic concentrations of enzymes. Part 2.
IFCC method for aspartate aminotransferase.
Clin Chem 23: 887-889.
[11] Daeppen JB, Schoenfeld-Smith K, Smith
TL, Schuckit MA. (1999) Characteristics of
alcohol dependent subjects with very elevated
levels of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT). J
Stud Alcohol, 60(5), 589-594
[5] Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976; Committee
on enzymes of the Scandinavian society for
clinical chemistry and clinical physiology.
Recommended method for the determination
of gamma-glutamyl transferase in blood. 36 ;
[6]. Bergmeyer HU, Horder M. 1980; IFCC
methods for the measurement of catalytic
P a g e | 11
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International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (12 – 16)
egkefr izk.kukFk dh loZ/keZ leUo; dh vo/kkj.kk
t; izdk'k 'kkD;]
izksQslj ,oa foHkkxk/;{k n'kZu'kkL=
'kkldh; egkjktk egkfo|ky; Nrjiqj¼e-iz-½
lkj la{ksi
egkefr izk.kukFk }kjk izofrZr iz.kkeh /keZ esa loZ/keZ leUo; dh vo/kkj.kk Lohdkj dh x;h gSA iz.kkeh /keZ ewyr% Jh —
".k HkfDr ij vk/kkfjr gSA Hkxoku Jh—".k dk 11o"kZ 52 fnu dk ifo= Lo:i iz.kkeh /keZ esa iwT; o vkjk/; gSA Jhjkt th ds
lkFk Jh ';kek th gh czákRekvksa ds fy, loZLo gSaA cztjkl] egkjkl rFkk tkxuh jkl HkDrksa ds fy, v[k.M lq[k dk iznkrk
gSA lalkj ds lHkh /keksZ dh ,drk iz.kkeh /keZ esa ns[kus dks feyrh gSA Jh—".k HkfDr dh ijEijk ij vk/kkfjr iz.kkeh /keZ fo'o
ds lHkh /keZ] o.kksZ] oxksZa] tkfr;ksa ds euq"; ds fy, ije/kke dk }kj [kksyus dks rRij gSA fcuk HksnHkko ds lHkh yksx bl ekuo
/keZ dk ykHk ys ldrs gSaA /keZ thou dk lafo/kku gS tks O;fDr ds O;fDrxr] lkekftd] uSfrd rFkk vk/;kfRed drZO;ksa dh
O;k[;k djds drZO; ikyu ds fy;s izsfjr djrk gSA oLrqr%] /keZ uhfr] fu;eksa dk voyEcu O;fDrRo dk fodkl] pfj=&fueZk.k
ftlesa Je 'khyrk] ferO;rk] le>nkjh] ftEesnkjh] bZekunkjh vkfn tks ekuo xfjek ds vuqdwy drZO; gSa] mu lcdk leUo;
gSA egkefr izk.kukFk us lalkj ds leLr /keksZ ds chap leUo; djds LFkkfir fd;k fd lHkh /keZ vUrr% thou ds vafUre y{;
ije/kke ,oa ijekRek rd ys tkrs gSaA
egkefr izk.kukFk ds iz.kkeh /keZ dk vk/kkj rkjre gSA dks rkjrelkxj] dqytel:i] Jheq[k
Lo:i lkgc vkSj izk.kukFk ds ukeksa ls lHkh tkuk
tkrk gSA leLr /keksZ dk vk/;kfRed fpUru egkefr
izk.kukFk dh esa vorfjr gqvk gSA Kku dk egklkxj
gS dqytel:iA egkefr dk /kkfeZd vk/kkj rdZ laxr
lR;kuqHkwfr ij vk/kkfjr gSA egkefr dh esa fo'o ds
lHkh /keksZ dk lkj lek;k gqvk gSA mUgksua s izkphu vkSj
vokZphu] Hkkjrh; ,oa ik'pkR;] laklfjd ,oa vk/;kfRed]
uSfrd ,oa /kkfeZd ekU;rkvksa dk leUo; ,oa lkeatL;
rkjre esa fd;k gSA osn vkSj drsc xzaFkksa dk leUo;
djds mudh Js"B ekU;rkvksa dks esa izdV
fd;kA os dgrs gSa &
egkefr izk.kukFk iz.kkeh /keZ ds izorZd
FksA os bls fo'o /keZ ds :i esa izfrf"Br dju pkgrs Fks]
blfy, mUgksaus osn] mifu"kn] xhrk ij vkfJr fgUnw /keZ]
dqjku ij vkfJr bLyke] ewlk iSxEcj dk tacwj] nkÅn
iSxEcj dk rkSjsr] bZlk iSxEcj dk ckbfcy vkfn dk
lefUor :i tu lkekU; ds le{k j[kk vkSj ?kksf"kr fd;k
fd &
** osn drsc ,d crkogha] ij ik;s u dksbZ foosdA
tks dqN dg;k drsc us lksbZ dg;k osnAA**2
ext ek;us tkgsj fd,] ekgsa xq> grs tks cksyAA
egkefr izk.kukFk ds /keZ dk iz;kstu Fkk
lR; dk lk{kkRdkjA oLrqr% fo'o ds lHkh /keksZ dk iz;kstu
lq[ke; lalkj dh jpuk gSA tgk¡ ekuo laklfjd yksd
O;ogkj esa jgdj eqfDr dk ekxZ iz'kLr dj ldsaA iz.kkeh
/keZ Hkh *lq[k'khry d:¡ lalkj* ds egku mn~ns'; dks ysdj
ekuo ek= dk dY;k.k djuk pkgrk gSA egkefr Lo;a
dgrs gSa&
vathj] tacwj] rkSjsr] pkSFkh tks QqjkdkuA
**djuk lkjk ,d jl] fgUnq eqlyekuA
,d ek;us ext xq> Fks] tks tkgsj fd;s c[kkuAA**1
/kks[kk lcdk Hkku ds] dgw¡xh lcdk KkuAA**3
egkefr izk.kukFk rkjre ds }kjk
ekuo ,drk LFkkfir djuk pkgrs FksA os dgrs gSa &
bl izdkj Hkkjrh; euhf"k;ksa us lR; dk
lk{kkRdkj loksZifj ekuk gSA osnksa dk lkj lR; gSA ;K]
nku] ri] bfUnz; la;e] osn osnakx] czáp;Z vkfn lHkh
lk/kukvksa dh tM+ esa lR; izfrf"Br gSA osn ls ysdj osnkUr
rd] vkfLrd ls ysdj ukfLrd rd] xzgLFk ls ysdj lar
rd] Kkuh ls ysdj HkfDr ,oa deZekxhZ rd lHkh lR; ds
iFk dks Js;Ldj ekurs gSaA oLrqr% vk/;kfRed vuqHkwfr;ksa dks
**osnkUr] xhrk Hkxor] nS;ak blkjrak lc [kksyA
**, ckuh rks d:¡ tkgsj] tks djuk lcksa ,d jlA**
bl izdkj izk.kukFk th ds iz.kkeh /keZ dk
vk/kkj dqytel:i ;k gSA
loZ/keZ leUo; dh vo/kkj.kk %&
P a g e | 12
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (12 – 16)
izkIr djus dh dksbZ mez ugha gksrh vkSj vk/;kfRed Kku ds
foLrkj dh dksbZ lhek ugha gksrhA lR; /kehZ _f"k;ksa us
Hkkjr esa vius vk/;kfRed fpUru esa lR; dks lnSo loksZifj
ekukA egkefr izk.kukFk us viuh esa lR; dks izfrf"Br
djrs gq, dgk gS fd &
egkefr izk.kukFk okãMEcj djus okyksa dks QVdkjrs gq,
dgrs gSa&
**lR; ozr /kkj.klqa ikfy,] ftgak yxs ÅHkh nsgA
vLuku djh Nk;k fryd] nsvks daB vkjksiks rqylhekyA
vusd fo/ku iM+s tks ekFks] rksgs u ewfd, lusgAA*4
fxukuh dgkos lk/k eaMyh] i.k pkyks Nks dsgh pkyAA**8
vFkZkr~ ftlus lR;ozr /kkj.k djus dk
ladYi fd;k gks rks 'kjhj esa izk.k jgus rd mls n`<+rkiwoZd
fuHkkuk pkfg,A vusd foa/u ck/kk,a vkus ij Hkh lR; ds izfr
izse ugha NksM+uk pkfg,A
vFkZkr~ ek= vkMEcjh os'k /kkj.k djds
txnh'oj dks Bxuk pkgrs gks ijUrq og dSls Bxk tk
ldrk gS \ tks nwljksa dks Qlkus ds fy, tky QSykrs gSa os
Lo;a tky esa Ql tkrs gSaA Luku djds pUnu yxkrs gks
vkSj rqylh dh ekyk /kkj.k djrs gks rFkk lk/kqvksa dh
e.Myh esa Kkuh dgykrs gks] ijUrq ;g fopkj ugha djrs fd
gekjk vkpj.k dSlk gks \ os vkxs dgrs gS fd &
okákMEcj dk fojks/k %
egkefr izk.kukFk us /keZ{ks= esa O;kIr
ckáMEcjksa dk rhcz fojks/k fd;kA os okákMEcj dks dqdeZ
ekurs gSaA os dgrs gSa &
**nq"V FkbZ voxq.k djs] rs tS teiqjh jks,A
i.k lk/k rbZ dqdje] rsuq Bke u ns[kwa dks,AA**5
vFkZkr tks yksx nq"V cudj voxq.k djrs
gSa os jksrs gq, ;eiqjh ds n.M Hkksxrs gSa ijUrq tks lk/kq
cudj dqdqeZ djrs gSa] muds fy, eq>s dgh Hkh fBdkuk
utj ugha vkrk gSA egkefr us okáMEcjksa dk fojks/k fd;k
D;ksafd buls lk/kq vkSj vlk/kq esa Hksn ugha gks ikrk gSA os
viuh esa dgrs gSa &
**Øks/k vgaeso les ugha] vus os"k /kjks Nks lk/kA
yksHk yT;k uesa ugha] eakgs eksVh rs , ozk/kAA
mRre dgkoks vkius] vus uke /kjkoks lkFkA
lkFk eY;ks uo vksy[kks] ekgsa voxq.k , vxk/kAA**6
vFkZkr Øks/k vkSj vgadkj rqEgkjs vanj
lek ugha jgs gS rFkk lk/kqos'k /kkj.k fd;k gSA yksHk vkSj
eku e;kZnk ds dkj.k fouezrk ugha vkrh] rqEgkjs vanj ;gh
egkjksx gSA Lo;a dks Js"B dgykus ds fy, rqeus lk/kqos'k
/kkj.k fd;k gS fdUrq dksbZ lPpk lk/kq fey tk;s rks mls
ifgpkurs ugha gks] ;gh rqEgkjs vanj cM+k voxq.k gSA
egkefr *[kqyklk* esa dgrs gSa fd &
**lks igspku D;ksa dj lds] tks idM+s iqy ljkrA
NksM+s uk otwn uklwrh] tku cw> ds dVkrAA*7
vFkZkr tks yksx deZdk.M dks gh /keZ
ekxZ le>dj mlh dk vuqlj.k djrs gSa ,oa feF;k
nsgkfHkeku dks ugha NksM+rsA os czãkRekvksa rFkk ijeczãk
ijekRek dks dSls ifgpku ldsaxsA os tkucw>dj ujdxkeh
gksrs gSaA
P a g e | 13
**Nsrjok ghMks Nks txnhlus] rs Nsrj;ak dse djh tk,A
ikl chtk us eakfM,] tbZ vkisuqa ca/kk,AA
**os"k mRre res ?kjks] i.k ekgyks rs esy u /kqvksA
iaFk djks Nks dsgh Hkkseuks] fjns vk¡[k m/kkM+h uo tqvksAA
eu esyka /kqvks ugha] vus mtyk djks vkdkjA
vkdkj frgak pkys ugha] pkgs fujey fujkdkjAA**9
vFkZkr~ vkMEcj fn[kkus ds fy, rqeus
lk/kq dk os'k /kkj.k fd;k gS ijUrq vius vanj ds fodkjksa ds
eSy dks ugha /kks;k gSA bl izdkj rqe fdl ekxZ ij pyrs
gksA vius g`n; dh vak[k [kksydj rks ns[kksA eu dh
eyhurk rks /kksrs ugha dsoy 'kjhj dks LoPN cukus dk
iz;kl djrs jgrs gksA ;g 'kjhj rks izHkq ds /kke ugha tk;sxk
ogWk¡ rks dsoy fueZy vkRek gh tk ldrh gSA vr% euq";
dks okáMEcjksa ls cprs gq, viuh vkRek dks fueZy vkSj
fufoZdkjh cukuk pkfg;sA
okâ;kMEcjksa ds dkj.k lalkj esa vKku
dk va/kdkj Nk;k gqvk gS vkSj lPph lk/kq laxr NwV x;h gS
os fy[krs gSa &
**lr tksÅ larks r.kqa] vus lk/k fl/;kbZA
okgsj psgsu djS dS lk/kd ekgs rs ekM;okbZAA
pksdl fpr isjs yk/ks] okgsj nms[kkMs vuarA
rs ekVs vk dksgsMk va/ksj] ekjs tkbus] laxr lrAA**10
vFkZkr eSus lalkj ds larks] oSjkfx;ksa vkSj
lk/kqvksa dh lk/kqrk dks ns[kk gS muesa vusd yksx okâ;
vkMEcj iw.kZ HkfDr dk <ksax jpk jgs gSAa Hkhrj ls rks mudh
fLFkfr HkkaMksa dh Hkakfr ek= Lokax jpk jgh gSA ,sls larksa ds
ân; esa ,dkxzrk dSls vk;sxhA blfy, ;g lalkj dqfgj ds
leku vKku :ih va/kdkj ls Hkjk gqvk gS ftlls lPps
lk/kqvksa dk lRlax gh NwV x;k gSA bl izdkj egkefr
izk.kukFk us viuh esa okâ;kMEcjksa dh rhoz fuUnk dh
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
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egkefr izk.kukFk vkRek dh ifo=rk ij
tksj nsrs gSa vkSj okâ;kpkj dk fojks/k djrs gSaA os dgrs gSa
**vUnj ukgha fujey] Qsj Qsj ugkos okgsjA
dj ns[kkbZ dksV csj] rksgs u feyks djrkyAA
dksV djks canxh] okgsj gks fujeyA
rksyks u ihm ikb,] ikb, tksyksa uk lk/ks fnyAA**
;fn djksM+ksa ckj Luku fd;k tk, ijarq
vkRek fueZy ugha gks rks Hkxon~ izkfIr ugha gks ldrh gSA
lkEiznkf;drk dk [k.Mu %
egkefr izk.kukFk us viuh esa
lkEiznkf;drk dk rhcz fojks/k djrs gq, lR; ekuo /keZ dh
LFkkiuk dh gSA os ekurs gSa fd lkEiznkf;drk euq"; dks
euq"; ls vyx djrh gS tcfd /keZ euq"; ;k lekt dks
rksM+rk ugha cfYd tksM+rk gSA bl lalkj esa vusd iaFk
lEiznk; gSA mudh jhfr&uhfr] os'kHkw"kk] Hkk"kk Hkh vyx gS
fQj Hkh os lc ijekRek dks [kkst jgs gSaA ijekRek dh [kkst
esa os vyx vyx gks x;s gSaA lc yksx vyx vyx
jhfr&fjokt cukdj vkil esa yM+rs jgrs gSa rFkk Lo;a dks
cM+k crkdj ikuh] iRFkj vkSj vkx dh iwtk djrs gSaA ;|fi
nqfu;ak ds leLr /keZ lekurk] leHkko] ekr`Ro vkSj
fo'o'kkfUr ds fy, iz;kljr gSaA ijUrq lHkh vius vius
vuq;kf;k;ksa rd lhfer gS] vr% /keZ ds uke ij
lkEiznkf;drk QSyrh tk jgh gSA /keZ ds uke ij jDrikr
}s"k] ?k`.kk] cSj QSyrs tk jgsa gSA egkefr izk.kukFk us
lkEiznkf;drk dk rhoz fojks/k fd;kA os /kekZU/krk dks /keZ
dk lcls cM+k vfHk'kki ekurs gSa os dgrs gS fd fo'o ;q)ksa
ds bfrgkl esa /keZ ds uke ij jDrikrksa dk bfrgkl yEck
egkefr dgrs gSa &
lR; ;g gS fd [kqnk vkSj czá nksuksa ,d gSaA osn vkSj drsc
,d gh ijekRek dh lk{kh nsrs gSaA okLro esa fgUnw vkSj
eqlyeku ,d gh [kqnk ds cUns gSA nksuksa dks >xM+us dh
vko';drk ugh gS nkuksa dk y{; ,d gSA
**tks dqN dg;k drsc us] lksbZ dg;k osnA
nksÅ cUns ,d lkfgc ds] ij yM+r fcuk ik;s HksnAA**13
egkefr us fgUnw] eqlyeku] bZlkbZ] ;gqnh
vkfn lEiznk;ksa esa O;kIr dqjhfr;ksa] va/k fo'oklksa ,oa :f<+;ksa
dk fojks/k dj lefUor fopkj /kkjk dk leFkZu fd;kA
izsey{k.kk HkfDr dh LFkkiuk %&
egkefr izk.kukFk us ije/kke dh izkfIr
,oa /kke/kuh dh —ik izkfIr ds fy, Kku ;ksx] HkfDr;ksx]
deZ;ksx] fu"dke deZ;ksx ds LFkku ij izse y{k.kk HkfDr dks
egRo fn;k gSA uo/kk HkfDr ls Hkh Js"B izsey{k.kk HkfDr dks
ije/kke rd igqapus dk ekxZ crk;k gS] egkefr izk.kukFk
ekurs Fks fd izse ls c<dj lalkj esa dqN ugha gSA *fdjUru*
esa dgrs gSa &
**,gh lcn ,d vouh esa] ugha dksbZ usg lekukA
dgyk;s Fksa &
izse en p<+us ds dkj.k izk.kukFk egker
**en p<;ks egker HkbZ] ns[kks ;s eLrkbZ**14
egkefr izk.kukFk dgrs gSa fd izsey{k.kk
HkfDr ds fcuk osn] egkHkkjr iqjk.k] dqjku ds xw<kFkksZ dks u
le>us okys ds fy;s eq[ esa dgk x;k gS fd &
**izses xe vxe dh djh] izse djh vy[k dh y[kA
dgsa Jhegkefr izse leku] rqe nqtk ftu dksbZ tkuAA**
egkefr izse dks loksZifj ekurs gSa izse ds
vfrfjDr lHkh lk/kuk i)fr;Wk O;FkZ gSa &
**vc NksM+k js eku xqeku Kku dks] ,gh [kkM+ cM+h gS HkkbZA
,d Mkjh R;ks nqth Hkh Mkjks] tyk, nsvks prqjkbZAA**11
**b'd cM+k js lcu esa u dksbZ b'd lekuA
vius vius /keZ dk eku xqeku NksM+dj
lHkh ds izfr lerkHkkouk vkSj ln~Hkkouk j[kksA /keksZ dk
feF;kfHkeku ,oa esjk /keZ gh loZJs"B ekuus ls leHkko dh
txg Vdjko mRiUu gksrk gSA vr% vkt lkEiznkf;drk ds
LFkku ij lR;/keZ LFkkfir gksuk pkfg;sA egkefr us viuh esa dgk gS &
,d rsjs b'd fcuk] mM xbZ lc tgkuAA**15
**uke lkjksa tqnk /kjS ybZ lcksa tqnh jleA
**uo/kk ls U;kjk dg;k] pkSns Hkou esa ughaA
lcesa mer vkSj nqfu;ak] lksbZ [kqnk lksbZ czáAA**12
lks izse dgka ls ikb;s] tks clr xksfidk ekghaAA**16
vFkZkr~ fofHkUu lEiznk; ds vuq;kf;;ksa us
ijekRek dks vyx vyx ukeksa ls iqdkjk gS rFkk mldh
izkfIr ds fy, vyx vyx lk/kuk i)fr;ka xzg.k dh gS]
izse gh vkRek dks fueZy djrk gSA izse gh vkpj.k
dks Js"B cukrk gSA
P a g e | 14
MWk- deykoUrh 'kekZ us fy[kk gS fd
izk.kukFk th ds vuqlkj iq"V] izokg vkSj e;kZnk ekxZ rks
vU; l`f"V;ksa ds fy, gSA ije/kke dh czã l`f"V;ksa ds fy,
rks ldke vkSj fu"dke HkfDr ls ijs rqfj;krhr voLFkk esa
xksihHkko ;qDr ijkizsey{k.kk HkfDr gh dgha tk ldrh gSA
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (12 – 16)
egkefr *fdjUru* esa dgrs gSa fd &
**lc tkrsa uke tqns /kjs vkSj lcdk [kkcan ,dA
**mRiUu izse ikjczá lax] okdks lqiuk gks x;ks lkdkjA
lcdks canxh ;kgh dh] ihNs yM+s fcuk ik, foosdAA**21
izse fcuk lq[k ikj dks ugha] tks rqe vusd jks vkpkjAA
Nfd;ks lkFk izse jl ekuks] NMwVs vax fodkjA
**uke lkjksa tqns /kjs] ybZ lcksa tqnh jleA
ij vkre varLdju miT;ks] [ksys lax vk/kkjAA**17
egkefr izk.kukFk Lohdkj djrs gSa fd
dqjku vkSj iqjk.k esa ,d gh lR;/keZ ds n'kZu gksrs gSaA
mUgkasus dgk gS fd &
izk.kukFk th ds vuqlkj izse gh ije/kke
dk }kj gSA esa izse dks ije/kke dh izkfIr dk
loksZPp lk/ku ekuk x;k gSA
egkefr izk.kukFk us izse dh vo/kkj.kk dk
izlkj u dsoy tho/kkfj;ksa rd fd;k cfYd ouLifr txr
izse dk izlkj.k fd;kA blfy, os lnk loZnk lHkh dks
'khry uSu ,oa ehBs cSu ls vkReor~ cukuk pkgrs gSaA
*dy'k* esa os dgrs gSa &
**nq%[k u nsÅa Qwy ik¡[kqM+h] ns[kw¡ 'khry uSuA
mitkÅ lq[k lcksa vaxks] cksykÅ ehBs cSuAA**18
egkefr izk.kukFk izse dks ijekRek ekurs
Fks os dgrs gSa fd &
lcesa mer vkSj nqfu;ka lksbZ [qknk lksbZ czáAA**22
**tqns tqns uke xkogha] tqns tqns Hks[k vusdA
ftu dkbZ >xM+ks vkiesa] /kuh lcksa dk ,dAA
vFkZkr euq"; fHkUu&fHkUu ukeksa ls ,d gh
iw.kZ czá ijekRek ds xq.k xkrs gSa] mUgksaus viuh os'kHkw"kk Hkh
vyx vyx cukbZ gS] ijLij >xM+k er djks] ijekRek
lcdk ,d gS A lalkj ds lHkh /keZ ,d gh ijekRek rd
igqapus esa vyx vyx ekxZ gSaA egkefr izk.kukFk mn~ns';
lHkh /keksZ dk lkjrRo tulekU; ds le{k ykuk Fkk os
viuh esa dgrs gSa fd &
**djuk lkjk ,d jl] fgUnq eqlyekuA
*izse czá nksÅ ,d gS*19
/kks[kk lcdk eku ds] dgw¡xh lcdk Kku**23
izse ds fy, pkSng Hkqou ,oa ije/kke esa
dksbZ vojks/k ugha gS &
**czká.k dgs ge mRre] eqlyeku dgs ge ikdA
**izse [kksy nsos lc }kj] ikj ds ikj tks ikjA**20
[kqyklk os Li"Vhdj.k djrs gq, dgrs gSa fd &
**iaFk gksos dksV dyi] izse iksgksapkos feus iydA
**yksd pkSns dgs osn us] lksbZ drsc pkSns rcdA
tc vkre izse ls ykxh] n`f"V rcgha vUrj tkxhAA**
osn dgsa czá ,d gS] drsc dgsa ,d gdAA**25
egkefr ekurs gSa fd izse ls gh ijekRek
dh izkfIr gks ldrh gs os *izdk'k* xzFa k esa fy[krs gSa fd&
*rqe izse lsok,a ikvksxs ikj] , opu /kuh dgs fuj/kkjA
Li"V gS fd egkefr izk.kukFk us izse dks
thou dk vk/kkj ekuk gS rks ije/kke dk ekxZ Hkh izse dk
ekxZ ekuk gS vkSj ije/kke dk }kj HkhA oLrqr% os izse vkSj
Kku dh ewfrZ FksA dgk x;k gS fd &iwju czá izxV Hk;s]
izse lfgr yS KkuA*
loZ/keZ leUo; %
egkefr izk.kukFk us viuh esa
loZ/keZ leUo; dh vo/kkj.kk dks viuk;k gSA mUgksua s ekuk
gS fd &
*ikjczá iwju rks ,d gS*
blh rRoKku ds vk/kkj ij mUgksusa
loZ/keZleUo; dh vo/kkj.kk dks viuk;k gSA mudh loZ/keZ
leUo; dh vo/kkj.kk *[kqyklk* xzaFk esa eq[kfjr gqbZA os
dgrs gSa fd &
P a g e | 15
nksm eqV~Bh ,d Bksj dh] ,d jk[k nwth [kkdAA**24
izk.kukFk ?kksf"kr djrs gSa &
**tks dqN dg;k drsc us] lksbZ dg;k osnA
nksm cans ,d lkgsc ds ij yM+r fcuk ik;s HksnAA**26
egkefr izk.kukFk dh esa /keZ ds izfr
mudk y{; Li"V FkkA mudk y{; fgUnq] eqlyeku] bZlkbZ]
;gqnh vkfn lHkh /kekZoyfEc;ksa ds chp vkilh HksnHkko
feVkdj /kkfeZd ,drk LFkkfir djuk FkkA os lalkj ds chp
fofHkUu /keksZ ds Js"B rRoksa dks ,dlkFk ykuk pkgrs FksA
izksQslj gjsUnz izlkn oekZ us fy[kk gS fd **/keZ ds {ks= esa
tks vKku] va/kfo'okl vkSj my>u Fkh] mls nwj fd;kA
lPph /keZHkkouk vkSj vkUrfjdrk ds LFkku ij deZdk.M dh
iz/kkurk Fkh] mudh fujFkZdrk trkbZ vkSj 'kjh;r ds LFku
ij gdhdr] ekjQr vkfn dks izdkf'kr fd;kA mUgksaus
vuqHko ds vk/kkj ,d fo'otuhu n'kZu fn;k tks fo'o/keZ
cu ldsaA**
egkefr izk.kukFk iwjs fo'o dks 'kkfUr
vkSj vkuan fnykuk pkgrs Fks] blfy;s mUgksaus *lq[k 'khry
d:¡ lalkj* dh vo/kkj.kk ij iz.kkeh /keZ dks LFkkfir
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (12 – 16)
fd;kA mUgksaus fofHkUu /keksZ esa O;kIr vgadkj vkSj vKku dks
rkjreKku ds }kjk nwj djus dk lkFkZd iz;Ru fd;kA os
ekurs Fks fd lHkh /keZ ijekRek] izse vkSj ije/kke dh vksj
ladsr djrs gSa rkjreKku }kjk gh ijekRek] izse vkSj
ije/kke rd thokRek ¼tho½ igq¡p ldrk gSA
fdjUru izdj.k 128 pkSikbZ 13&14
fdjUru izdj.k 128 pkSikbZ 15&16
fdjUru izdj.k 5 pkSikbZ 6
[kqyklk izdj.k 12 pkSikbZ 38
fu"d"kZ & fu"d"kZr% ge dg ldrs gS fd egkefr izk.kukFk us
rRdkyhu le; esa O;kIr /kkfeZd fo}s"kksa dks lekIr djds
,d lefUor iz.kkeh /keZ dh LFkkiuk dhA ,d ,slk /keZ
tgak fo'o ds lHkh /kekZuq;k;h vius /keZ ds okLrfod Lo:i
dk n'kZu dj ldsa vkSj vius /keZ ds lkFk vU; /keksZ dh
okLrfodrkvksa dk Kku izkIr dj lR;/keZ dk vkpj.k dj
ldsaA egkefr izk.kukFk us viuh es Li"V fd;k gS fd
[kqyklk izdj.k 12 pkSikbZ 42
fdjUru izdj.k 83 pkSikbZ 1
dy'k fgUnqLrkuh &
ifjØek &
fdjUru izdj.k 81 pkSikbZ 6
dy'k izdj.k 23 pkSikbZ 4
ifjØek izdj.k 39 pkSikbZ 10
ifjØek izdj.k 1 pkSikbZ 24
[kqyklk izdj.k 1 pkSikbZ 22
[kqyklk izdj.k 12 pkSikbZ 38
lua/k izdj.k 40 pkSikbZ 43
lua/k izdj.k 40 pkSikbZ 42
[kqyklk izdj.k 12 pkSikbZ 29
[kqyklk izdj.k 12 pkSikbZ 42
**dqjku iqjku osn drscksa] fd;s vFkZ lc fuj/kkjA
Vkyh mj>u yksd pkSns dh] ewy dk<+;ks eksg vgadkjAA**
,d l`f"V /kuh Hktu ,dS] ,d xku ,d vgadkjA
NksM+ ds oSj feys lc I;kj lks] Hk;k ldy esa tS tS
oLrqr% izk.kukFk th dk leUo; oknh
n`f"Vdks.k gh loZ/keZ leUo; dh vo/kkj.kk fodflr djus
esa lgk;d fl) gqvkA /keZ leUo; dh Hkko Hkwfe ij
izfrf"Br gS] iz.kkeh /keZA iz.kkeh /keZ ,d ,slk fo'o/keZ gS
tgak leLr /keZ viuh iwjh izfr"Bk ds lkFk la;qDr gks tkrs
gSa vkSj vius fl)akrksa ls vkxs ekuo dks ije/kke rd ys
tkrk gS] tgak vkt rd dksbZ /keZ ugha ys tk ldkA ogWk
thokRek ijekRek dk n'kZu dj v[k.M lq[k dk vuqHko
djrh gSA iz.kkeh /keZ fo'o fgrdj /keZ gS blesa u dsoy
ekuo dY;k.k dk Hkko gS cfYd i'kq if{k;ksa ,oa ouLifr
txr rd egkd:.kk dk izlkj gksrk gSA laiw.kZ pj&vpj
txr ;gk¡ v[k.M lq[k izkfIr dk ekxZ iz'kLr djrk gSA
loZtu fgrk;&loZtu lq[kk; dh vo/kkj.kk ;gk¡ lkdkj gks
mBrh gSA fo'odY;k.kkFkZ iz.kkeh /keZ ;qx&;qxksa rd lalkj
esa izfrf"Br jgsxh vkSj ekuork dk iFk izn'kZu djrk jgsxkA
ladsrk{kj &
[kqyklk izdj.k 13 pkSikbZ 96&97
[kqyklk izdj.k 12 pkSikbZ 41
luan izdj.k 3 pkSikbZ 3
fdjUru izdj.k 126 pkSikbZ 29
fdjUru izdj.k 128 pkSikbZ 7
fdjUru izdj.k 128 pkSikbZ 8&9
[kqyk'kk izdj.k 2 pkSikbZ 51
fdjUru izdj.k 128 pkSikbZ 11&12
P a g e | 16
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (17 – 19)
MkW uxsUnz dh leh{kk i)fr
ehuw prqosZnh]
'kkldh; foKku ,oa okf.kT; egkfo|ky;] csut+hj] Hkksiky
lkj la{ksi
MkW- uxsUnz us fgUnh vkykspuk dks O;kogkfjd ,oa lS)kfUrd nksuksa n`f"V;ksa ls laof)Zr fd;k gSA os jloknh vkykspd gSA
bl fl)kUr esa jl dh lkaxksikax foospuk djrs gq, bUgksaus bls iqu% izfrf"Br djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA fdUrq laLd`r dkO;'kkL=
esa foosfpr jl dks T;ksa dk R;ksa Lohdkj ugha fd;k vfirq mlds foospu esa euksfoKku dh iwjh lgk;rk yh gSA lk/kkj.khdj.k ds
laca/k esa buds fl)kUr; gSaA buds fopkj ls lk/kkj.khdj.k dfor dh viuh vuqHkwfr dk gksrk gS vFkkZr~ tc dksbZ O;fDr
viuh vuqHkwfr dks bl izdkj vfHkO;Dr dj lds fd og lHkh ds ân;ksa esa leku vuqHkwfr txk ldsA ;gh lk/kkj.khdj.k gSA
ifjHkk"k;d lk/kkj.khdj.k dk vFkZ gS Hkk"kk dk HkkoHk; iz;ksxA 'kCnkoyh esa os vkuUn dks gh dkO; dk vkR;kafrd iz;kstu ekurs
gSA Nk;kokn] izxfrokn o iz;ksxokn ij Hkh buds fopkj dsUnz lqO;ofLFkr larqfyr ,oa ekSfyd <ax ls izkIr gksrs gSA dfo dh
vkykspuk djrs le; muds Hkkotxr] mudh fopkj/kkjk] mudh dyk vkSj mu ij iM+us okys ckg~; izHkko dh Hkh ppkZ djrs gSaA
Hkk"kk dh ljy vyadkfjrk mudh viuh fo'ks"krk jgh gSA fDy"V laLd`rHkk"kk ds os dHkh fgek;rh ugha jgsA
fgUnh ds vk/kqfud vkykspdksa esa MkW- uxsUnz dk fof'k"B
LFkku gS budh rhu vkykspukRed d`fr;ka igys izdkf'kr
1 lqfe=k uUnu iar 1938
2 lkdsfrd v/;;u 1940
3 vk/kqfud fgUnh ukVd
igyh iqLrd dk ikBdksa ,oa vkykspdks ds chp [kwc Lokxr
gqvkA ;s vaxzsth ds Js"B vkykspdks dh d`fr;ks ls [kwc
izHkkfor Fks vkSj bu d`fr;ksa dh rjg gh ;s mPp Lrjh;
leh{kk iqLrd izLrqr djuk pkgrs FksA ^lkdsr ,d v/;;u^
ij bl eukso`fRr dk Li"V izHkko ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
vk/kqfud fgUnh ukVd esa buds vkykspd Lo:i us ,d u;k
eksM+ fy;k vkSj ;s ÝkW;Mh euksfoKku ds {ks= esa vk x,A
bUgksaus ÝkW;M ds euks fo'ys"k.k ds vk/kkj ij ukVd o
ukVddkjksa dh vkykspuk,a fy[kh] ckn esa Øksps vkfn ds
v/;;u ds QyLo:i budk >qdko 'kS)kfrd vkykspuk dh
vksj gqvkA jhfr dkO; dh Hkwfedk rFkk nso vkSj mudh
dfork ds Hkwfedk Hkkx esa Hkkjrh; dkO;'kkL= esa fopkj
fd;k x;k gSA ftlesa muds euksfo'ys"k.k 'kkL= ds v/;;u
esa dkQh lgk;rk feyh gSA
dkO; 'kkL= fl)karksa dh ftruh lqUnj vkSj rdZ laxr
O;k[;k,a MkWa- uxsUnz us dh gSa] vkpk;Z 'kqDy ds ckn fdlh
vkykspd us oSlk ugha fd;kA dkO; 'kkL= ds izfr mudh
fo'ks"k :fp gS vkSj budk xgu v/;;u gSA bl lac/k esa
bUgksaus vius furkar ekSfyd fu"d"kZ fudkys gSaA jl fu"ifRr
ds lac/k esa MkW- uxsUnz ds fu"d"kZ cgqr ljy fdUrq vR;ar
egRoiw.kZ gSaA bUgksaus Lohdkj fd;k gSA fd jl loZFkk
fo"k;hxr gSA lgzn; dh vkRek esa gh mldh fLFkfr gS oLrq
esa ugha A oLrq rks dsoy mldks mn~Hkqr djrh gSA dkO; ds
vkLoknu esa gekjs lkeus ewyr% rhu laKk,a vkrh gSaA dfo]
P a g e | 17
oLrq vkSj lgzn;A dfo og O;fDr gS tks viuh vuqHkwfr dks
laosn~; cukrk gS] ijUrq rRor% mldh vuqHkwrh gS o lgzn;
og O;fDr gS tks dfo dh bl laosn~; vuqHkwfr dks xzg.k
djrk gSA MkW- uxsUnz us blhfy, vfHkuo xqIr ds fl)kar
dks iw.kZ ekuk gSA vfHkuo xqIr us dgk Fkk ^^ ekuo vkRek
lkLor gS lHkh vkRekvksa esa fo'ks"kdj lgzn; dh vkRek esa
LoHkkx ls gh lkalkfjd vuqHko iwoZtU; vFkok iBu ikBu
ds QyLo:i dqN ewyxr okluk,a laLdkj :i esa fLFkr
jgrh gSa^^ ;s okluk,a gh ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCnkoyh esa LFkkbZ Hkko
dgykrh gSaA foHkko] vuqHkko] lapkjh Hkko ds dqy izn'kZu ls
;s xqIr okluk,a ;k LFkkbZ Hkko gh mn~Hkqr gksdj jl :i esa gks tkrs gSaA
lk/kkj.khdj.k ds laca/k eas Hkh Mk- uxsUnz ds fl)kar; gSA buds fopkj ls lk/; dj.k dfo dh
viuh vuqHkwfr dk gksrk gS vFkkZr tc dksbZ O;fDr viuh
vuqHkwfr dks bl izdkj vfHkO;Dr dj ldrk gS fd og lHkh
ds gzn;ksa esa leku vuqHkwfr txk lds rks ikfjHkkf"kd
'kCnkoyh esa ge dg ldrs gSaA fd mlesa lk/kkj.khdj.k dh
'kfDr fon~;eku gSA vuqHkwfr lHkh esa gksrh gSA lHkh O;fDr
mls ;r fdafpr vfHkO;Dr Hkh dj ysrs gSA ijUrq
lk/kkj.khdj.k djus dh 'kfDr lc esa ugha gksrh gSA blfy,
rks vuqHkwfr vkSj vfHkO;fDr ds gksrs gq, Hkh lc dfo ugha
gksrsA lk/;dj.k dk dkj.k gS Hkk"kk dk Hkkoe; iz;ksxA
Hkk"kk dk Hkkoe; iz;ksx iz;ksDrk dh viuh Hkko'kfDr ij
fuHkZj djrk gS vkSj iz;ksDrk ds Hkkoksa ds laosnu dk vk/kkj
gS ekuo lqyHk lgkuqHkwfrA lk/;dj.k dh fo'ks"k 'kfDr
mlh O;fdr esa gksxh ftldh Hkko 'kfDr fo'ks"k :i ls
le`) gksA ftldh vuqHkwfr;ka fo'ks"k :i ls ltx gksA ,slk
gh O;fDr Hkk"kk dk Hkko e; iz;ksx dj ldrk gS vFkkZr
vius le`) Hkkoksa ds cy ij og muds izrhdksa dks lgt gh
,lh 'kfDr iznku dj ldrk gSS fd os nwljksa ds gzn; esa Hkh
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (17 – 19)
leku Hkko txk ldsaA ,lk gh O;fDr dfo gSALi"V gS fd
MkW uxsUnz us vius bu fl)karks dks ik'pkR; vkSj lLd`r
dkO; 'kkL=h fl)karksa ds ijLij leUo; ls vius fu"d"kksZa
dks fudkydj budk laca/k euksfoKku ls LFkkfir fd;kA
dkO; ds iz;kstu ds laca/k esa budk fuHkkZUr er gS
fd bldk iz;kstu vkuan gSA iz;kstu dh LFkwyrk vkSj
lw{erk dh ckr vo'; mBrh gSA /ku] ;'k] izpkj ;s lc
LFkwy iz;kstu gSaA MkW uxsUnz dkO; ds lanHkZ esa bUgsa egRo
ugha nsrsA os vkuan dks gh dkO; dk vkR;kafrd iz;kstu
Lohdkj djrs gSA vkuan ds lekukUrj os yksd dY;k.k ,oa
psruk ds laLdkj bu nks iz;kstuksa dks gh; ekurs
dkO; ds rhu rRoksa Hkko] dYiuk o cqf) esa MkW
uxsUnz Hkko dks gh egRoiw.kZ ekurs gSaA blh ds lkFk ewY;
dk iz'u Hkh tqM+k gqvk gSA dkO; ds lanHkZ esa uSfrd vkSj
lkekftd ewY;ksa dk iz'u Hkh mBk;k tkrk gSA MkW uxsUnz
budk egRo rks Lohdkj djrs gSa fdUrq mUgsa ekSSfyd ;k
vkR;kafrd ugha ekurs A
vk/kqfud lkfgR; ds lac/k es aHkh MkW uxsUn dh vkykspuk
Js"B vk/kkj Hkwfe xzg.k djrh gSA budh igyh
vkykspukRed iqLrd lqfe=kuUnu iar ij izdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA
vk/kqfud dfork dh izeq[k izo`fRr;ksa ds lanHkZ esa buds
fopkj cM+s lqO;ofLFkr ,oa larqfyr <+x ls izkir gksrs gSaA
Nk;kokn ds laca/k esa budh /kkj.kk gSa fd Nk;kokn gh J`axkj
ds izfr miHkksx dk Hkko u feydj fo"ke; dk Hkko feyrk
gSA blhfy, mldh vfHkO;fDr Li"V vkSj eka'ky u gksdj
dYiuke; ;k eukse; gSA Nk;kokn dk dfo izse dks 'kjhj
dh Hkw[k u le>dj ,d jgL;e;h psruk le>rk gSA ukjh
ds izfr mldk vkd"kZ.k uSfrd vkrad ls lgedj tSls ,d
vLi"V dkSrqgy esa gks x;k gSA bl dkSrqgy esa
Nk;kokn ds dfo vkSj ukjh ds O;fDrRo ds chp vusd
js'keh f>yfey ijns Mky fn, gSaA vHkh rd flQZ bruk gh
vkykspdks }kjk dgdj larks"k dj fy;k tkrk FkkA fd
f}osnh ;qx dh bfr o`RrkRed dfork ds izfrfØ;k Lo:i
Nk;kokn dk tUe gqvk FkkA ij Nk;k okn ds okLrfod
Lo:i dks ifjHkk"kkvksa dh lhek esa cka/kdj Li"V djuk ,d
dfBu dk;Z FkkA bl n`f"V ls Nk;kokn dh ;g ifjHkk"kk
vius <+x dh fcydqy ubZ gSA
blh izdkj izxfroknh dkO; ds lanHkZ esa MkW uxsUn dk
dguk gS ^^ vkt dk izxfroknh ;k fo"k;karj ls vHkh Hkh
dqaBk dk f'kdkj gS vFkkZr mldh Hkouk eu dh jkuh NksM+
etnwfju ds vaxks ls fyiVrh gS ;k og okluk ls yrir
vfrjaftr ohHkRl fp= mifLFkr djrh gSA ¼ fopkj vkSj
foospu ls mn`r½
MkW uxsUn us bl izdkj izksxokn dk tUe izxfrokn dh
izfrfØ;k Lo:i ekuk gSA bUgksaus iz;ksxoknh dfork ds
Hkkoi{k] dyki{k] dkO;kuqHkwfr dks vR;ar gYds Lrj dk
Lohdkj fd;k gS vkSj mlesa vusd U;wurkvksa dks ik;k gSA
iz;ksxoknh dfork dh fNNyh eukso`fRr vkSj fNnzk.kqos'ku dh
P a g e | 18
izo`fRr dh bUgksaus dVq vkykspuk dh gSA MkW uxsUn dh bl
vkykspuk ls fdlh dks vlgefr ugha gks ldh gSA
O;kogkfjd leh{kk%MkW uxsUn dh vkykspuk i)fr dks vkpk;Z
'kqDy dh O;k[;kRed i)fr dk gh fodflr :i dgk tk
ldrk gSA MkW uxsUn us viuh izFke d`fr lqfe=kuUnu iar
ds izdk'ku ds lkFk gh fgUnh vkykspuk ds {ks= esa viuk
xkSjoiw.kZ LFkku cuk fy;k FkkA blesa MkW lkgc us lcls
igys Nk;kokn dh lhek vkSj egRrk dk fu/kkZj.k fd;k gSA
blds ckn dfo iar ds Hkko txr] mudh fopkj /kkjk]
mudh dyk vkSj mu ij iM+us okys ckg~; izHkko dh ppkZ
dh gSA var esa dfo dh izR;sd jpuk dk Øec) v/;;u
djus ds ckn milagkj :i esa mudh leLr fo'ks"krkvksa dk
laf{kIr js[kkadu dj fn;k gSA rkRi;Z ;g gS fd MkW uxsUn
fdlh Hkh dfo dh vkykspuk djrs le; mlds futh dkO;
lkSn;Z dh ij[k ds lkFk Hkh lewps ifjos'k dh lanHkZxr
fo'ks"krkvks ds ifjizs{; esa mldh laiw.kZ thou n`f"V ij
fopkj djuk Hkh vko';d le>rs gSaA MkW uxsUn dh lcls
cM+h fo'ks"krk Hkko xzkfgrk ,oa lkSan;Z fo/kk;d rRoksa dh
lw{e igpku gSA ;s vkyksP; d`fr dh fo'ks"krkvks dks lgt
gh xzg.k dj ysrs gSa vkSj fQj ,d ,d fo'ks"krk dks ysdj
l mnkgj.k mldh O;k[;k djrs pyrs gSaA vc rd MkW
uxsUn us nso] johUnzukFk VSxksj] jkepUnz 'kqDy] eSFkyh'kj.k
xqIr] izlkn] iar] fujkyk] egknsoh oekZ] ckykd`".k 'kekZ
uohu] fnudj] cPpu] vKs;] fxfjtk dqekj ekFkqj vkfn
vusd dfo;ksa vkSj ys[kdksa dh vusd d`fr;ks dh O;kogkfjd
leh{kk,a izLrqr dj pqds gSaA bu leh{kkvksa esa buds foosd
'kkL=] fu"Bk] Li"V okfnrk] Hkkoxzkfgrk] dykRedcks/k]
vk'kk] ifj"dkj rFkk thou ds izfr ,d LoLFk lkSUn;Z
n`f"V dk ifjp; feyrk gSA
MkW uxsUn ds vkykspuk fl)kar esa tks ckr lcls vf/kd
[kVdrh gS og gS budk miU;kl lezkV izsepUnz dks f}rh; dk ys[kd Lohdkj djuk ¼ fopkj foospu i`"B&99½
,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd ;k rks bUgkasus izsepUnz lkfgR; dk
xgu v/;;u ugha fd;k o ;fn fd;k gS rks viuh
/kkj.kkvksa dks dqN tYnh es fy[k x,A
MkW uxsUn us fgUnh vkykspuk ds fodkl esa viuk egRoiw.kZ
;ksxnku iznku fd;k gSA buesa xgu fpUru gS] ekSfyd
lw>cw> vkSj lkspus ,oa fu"d"kZ fudkyus dh viuh iz.kkyh
gSA budk lS)kfrd i{k izks<+ o rdZ laxr gSA ik'pkR;
vkSj Hkkjrh; dkO;'kkL= ds fl)karksa ds ryukRed v/;;u
,oa mudh euksfoKku dh dlkSVh ij ij[k dj tks fu"d"kZ
fudkys gSa os vR;ar mPp dksfV ds 'kkL= laxr gSaA
MkW uxsUn dh vkykspukRed 'kSyh esa ckSf/kdrk
rFkk Hkkoqdrk dk viwoZ lekos'k gqvk gSA budh
vkykspukRed 'kSyh izk;% leUo;kRed jgh gSA bUgksaus
lkfgR; esa izpfyr izR;sd vfrokn dk fojks/k fd;k gSA
fdlh dfo vFkok jpuk ds Hkko i{k ,oa dyk i{k dh
'kkL=h leh{kk djds gh mUgksaus larks"k ugha /kkj.k dj fy;k
gSA jpuk ds iquZfuekZ.k ,oa U;wurkvksa ds izfr ekxZ fnXn'kZu
mudh izeq[k fo'ks"krk gS tks jpukRed vkykspuk i)fr dk
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (17 – 19)
gh ,d Lo:i gSA mudh Hkk"kk cM+h ltho vkSj lkQ gSA
fDy"V laLd`r fu"V Hkk"kk ds os dHkh fge;rh ugha jgs gSaA
Hkk"kk dh ljy vyadkfjdrk mudh viuh fo'ks"krk gSA
lanHkZ xzaFk lwph %
Hkkjrh; ,oa ik'pkR; dkO;'kkL= 1969 MkW- ns'kjkt flax
HkkVh v'kksd izdk'ku fnYyh] i`"B la[;k 336
fgUnh lkfgR; dk bfrgkl & MkW- uxsUnz 1976 us'kuy
ifCyflax gkml] i`"B la[;k 736
fopkj vkSj foospu & MkW- uxsUnz 1949] us’kuy ifCyf’kax
gkml] fnYyh] i`"B la[;k 99
fgUnh lkfgR; dk bfrgkl & MkW jkepUnz 'kqDy 2053 laor]
ukxjh lHkk dk’kh] i`"B la[;k 389
P a g e | 19
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (20 – 25)
An investigation –The level of contamination caused by Heavy Metals in
Drinking Water of Gandhi Nagar and Bairagarh Area
of Bhopal with Environment and Human Health aspects.
Santosh Ambhore 1, H.C. Kataria 2
1Department of Chemistry, Government Motilal Vigyan Mahavidalaya, Bhopal - 462 008, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Government Geetanjali Girls College, Bhopal - 462 038, India.
The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is
toxic or poisonous at low concentrations Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust.
They cannot be degraded or destroyed. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to
bioaccumulate. Examples of heavy metals as include mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As),
chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb).Contamination of heavy metals and its impact on human
health discussed in the present paper.
Heavy metals are metallic elements which
have a high atomic weight and have much high
density at least 5 times that of water. They are
stable elements i.e. they cannot be
metabolized by the body and bio-accumulative
i.e. passed up the food chain to humans. They
are highly toxic and can cause damaging
effects even at very low concentrations.
Increasing urbanization and industrialization
have increased the levels of trace metals,
especially heavy metals, in water ways. There
are over 50 elements that can be classified as
heavy metals, but only 17 that are considered
to be both very toxic and relatively accessible.
Mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, selenium,
copper, zinc, nickel, and chromium should be
given particular attention in terms of water
pollution. Heavy metal toxicity has severe
effect on our mental health, nervous system,
kidneys, lungs and other organ functions.
Surface water bodies get polluted due to urban
sewage discharge.
Bhopal the capital of Madhya Pradesh territory
the largest state of india degree witnessed the
world worst industrial disaster i.e. leakage of
methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from union
carbide factory on December 3 rd ;1984
P a g e | 20
.Bhopal is situated on 23 16 minute N latitude
and 77 degree25 minute E longitude and is
located on “ Hard pink red sand stone of
vindhyan region at 503 meters above the
meteorological department of india .
Present district of Bhopal was carved out of
district in 1972. Bhopal is the
picturesque capital of Madhya Pradesh and
known as “city of lakes”. Water is one of the
very precious substances on the earth. it is
very essential for the existence and survival of
life. As population grows and their need for
water increases, the pressure on our ground
resources also increases . in many areas of the
world ground water is now being over
extracted, in some places massively so, the
results is falling water levels and declining well
yield ,land subsidence and ecological damage
such as the drying out of wetlands.
Material and Methods :
Water samples of bore-wells are collected in 2
litre clean polythene jerry-cane after flushing
the bore wells to analysis. The procedure has
adopted as prescribed by APHA (1985), NEERI
(1986), pre -sterilized bottles are used to
collect samples.
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (20 – 25)
Description of Sampling Sites
Christ Memorial Church
Sai-Tech Farm House
Viklang Aashram
Pardi Mohalla
Kailash Nagar
.Mathai Nagar
Gidwani park
Suvidh vihar colony
One Tree Hill Area.
Rishi vilas colony
Water sample was collected from sampling
stations .The heavy metals were preserved by
adding 5 ml of 1N HNO3 in one litre of sample
to maintain the pH below 4.04 The samples
were then filtered through Whatmann filter
paper No. 40 and the filtrate was directly used
for analysis in
the Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer
100). At the time of sampling the samples are
acidified as per standard, international method
reference given by APHA.
Table 1 : The level of contamination caused by heavy metals in Drinking Water of Study area of
Bhopal city 2010-2011
SS 1
SS 2
SS 3
SS 4
SS 5
SS 6
SS 7
SS 8
SS 9
SS 10
SS1= Christ Memorial Church
SS2=Sai-Tech Farm House
SS3=Viklang Aashram
SS4=Pardi Mohalla
SS5=Kailash Nagar
**=maximum value
P a g e | 21
SS6=Mathai Nagar
SS7=Gidwani park
SS8= Suvidh vihar colony
SS9=One Tree Hill Area.
SS10=Rishi vilas colony
*=minimum value
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (20 – 25)
Results and Discussion :
The analysis of water quality of the study area
of Bhopal was carried out for heavy metals
viz: Cu, Fe, Hg, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. These
parameters are discussed below:
Iron (Fe) : Iron may be present in varying
amounts i.e from 0.5 ppm to 100 ppm in
surface water. Iron was found in the range of
0.14 ppm to 0.50 ppm .which is well within
the permissible limits as prescribed by ICMR
WHO and BIS standards. iron was found mostly
below detectable limit in drinking water of the
study area as shown in table1. WHO (world
health organisation ) highest desirable and
maximum permissible limits are 0.1 and 1.0
ppm and MWH (ministry of works and housing
)1975 acceptable and cause of rejection limits
are 0.1 and 1.0 ppm .
Deficiency of iron in human body causes
anaemia. Iron (as Fe2+) concentrations of 40
µg/litre can be detected by taste in distilled
water. In a mineralized spring water with a
total dissolved solids content of 500 mg/litre,
the taste threshold value was 0.12 mg/litre. In
well-water, iron concentrations below 0.3
mg/litre were characterized as unnoticeable,
whereas levels of 0.3–3 mg/litre were found
acceptable (E.Dahi, personal communication,
1991). In drinking-water supplies, iron(II) salts
are unstable and are precipitated as insoluble
iron(III) hydroxide, which settles out as a rustcoloured silt.
Mercury (Hg): Mercury has been well known as
an environmental pollutant. Mercury is a liquid
metal that is used in cell batteries, fluorescent
lights, switches, and other control equipment.
Excess mercury in water can lead to loss of
muscle control, kidney disease and brain
damage. There are two kinds of mercury. The
simple one atom Hg is called "Inorganic
Mercury". The other type of mercury is called
P a g e | 22
"Organic Mercury”. The Organic mercury is 100
times more dangerous since it can easily
penetrate cell walls and is easily absorbed in
fatty tissues, nerve and brain cells. Elemental
mercury is relatively inert in the
gastrointestinal tract and also poorly absorbed
through intact skin, but if inhaled or injected
elemental mercury may have disastrous
effects. Mercury was found below detectable
limits in water of the study area .
Mercury was found mostly below detectable
limit in drinking water of the study area as
shown in table1. WHO (world health
organisation) highest desirable and maximum
permissible limits are --- and 0.001 ppm and
MWH (ministry of works and housing )1975
acceptable and cause of rejection limits are
0.001 and 0.001 ppm .
Arsenic (As): The usual arsenic level in drinking
water is about 0.002 ppm. However, in the
present study arsenic was found below
detectable limits in water of the study area of
Bhopal .All types of arsenic exposure can cause
kidney and liver damage, and in the most
severe exposure there is erythrocyte
haemolyses. During chronic intoxication "garlic
breath", skin sensitivity, dermatitis, and
keratitus occurs very frequently. The acute
effect of arsenic poisoning by oral intake are
intense abdominal pairs, nausea, vomiting,
diarrhoea resulting from gastro-intestinal tract
damage and all terminating in coma and death.
Arsenic was found mostly below detectable
limit in drinking water of the study area as
shown in table1. WHO (world health
organisation) highest desirable and maximum
permissible limits are 0.05 and 0.05 ppm and
MWH (ministry of works and housing )1975
acceptable and cause of rejection limits are
0.05 and 0.05ppm .
Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is highly toxic
because of the absence of homeostatic control
of this metal in the human body. When
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (20 – 25)
excessive amount of cadmium is ingested, it
replaces zinc at key sites and induces
metabolic disorder. Cadmium was found below
detectable limits in water of the study area.
Cadmium was found mostly below detectable
limit in drinking water of the study area as
shown in table1. WHO (world health
organisation) highest desirable and maximum
permissible limits are ---- and 0.01ppm and
MWH (ministry of works and housing )1975
acceptable and cause of rejection limits are
0.01 and 0.01ppm .
Lead (Pb): Lead was found below detectable
limits in water of the study area. In most
individuals there is a "lead balance", that is
one excretes as much as they take in. However
an increase in the rate of intake will result in
accumulation or a "positive lead balance".
Since lead is chemically very similar to calcium,
it is handled by the body as if it were calcium.
Thus the first place to which it is transported is
to the plasma and the membrane sites in soft
tissues. It is then distributed to the other sites
where calcium plays an important role, most
notably in the teeth of developing children and
in bone at all ages.
Lead was found mostly below detectable limit
in drinking water of the study area as shown in
table1. WHO (world health organisation)
highest desirable and maximum permissible
limits are ---- and 0.10ppm
and MWH
(ministry of works and housing )1975
acceptable and cause of rejection limits are
0.10 and 0.10ppm .
.Copper (Cu): Copper is one of the earliest
known metals. ISI8 has prescribed the limit of
copper is 0.05 ppm. In the present study the
copper was found below detectable limit.
Copper is essential components of key
metalloenzyme that maintains the vascular
and nervous system.
P a g e | 23
Copper was found mostly below detectable
limit in drinking water of the study area as
shown in table1. WHO (world health
organisation ) highest desirable and maximum
permissible limits are 0.05 and 1.0 ppm and
MWH (ministry of works and housing )1975
acceptable and cause of rejection limits are
0.05 and 1.0 ppm .
The normal adult requires approximately 2 to 3
milligrams of copper per person per day. More
than 90% of your dietary needs for copper is
provided by food. Drinking water usually
provides less than 10% of your daily copper
intake. Consumption of high levels of copper
can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastric
complaints and headaches.
Long term
exposure over many months and years can
cause liver damage and death.
Normally less than 10% of your daily copper
intake is through water consumption.
Consumption of high levels of copper can
cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastric
complaints and headaches.
Conclusion :
In the present study iron was found in the
range of 0.14 ppm to 0.50 ppm which is well
within the permissible limits as prescribed by
WHO and BIS standards. Concentration of
other metals like Cu, Hg, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was
found below detectable limits. Hence the
water of the study area is suitable for drinking
The above findings are similar with those of
kataria1995;2000;2004;2010, Anu upadhyaya,
Sannasi,P.,Salmijah,S.;2011,Murugavelh S and
Chaubey O.N.(2010). Most of the parameters
are found well within the recommended limits
Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (20 – 25)
of BIS and some parameters are found beyond
the limits. Hence water samples analyzed in
present study found suitable for drinking
purpose after proper required treatment.
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Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (26 – 28)
mRihM+u ds ifjis{; esa dkedkth efgykvksa dh fLFkfr % lelkef;d foospuk
o"kkZ lkxksjdj] /kuat; oekZ]
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LoLFk lekt dh ugh cfYd ,d :X.k fodkj xzLr lekt
dh rLohj is'k dj jgs gSA buesa efgykvksa ds lkFk gksus
okys mRihMu dh dFkk lcls vf/kd ToyUr o ekfeZd gSA
iqjkÙku ;qx ij n`f"V Mkys rks ikrs gS fd jkek;.k dky esa
jko.k us lhrk dk vigj.k dj ukuk ;kruka, nh] egkHkkjr
dky es ;qf/kf"Bj us viuh iRuh dks nkao ij yxk;k o
nq;ksZ/ku nq'kklu us mldk phjgj.k dj mRihM+u fd;k
mlds i'pkr ls gh mRihMu dk Øe fujUrj tkjh gS]
blfy, dgk tkrk gS fd ftruk izkphu Hkkjr dk bfrgkl
gS mruk gS mruk gh iqjkru gS efgyk mRihMu dk
bfrgklA Hkkjr ds lkFk&lkFk fo'o ds yxHkx lHkh ns'kksa esa
fL=;ksa ds fo:} mRihM+u c<+ jgk gSA gj LFkku ij fL=;ksa
dks iq:"kksa ds mRihM+u dk f'kdkj gksuk iM+rk gSA efgykvksa
ds lkFk dk;ZLFky ij mRihMu dksbZ uohu eqn~nk ugh] NksVs
ls NksVs o cMs ls cMs inks ij dk;Zjr efgyk deZpkfj;ksa ds
P a g e | 26
lkFk&lkFk le;&le; ij dk;Z LFky ij mRihMu ds dbZ
ekeys mtkxj gq,A tkus fdruh fL=;ka bl rjg ds
mRihM+u ;k 'kks"k.k dk f'kdkj gS ;k gks jgh gSA buesa ls
dqN rks vius lkFk ?kVs nqO;Zogkj dks lkoZtfud dj nsrh gS
ysfdu vf/kdrj efgyk,a cnukeh ;k ukSdjh [kksus ds Mj ls
bl izdkj ds mRihM+u dks vR;kpkj dks lgu djus gsrq
ck/; gSA okLro esa mRihM+u D;k gS\ D;ks brus vf/kd
ekeys vkt ds nksj esa mHkj dj lkeus vk jgs] vksj ljdkj
dks blds fy, D;ksa dkuwu vFkok fo/ks;d ikfjr djus dh
vko';drk vuqHko gks jgh gSA
okLrfodrk esa laLFkkuksa esa dk;Zjr efgyk
deZpkfj;ksa ij ekufld] 'kkjhfjd o vkfFkZd vR;kpkj dks
gh mRihM+u dh esa j[kk tkrk gSA deZpkfj;ksa dks
ekufld :i ls izrkfMr djuk tSls muds mij dke dk
vuko';d nckc cukuk] vko';drk ls vf/kd dk;Z
djokuk] dk;kZy; dk okrkoj.k Hk;kog ¼Mjkouk½ cuk,a
j[kuk] vko';d vodk'k Hkh uk iznku djuk ;g lc
efgyk deZpkfj;ksa dks ekufld :i ls vLoLFk o vlqjf{kr
vuqHko djokrk gSA blh izdkj /ku laca/kh ekeyksa esa efgyk
deZpkfj;ksa dk fofHkUu izdkj ls 'kks"k.k djuk vkfFkZd
mRihMu ds vUrxZr vkrk gSA de jkf'k nsdj vf/kd jkf'k
dh ikorh ij gLrk{kj djokuk] dk;Z ds le; vf/kd osru
crkuk o i'pkr de jkf'k dk Hkqxrku djuk ;k osru
cdk;k j[kuk vkfFkZd 'kks"k.k] ;k mRihM+u gSA
vkfFkZd o ekufld mRihM+u dh vis{kk ;kSu 'kks"k.k
dk {ks= vR;Ur foLr`r o Hk;kog gSa ;kSu mRihMu ,d
Hka;dj leL;k ds :i esa efgykvksa dh izxfr ds ekxZ esa
ck/kk mRiUu dj jgk gSA 'kklu o dkuwu }kjk fuEufyf[kr
fLFkfr;ksa dks ;kSu mRihM+u ds vUrxZr ekuk gSA v'yhy;k¡] v'yhy fp= fn[kkuk] vkoafNr :i ls 'kkjhfjd
Nqvu] v'yhy okrsa djuk] dke esa O;o/kku mRiUu djus
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (26 – 28)
dh /kedh nsuk] v'yhy yrhQs lqukuk] dEI;wVj LØhu
lsoj ij ;k vius MsLdVki ij iksuZ fp= iznf'kZr djuk]
lsDlqvy Qsoj dh fMekUM esa oSls gko&Hkko djuk] b'kkjs
djuk] og lc dke djus ds fy, ck/; djuk tks og ugh
djuk pkgrh ;g lc ;kSu mRihM+u gSA nl o"kZ iwoZ rd
;kSu mRihM+u dh ifjHkk"kk dkQh fookfnr Fkh fd fdl d`R;
dks ;kSu mRihM+u ekuk tk, D;ksafd dbZ ckj iq:"k uk Li'kZ
djrk gS vkSj uk gh dqN dgrk gS fQj Hkh fL=;ksa dks
mldh gjdrksa ls yfTtr gksuk iMrk gSA vr% 13 vxLr
1997 dks loksZPp U;k;ky; }kjk dk;ZLFky ij mRihM+u dks
foLrkj iwoZd ifjHkkf"kr dj mu LkHkh d`R;ksa dks ;kSu
mRihM+u esa lfEefyr fd;k tks fL=;ksa dks ukxkokj gSA
Loa;lsoh laLFkk vgenkckn cqeUl ,D'ku xzqi }kjk
fd;s x;s losZ{k.k ds vuqlkj yxHkx 48% efgykvksa dks
muds dk;Z LFky ij ekSf[kd] 'kkjhfjd o ekufld ;kSu
mRihM+u dk f'kdkj gksuk iM+rk gS o blesa uk dsoy
mPpkf/kdkjh cfYd lg;ksxh deZpkjh Hkh lfEefyr gksrs gSA
LofIuy Hkkjr xSj ljdkjh LoSfNd laxBu esa 60% esa 55%
efgykvksa }kjk Lohdkj fd;k x;k fd muds lkFk mRihM+u
ds ekeys gksrs gSA jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx ls izkIr vkdM+ks ds
vuqlkj o"kZ 1999&2000 esa dk;ZLFky ij mRihMu ds 104
ekeys ntZ gq, ftles 39 ekeys ;kSu mRihMu ds FksA
2003&04 ess ;g vkadMk c<+dj 153 gks x;k ftles 57
;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeys FksA 2007&08 esa blesa mrjksÙkj
izxfr gqbZ 197 f'kdk;rs dk;ZLFky ij mRihMu dh o 62
f'kdk;rs ;kSu mRihMu dh FkhA 2010&11 esa ;g vkadMk
yxHkx 200 dk;ZLFky ij mRihMu o 100 ;kSu mRihMu dks
f'kdk;rksa dks Hkh ikj dj x;k
orZeku esa ;kSu mRihMu ds ekeys vf/kd
c< x;s gSA dk;Z ds flyflys esa efgykvksa dks ?kj ls ckgj
fudyuk iM+rk gS blfy, dke dkth fL=;k¡ gh bldh
lcls vf/kd f'kdkj gksrh gS pkgs Hkkjr dk fu/kZu jkT;
mMhlk gks ;k cMk jkT; mRrjizns'k] vk/kqfud jkT; paMhx<+
gks ;k fnYyh o NksVk jkT; dsjy vFkok xksok loZ=- bl
rjg ds ekeys ns[kus o lquus esa vk jgs gSA fnlEcj 2011
esa t;iqj ds vkehZ Ldwy ds izkpk;Z ij ogk¡ dh f'kf{kdkvksa
o prqFkZ deZpkjh ¼efgyk½ ds }kjk ;kSu mRihM+u dk
ekeyk izdk'k esa vk;k fdUrq mlesa Hkh izkpk;Z ds LFkku ij
f'kf{kdk o efgyk deZpkjh dks gh nf.Mr fd;k x;kA blh
rkjrE; esa fnlEcj 2011 esa gh iVuk fLFkr fpfdRlk
egkfo|ky; esa 80% efgyk fpfdRld o ulZ ;kSu mRihMu
dk f'kdkj ik;h xbZ uk dsoy ofj"B fpfdRld cfYd jksxh
iq:"k o muds ifjtuksa }kjk Hkh mu ij ;kSu mRihMu fd;k
x;kA ekpZ 2012 esa ckbZ uked efgyk ij mlds
Bsdsnkj }kjk fd;k x;k ;kSu mRihMu dk ekeyk izdk'k esa
vk;k] e/;izns'k esa tcyiqj fpfdRlk egkfo|ky;] pfpZr
vkbZ-,l-vf/kdkjh :iy n;ksy Hkh blh rjg ;kSu mRihMu
ds f'kdkj jgs gSA
P a g e | 27
bl rjg dh f'kdk;rksa o ekeyksa dks /;ku esa
j[kdj Hkkjr esa v'yhyrk dks /kkjk 292] 293] 294 Hkkjrh;
naM lafgrk ds vUrxZr lafgrko) fd;k x;k rFkk efgyk
;kSu mRihMu j{kk fo/ks;d 2010 ikfjr fd;kA bl fo/ks;d
ds vuqlkj dk;Z LFky ij efgykvksa ds lkFk 'kkjhfjd
lEidZ] bldk iz;Ru ;k NsM+NkM vf'k"V v'yhy
okrkZyki] v'yhy lkfgR; fn[kkuk] ;kSukpkj dk fdlh Hkh
rjg dk iz;Ru ftl ij efgyk dks vkifÙk gks ;kSu izrkMUkk
ds {ks= esa j[kk x;kA lkFk gh dk;ZLFky esa izfrdwy
okrkoj.k ;k efgyk ds jkstxkj ds Hkfo"; dks ysdj /kedh
;k izyksHku dh x.kuk Hkh ;kSu mRihMu ds vUrxZr dh
tkosxhA bl fo/ks;d dks ikfjr djus dk eq[; mís'; fdlh
Hkh {ks= ¼ljdkj ;k xSj ljdkjh] v)Z ljdkjh futh
laxfBr ;k vlaxfBr½ dke djus okyh ;k dke djokus
okyh efgykvksa dks dk;ZLFky ij Hk;jfgr okrkokj.k
miyC/k djokuk ftlls efgyk, vius vki dks Lora= o
lqjf{kr vuqHko dj ldsA bl fo/ks;d ds vuqlkj izR;sd
fu;ksDrk dks dk;ZLFky ij efgykvksa ds lkFk gksus okys ;kSu
mRihMu ds fy, ,d f'kdk;r lfefr dk fuekZ.k djuk
gksxkA ;fn fdlh dk;kZy; esa 10 ;k mlls de deZpkjh gS
o vkarfjd f'kdk;r lfefr dk fuekZ.k laHko ugh rks
ftykf/kdkjh dk ;g nkf;Ro gksxk fd os ftyk ;k mi
ftyk Lrj ij LFkkuh; f'kdk;r lfefr dk fuekZ.k djsA
izLrkfor dkuwu ds vuqlkj f'kdk;r tkap lfefr
dks 90 fnolksa ds vUnj tkap dk;Z iw.kZ djuk gksxk o tkap
dk;Z iw.kZ gksus ds i'pkr fu;ksDrk ;k ftykf/kdkjh dks
lfefr dh flQkfj'kksa dks 60 fnolksa esa ykxw djuk vfuok;Z
gksxkA ;fn lfefr ds fu.kZ;ksa dks Lohdkj ugh fd;k tkrk
rks nks"kh i{k dk yk;lsUl jn~n djus o 50000@& ds n.M
dk izko/kku j[kk x;kA lkFk gh tc rd tkap dk;Z tkjh
jgsxk rc rd ihfMr efgyk viuk LFkkukarj.k djok
ldrh gSA ;fn ihfMr i{k lfefr ds fu.kZ;ksa ls larq"V ugh
rks og U;k; gsrq U;k;ky; dh 'kj.k esa tkus gsrq Lora= gSA
bl fo/ks;d ds lkFk&lkFk bUMfLVª;y fMLI;wV ,DV ,y 5
'ksM~;wy 5 ds vuqlkj ;kSu vkae=.k izLrko dks uk ekuus ds
dkj.k deZPkkjh ¼efgyk½ dks dke ls fudkyus ;k fofHkUu
ykHkks ls oafpr djus ij mlds fo:) dk;Zokgh dk izko/kku
gSA blds fy, leku osru vf/kfu;e 1976 Hkh ikfjr gSA
/kkjk 66 ds vuqlkj lw;ksZn; ls iwoZ ;k lw;kZLr ds i'pkr
dke djus dh ck/;rk ugh gS] izLkwfr lqfo/kk vf/kfu;e
1961 ds vuqlkj rhu ekg ds izlwfr vodk'k dks izko/kku gS
dqN jkT;ks esa c<kdj N%ekg dk dj fn;k x;kA ¼jktLFkku]
e/;izns'k½ izkd`frd :i ls xHkZikr dh fLFkfr esa Hkh N%
LkIrkg ds izlwfr vodk'k dh ik=rk gSA
brus fofHkUu vf/kfu;e fo/ks;d /kkjk,a efgykvksa
dks dk;ZLFky ij lHkh izdkj ds mRihM+Uk ls eqDr j[kus gsrq
cuk, x;s gS fQj Hkh efgyk,a mruh n`<rk ds lkFk viuh
Corresponding Author : email :
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research
Website : ,( ISSN- 2320-7973 Volume-1 Issue -2 Month – May 2013 pp. (26 – 28)
vkokt dks lwj nsus esa lQy ugh gks ik jgh gS o mRihM+u
o 'kks"k.k dks lgu dj jgh gSA D;ksfd] ifjokj dh cnukeh]
iq:"k iz/kkurk dh xyr ijEijk] dkuwuks dh tfVyrk]
iqfyl o lekt }kjk mRihM+u dk Hk;] ihfMr efgyk dks
pqi djokuk ;k cnukeh ;k va/kdkje; Hkfo"; dk Hk;] ;k
fQj bl rjg dh gjdrs ;kSu mRihM+u ds vUrxZr vkrh gS
bldh Hkh tkudkjh uk gksuk vf/kdkjkas ds izfr tkx:drk
dk vHkko] ;g lc dkj.k fL=;ksa ds mRihM+u dks izksRlkfgr
djus gsrq dkj.khHkwr ¼ftEesnkj½ gSA
pwfda fL=;ka cgqqr lkjs dkj.kks ls viuh f'kdk;r ntZ ugh
djokrh gS ;fn fuEu lq>koksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj dk;Z
fd;k tk, rks vkSj vf/kd efgykvksa dks Hkh bl rjg ds
mRihMu ds fo:) vkokt mBkus dk volj feysxkA
1f'kdk;r drkZ efgyk dh igpku xqIr j[kh tkuh
pkfg, blls efgykvksa es fufeZdrk vk,xh D;ksafd uk
cnukeh dk Mj gksxk uk ukSdjh tkus dk ladVA
2xqIr f'kdk;r ds dkj.k 'kks"k.k ;k mRihMu djus
okyk O;fDr Hkh Mj ds ekjs bl rjg dh gjdrksa dks djus
ls igys 10 ckj fopkj djsxkA
3ehfM;k dh Hkwfedk fuLi{k gksuh pkfg, D;ksafd bl
rjg ds ekeyksa dk pSuy czsfdax U;wt cuk nsrs gS ftlds
dkj.k Hkh efgyk,a f'kdk;r djus ls Mjrh gSA
4le;&le; ij fofHkUu ys[kks] lekpkj i=ksa
nwjn'kZu ds dk;ZØeksa ds }kjk efgykvksa dks bl laca/k esa
iw.kZ tkudkjh nsrs jguk ljdkj dk nkf;Ro gksuk pkfg,
rkfd bl rjg dh gjdr gksus ij o fuMj gksdj dk;Zokgh
dj ldsA vU; izfrfnu ds dk;ZØeksa dh Hkkafr bls Hkh
'kkfey djuk pkfg,A
5y|q ukVdks] uqDdM ukVdksa ds ek/;e ls bldh
tkudkjh fu;e xk¡o&xk¡o txg&txg rd igq¡tkbZ tk,
rkfd vui<+ fL=;ka Hkh bl vf/kdkj dk mi;ksx dj ldsA
6ekuo vf/kdkjksa dks 'kkys; ikB~;Øe esa lfEefyr
dj cPpksa dks izkjEHk ls gh ekuo vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx:d
djuk gksxkA
7,sls ekeyksa esa iqfyl dh Hkwfedk Hkh egRiw.kZ gksuh
pkfg,] mUgs tYn ls tYn o dBksj dne mBkus pkfg,A
8lekt dh lksp esa Hkh ifjorZu vko';d gS fd
yM+dk yM+dh ,d leku gSA
9;fn efgyk,a pkgrh gS fd mRihM+u uk gks rks
efgykvksa dks Loa; vkxs vkuk gksxkA
10efgykvksa ds f'kf{kr gksus ds ckotwn Hkh mudks
vius vf/kdkjksa dh tkudkjh ugh txg&txg ,sls dsUnz
[kksys tk, tks bl laca/k esa efgykvksa dks tkudkjh ns lds
mUgs tkx`r dj ldsA
11ukSdjh dh xkjUVh ns nh tk, rks mRihMu ;k
'kks"k.k djus okyk iq:"k vkfFkZd :i ls efgyk ij nckc
ugh cuk ldsxkA
P a g e | 28
12efgyk laxBuksa dk joS;k lg;ksxkRed gksuk
pkfg,] lkFk gh jktuhfrd nyksa ds ,tsUMs esa bls lfEefyr
dj fy;k tk, rks mudk Hkh izpkj gksxk o ny Hkh
efgykvksa ds fgr esa dk;Z djsaxsA
milagkj% ;g dguk lkFkZd gksxk fd ljdkj us bl {ks= esa
fofHkUu dkuwu ikl dj
efgykvksa dks fofHkUu vL= o
'kL=ksa ls lqlfTtr dj fn;k gS vko';drk ek= le;
jgrs mldh tkudkjh izkIr dj vius ij gksus okys cpko
dh gSA okLro esa dkuwu brus dMs cuk, x;s gS ftudh
lgk;rk ls ;kSu mRihMu jksdk tk ldrk gSA oLrqr%
dHkh gekjs dkuwuksa esa ugh cfYd ykxw djus okyks
ekufldrk esa gSA oSls Hkh loZizFke 1997 esa
fo'kk[kk cuke jktLFkku ljdkj okys
;kSu fgalk dks vijk/kk ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k
x;kA xka/khth us ;ax
bf.M;k esa fy[kk gS
fd ^^ukjh dks vcyk dgus okys yksx efgykvksa dk vieku
gS] efgykvksa ds l'kfDrdj.k dh vko';drk
blfy, gS D;kasafd efgyk,a gh lalkj dk ;q) o fglak ls
cpk ldrh gSA
^^;fn vkSjr dks lekt uk ekjs rks vkSjr dHkh uk gkjsA**
lUnFkZ xzaFk lwph
Corresponding Author : email :
1- vlkjh ,e-,e- & ukjh psruk o vijk/k] iap'khy
izdk'ku] t;iqj
2- flag jktkckyk & ekuokf/kdkj o efgyk,a
3- JhokLro lq/kkjkuh & efgykvks ds izfr vijk/k]
dkeuosYFk ifCy'klZ] ubZ fnYyh
4- flag fu'kkUr ehuk{kh & vk/kqfudrk o efgyk
mRihMu vksestk ifCyds'ku
5- c?kZy Mh- ,l- & vijk/k 'kkL= & foosd izdk'ku]
tokgj uxj] fnYyh
6- 'kekZ izKk & efgyk fodkl o l'kfDrdj.k
vfo"dkj ifCy'klZ] t;iqj]
7- izdk'kukjk;.k & fyax o lekt & fjlpZ
8- ;ax bf.M;k tuyZ 30 vizSy 1930
9- vxzoky pUnzeksgu Hkkjrh; ukjh fofo/k vk;ke] Jh
ehY;ksx cqd fMiks vYeksMk] m-iz10- lu; lq"kek efgyk l'kfDrdj.k
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (29 – 31) lIrd dkO; ijaijk % ,d v/;;u
pank eksnh]
lgk;d izk/;kid] foDVksfj;k dkWyst vkWQ ,tqds'ku] Hkksiky lkj la{ksi
O;qRifRrewyd n`f"V ls *lIrd* 'kCn laLd`r ds *lIr* ls cuk gSA *lIr* 'kCn esa *d* izR;; tqM+dj *lIrd* 'kCn cuk
gSA *lIr* dk vFkZ gS *lkr*A laxhr'kkL= esa **lIrd** dk vFkZ lkr laxhr /ofu;ksa ¼lk]js]xk]ek]ik]/kk]fu½ ls fy;k tkrk gSA vLrq
**lIrd dkO;** ls rkRi;Z lkr dfo;ksa dk ladyu vFkok lkr dfo;ksa dh dforkvksa dk ladyu gqvkA izLrqr lnHkZ esa lIrd
dkO; dk vfHkizk;% vKs; }kjk laikfnr lkr dfo;ksa ds ladyu ds :i esa :<+ gks x;k gSA
izLrqr ’kks/k i= esa lIrd dkO; ijaijk dk rF;ijd
fo’ys"k.k izLrqr gSA lIrd dkO; ijaijk dk Jh x.ks'k lu~
1943 esa izdkf'kr vKs; }kjk laikfnr **rkjlIrd** ls
gqvkA tgkW rd bu lIrdksa ds lhekadu dk iz'u gS] izFke
rhu lIrd lkr&lkr o"kksZ ds varjky esa Øe'k% lu~ 1943]
1951 vkSj 1959 esa izdkf'kr gq,A pkSFkk lIrd ¼1979 esa½
vk;k] ftldh fgUnh leh{kk txr~ esa rhoz izfrfØ;k gqbZA
fgUnh ds vf/kdka'k leh{kd vkSj bfrgkl ys[kd
**rkjlIrd** ds izdk'ku ls gh ubZ dfork dk 'kHkkjaHk
Lohdkjrs gSaA mudh n`f"V esa Nk;koknksRrj lHkh dkO;
izo`fRr;ka ubZ dfork esa varZHkwr gSA
izfr mRrjnkf;Ro c<+ x;k gSA bl lIrd ds dfo;ksa dks Hkh
d`frdkj ds :i esa mUgksaus u, dfo dgdj lacksf/kr fd;kA
**pkSFkk lIrd** dh Hkwfedk esa mUgksaus ckj&ckj ubZ
dfork ds LFkku ij *vkt dh dfork* eqgkojs dk iz;ksx
fd;k gSA tSls&
¼d½ **vkt dh dfork esa tks izo`fRr;ka eq[kj gqbZ gSa] muds
cht mlls igys dh dfork esa ekStwn FksA ml dfork esa Hkh
ftls iz;ksxoknh dgk tkrk gS vkSj mlesa Hkh ftls
izxfroknh uke fn;k tkrk gSA **
¼[k½ **vkt dh dfork esa oDrO; dk izk/kkU; gks x;k gSA
iz;ksx ds lR; dks Lohdkjrs gq, vKs;th us
*rkjlIrd* dh Hkwfedk esa iz;ksx 'kCn ds izfr viuk eksg
O;Dr fd;k gSA fdUrq] nwljk lIrd rd vkrs&vkrs mudk
;g eksg Hkax gqvk vkSj os dgus dks ck/; gq, fd&**iz;ksx
dk dksbZ okn ugha gS] ge oknh ugha jgs] ugha gSa] u dksbZ
iz;ksx vius&vki esa bZ"V ;k lk/; gSA rhljk lIrd rd
fLFkfr ,dne lkQ gks xbZA rhljk lIrd dk egRo gh
bl ckr dks ysdj gS fd blls ubZ dfork dh lkjh ekU;
izo`fRr;ka Bhd&Bhd fuf'pr :i esa ikBdksa ds lEeq[k vkbZA
nwljk lIrd dh gh Hkwfedk esa vKs;th us ;g Lohdkj
fd;k gS fd&**dsoy iz;ksx'khyrk gh fdlh jpuk dks dkO;
ugha cuk nsrhA gekjs iz;ksx dk ikBd vkSj lân; ds fy,
dksbZ egRo ugha gS] **egRo ml lR; dk gS] tks iz;ksx ds
}kjk gesa izkIr gksA **geus lSdM+ksa iz;ksx fd, gS**] ;g nkok
ysdj ge ikBd ds lkeus ugha tk ldrs] tc rd ge ;g
u dg ldrs gks fd geus iz;ksx }kjk ;g ik;k gS A iz;ksxksa
dk egRo drkZ ds fy, pkgs ftruk gks] lR; dh [kkst]
yxu pkgs ftruh mRd`"V gks] lân; ds fudV og lc
vizklafxd gSA
¼x½ **vkt dh dfork cgqr cksyrh gS] tcfd dfork dk
dke cksyuk gS gh ugha A
mi;qZDr foospu ds vk/kkj ij ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd
lIrd dkO; vk/kqfud fgUnh dfodk dk gh vfofPNUu
L=ksr gSA **rkjlIrd** ls ysdj **pkSFkk lIrd** rd dh
jpukvksa esa Nk;koknksRrj dkO; dh U;wukf/kd lHkh izo`fRr;ka
fdlh u fdlh :i esa fo|eku gSaA
*lIrd dkO; ijaijk* dk lw=ikr 1943 esa
*rkjlIrd* ds izdk'ku ds lkFk gqvkA *nwljk lIrd* 1951
esa] *rhljk lIrd* 1959 esa rFkk *pkSFkk lIrd* % 1979 esa
izdkf'kr gq,A budk laiknd vKs;th us fd;k] izR;sd
lIrd esa lkr dfo;ksa dh jpuk,a ladfyr gSaA *pkSFkk
lIrd* ds jpukRed ifjizs{; dks le>us ds fy, iwoZorhZ
rhu lIrdksa dh l`tukRed i`"BHkwfe dk fo'ys"k.k
vizklafxd u gksxkA
¼1½ rkjlIrd *rkjlIrd* dk izdk'ku lu~ 1943 esa gqvkA
blesa lkr dfo;ksa dh jpuk,a ladfyr gSaA dfoØe bl
izdkj gS& xtkuu ek/ko eqfDrcks/k] usehpUnz tSu]
HkkjrHkw"k.k vxzoky] izHkkdj ekpos] fxfjtkdqekj ekFkqj]
jkefoykl 'kekZ vkSj Lo;a vKs;A vuqØe ds laca/k esa
**rhljk lIrd** dh Hkwfedk esa vKs;th us
iz;ksx'khy dfodk dk i;kZ; ubZ dfork dks ekudj laHkor%
dgk gS& **ubZ dfork dk vius ikBd ds vkSj Lo;a vius
P a g e | 29 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (29 – 31) ladfyr dfo;ksa dh fopkj/kkjk dk iz'u gS % 'kdqUrekFkqj
izxfroknh fopkj/kkjk ds izfr] ujs'k esgrk ekuorkoknh
fpUru ds izfr] Jh O;kl vkSj Hkkjrh mUeqDr O;fDrokn ds
izfr izfrJqr fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA loZ Jh 'ke'ksj cgknqj ,oa
j?kqohj lgk; ekDlZoknh oSKkfudrk ds izfr viuh jpukvksa
esa fu"Bkoku gS rFkk Hkokuhizlkn feJ dk n`f"Vdks.k
v}Sroknh ,oa xka/khoknh fpUru ls mUesf"kr izrhr gksrk gSA
blh jpukRed i`"BHkwfe ds dkj.k *nwljk lIrd* dh
jpukvksa esa ,d e;kZnk vkSj ;qxhu thoun'khZ dh Hkh
vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA lkSan;Zcks/k dh n`f"V ls Hkh *nwljk lIrd*
dh jpukvksa esa dq.Bkvksa vkSj otZukvksa dk vHkko gSA bu
dfo;ksa dk lkSUn;Zcks/kkRed n`f"Vdks.k fufyZIr ,oa LoPN gSA
vKs;th dk vfHker gS fd&**ladyudrkZ vUr esa vkrk gSA
---- ek= vuqØe ls in xkSjo ds ckjs esa dksbZ ifj.kke
fudkyuk ;k ml fo"k; esa ladyudrkZ dh lEefr dh
[kkst yxkuk] ew[kZrk gksxhA **
oLrqr% *rkjlIrd* ds izdk'ku ls gh iz;ksxoknh
dkO;/kkjk dk lw=ikr gqvkA lHkh rkjlIrd ds dfo
oSpkfjd erHksn j[krs gq, Hkh jkgksa ds vUos"kh vFkkZr~
iz;ksx'khy gksus ds dkj.k ,d gks x,A *rkjlIrd* dh
Hkwfedk esa Jh vKs; us *iz;ksx* dh ckr ds vfrfjDr jpuk
laca/kh dksbZ oDrO; ugha fn;k gSA ,d leh{kd ds 'kCnksa esa
& **rkjlIrd vius mRFkku dky dh f'k'kq&jpuk gSA **
D;ksafd blesa ifjorZu vkSj laØkafr dh vksj ladsr fd;k
x;k] fdUrq ewY; foospu ds ekunaM LFkkfir ugha gq,A
*rkjlIrd* dh lajpukRed izfØ;k ,oa Lo:i ij n`f"Vikr
fd;k tk, rks fu"d"kZ ;g fudyrk gS fd dF; esa iwoZorhZ
dkO; ijaijk ds izfr fonzksg] e/;eoxhZ; O;fDr ds izfr
lgkuqHkwfr] uo ewY;ksa dh izfrLFkkiuk] vuqHkwfr dh
izekf.kdrk] lkekftd n`f"Vdks.k es vc)rk] thou ds izfr
vuqjkx] ;FkkFkZoknh lkSUn;Z fp=.k vkfn fof'k"Vrk,a fo|eku
gS rFkk f'kYi dh n`f"V ls vFkZy; dk iz;ksx] uwru NUnksa ds
izfr vkd"kZd Hkk"kk esa uohurk] O;atd inkoyh dk
iz;ksx]uohu fcEcksa vkSj izrhdksa dh l`f"V *rkjlIrd* dh nsu
dgh tk ldrh gSA
¼3½ rhljk lIrd % *rhljk lIrd* dk izdk'ku lu~ 1959
esa gqvkA bl lIrd esa laiknd vKs;th us pys vk jgs
*iz;ksxokn* uke ij vkifRr;ka mBkbZ vkSj Lo;a dks
iz;ksx'khy fl) djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA *rhljk lIrd*
esa laxzfgr dfo;ksa dh la[;k 1943 ls 1959 rd cuh yhd
ds vuqlkj lkr gh gSA budk vuqØe bl izdkj gS %
iz;kxukjk;.k f=ikBh] dhfrZ pkS/kjh] enu okRL;k;u]
dsnkjukFk flag] dqaoj ukjk;.k] fot;nso ukjk;.k lkgh ,oa
losZ'ojn;ky lDlsukA *rhljk lIrd* ,sls le; izdkf'kr
gqvk] tc uwru gLrk{kjksa dh vko';drk eglwl dh tk
jgh Fkh] D;ksafd 1959 ds vklikl ,slh jpuk,a Hkh fy[kh
tkus yxh Fkha] tks udy vkSj O;FkZ cdokl dh laKkvksa ls
lacksf/kr dh tkus yxh FkhA *rhljk lIrd* ds ckn yxus
yxk fd dfork vkRekUos"kksUeq[kh gksrh tk jgh gSA bl laxzg
dh jpukvksa esa *rkj lIrdh;* dq.Bk ,oa otZuk iqu% fn[kkbZ
nsus yxhA dF; dh n`f"V ls dksbZ fof'k"Brk ;k u;kiu rks
ugha fn[kkbZ nsrk] fdUrq laosnuk Lrjksa esa fHkUurk vo';
n`f"Vxr gksrh gSA * rhljk lIrd* dk dfo vius ifjos'k
,oa ifjtu nksuksa ds ;FkkFkZ ds izfr ltx gSA bu jpukvksa
esa izd`fr ifjofrZr vFkZoRrk ds lkFk fpf=r gqbZ gSA
izse&fu:i.k esa dgha nk'kZfudrk] dgha oSKkfudrk rks dgha
d:.; ifjyf{kr gqvk gSA 'kSfYid izfrekuksa dh n`f"V ls
*rhljk lIrd* dh Hkk"kk yksdksUeq[kh fn[kkbZ nsrh gS rFkk
Hkk"kk esa lEizs";rk] O;axkRedrk] Hkko fp=kRedrk] uwru
izrhdkRedrk dh laiUurk Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA
vk/kqfudrkcks/k] ;kSucks/k ,oa ewY;cks/k dh l'kDr vfHkO;fDr
bu jpukvksa ds oSpkfjd&ifjizs{; esa fof'k"Vrk fy, gq, gSaA
¼2½ nwljk lIrd % lIrd dkO; ijaijk ds nwljs lksiku ds
:i esa lu~ 1951 esa *nwljk lIrd* izdkf'kr gqvkA blesa
ladfyr dfo;ksa dks bl nkos ds lkFk izLrqr fd;k x;k fd
budh jpuk,a laxzg :i esa ml le; rd izdkf'kr ugha
gqbZ FkhA blds dfo gS& Hkokuhizlkn feJ] 'kdqUr ekFkqj]
gfjukjk;.k O;kl] 'ke'ksjcgknqj flag] ujs'k esgrk] j?kqohj
lgk; vkSj /keZohj HkkjrhA *nwljk lIrd* ds dkO;kRed i{k
dks ns[ksa rks ewY; foospu laca/kh ekun.M+ksa dh tks deh gesa
*rkjlIrd* esa fn[kkbZ nsrh gS] ml deh dks *nwljk lIrd*
esa nwj djus dk lQy iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA Hkk"kk dh tks
leL;k *rkjlIrd ds dfo;ksa dks lrk jgh Fkh] *nwljk
lIrd* ds dfo blls eqDr gSa] D;ksafd ;FkklaHko Hkk"kk cksy
pky ds djhc gSA *nwljk lIrd* ds dfo;ksa esa jpuk/kehZ
mUeqDrrk] mRlkg izlUurk vkSj fu"Bk Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrh
gSA mUgksaus tks dqN dguk pkgk gS] og Li"Vr% ,oa ltxrk
ls dgk gSA
*nwljk lIrd* esa ftu ekuo ewY;ksa dk fp=.k
fd;k x;k gS] mldh Lohd`fr 'kksf"kr] xjhc] fujhg] Hkw[k ls
lar`Ir] foo'k vkSj Hk;Hkhr O;fDr dh psruk ds ek/;e ls
gekjs le{k mHkjk gSA *nwljk lIrd* dh jpukvksa esa
;FkkFkZcks/k] vk/kqfudrk dq.Bkghu cks/k] iz.k; dh vfHkO;fDr
ds lkFk&lkFk loZlk/kkj.k dh Hkk"kk esa lgtrk ,oa
mUeqDrrk ds lkFk uO; izrhdksa] ;qx fp=.k ds le{k Hkko
fcECkksa ds ifj/kku esa fyiVdj] *nwljk lIrd* dh dfork,a
fof'k"V jpuk ,oa 'kfDr ds lkFk mHkjh gSA tgka rd
¼4½ pkSFkk lIrd % iwoZorhZ rhu lIrdksa dh Hkkafr lkr
dfo;ksa ds ladyu ds :i esa*pkSFkk lIrd* dk izdk'ku lu~
1979 esa gqvkA dkyØe dh n`f"V ls rhljs vkSj pkSFks lIrd
ds chp 20 o"kZ dh dkykof/k dk vUrjky gS] ftlds laca/k
esa vKs;th us ledkyhu dkO; vkSj ledkyhu vkykspuk
ds *vfr Lohd`fr* lacaf/kr xq.k&nks"kksa dk mYys[k fd;k gSA
**pkSFkk lIrd** dh Hkwfedk esa os fy[krs gS fd & **rhu
lIrdksa ds izdk'ku ls eq>s og izfØ;k iwjh gks xbZ tku
iM+rh Fkh] tks ubZ dkO; izo`fRr;ksa dh izfr"Bk ds fy,
P a g e | 30 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (29 – 31) vko';d FkhA eSaus ;g Hkh dgk fd ,d ,slh ifjfLFkfr vk
xbZ gS] ftlesa fQj ,d ckj xq.k&nks"k&foosd viuk vk/kkj
[kks cSBk gSA ysfdu] dfork ds izfri{k dh vksj Hkh dqN
dguk vko';d gks x;k gSA ---- ledkyhu vkykspukvksa dh
=qfV;ksa vkSj mldh ,dkafxdrk dks Hkh vuns[kk u djuk
gksxkA bl ,dkafxdrk us ubZ jpuk dk cgqr vfgr fd;k gS
vkSj ikBd dks Hkh blfy, iFkHkz"V fd;k gS fd mlus ikBd
ds lkeus tks dlkSfV;ka nh gSa] os Lo;a >wBh gSA fu'p; gh
**pkSFkk lIrd** ds ek/;e ls vKs;th lRdkO; dh lajpuk
ds izfreku vkSj lr lekykspu dh dlkSfV;ka izLrqr djuk
pkgrs gSaA
**pkSFkk lIrd** esa Hkh lkr dfo gSa& ¼1½ vo/ks'k
dqekj ¼2½ jktdqekj dqEHkt ¼3½ Lons'k Hkkjrh ¼4½ uanfd'kksj
vkpk;Z ¼5½ lqeu jkts ¼6½ Jhjke oekZ ¼7½ jktsUnz fd'kksjA
lIrd dkO; ijaijk ds vuq:i izR;sd dfo dk laf{kIr
ifjp;] fQj dfo dk oDrO; vkSj dfork,a izLrqr dh xbZ
**pkSFkk lIrd** dh Hkwfedk esa vKs;th us ftu
egRoiw.kZ jpuk fcUnqvksa dks ladsfrd fd;k gS] os la{ksi esa
bl izdkj gSa %
¼d½ *pkSFkk lIrd* laiknd dh dkO; &n`f"V] lkfgfR;d
:fp vkSj lkfgfR;d foosd dk izfrQyu gSA
*pkSFkk lIrd* esa pqus x, dfo;ksa dk vk/kkj] os
laiknd dh n`f"V esa iz'kaluh; gksus ds lkFk&lkFk
vis{k;k iqLrdkdkj :i esa de izdkf'kr gq, gSaA
vkt dh dfork dk lcls cM+k nks"k ml ij ,d *eSa*
Nk x;k gSA
dfo dh jktuhfrd psruk ds lkFk jktuhfrd
erokn dh vkjksi vkSfpR;A
*pkSFkk lIrd* ds dfo;ksa dh fcjknjh dk vk/kkj
LokUr=; dk vuqHko vkSj Lok;Rrrk dk cks/k gSA
fojks/k i{k dh jktuhfr dh rjg jguk vLokHkkfod ugha gSA
fdl fu"d"kZ ij igqaprk gSA ,d nks dks NksM+dj vU;
dfo;ksa us Hkh bl izdkj ds ladsr ;k oDrO; jpukvksa esa
izLrqr fd, gSaA *pkSFkk lIrd* ds pkSFks dfo dh *og jax*
,oa lkros dfo dh vkikrdky vkRe lacks/ku tSlh dfork,a
rks lh/ks&lh/ks izfri{kh jktuSfrd izfrc)rk dks gh mtkxj
djrh gSA vLrq jktuhfrd eroknh vlfg".kqrka, rks *pkSFkk
lIrd* dh dforkvksa esa Hkh n`f"Vxr gksrh gSA pkSFkk lIrd
ds dfo;ksa ds LokrU= vuqHko vkSj Lok;Rr cks/k dh lgh
igpku rks dF; fo'ys"k.k ds vuqØe esa gksxhA ;g fcUnq
iqu% fpUruh; gS fd D;k ladfyr dfo bl vof/k dh
vPNh dfork dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gSa \ dfork dh
vPNkb;ksa ds izfreku fu/kkZfjr fd, fcuk vkSj ledkyhu
dkO; lajpuk ds lexz ifjisz{; esa ladfyr dforkvksa dks
ij[ks fcuk] ,sls nkos cgqr lkjxfHkZr izrhr ugha gksrs gSaA
mi;qZDr foospu dk vfHkizk; **pkSFkk lIrd** dh jpukRed
Hkwfedk ds ;FkkFkZ dks mtkxj djuk ek= gSA bl laxzg dh
jpukRed miyfC/k;ka Hkh gSa] ftudk laca/k dkO;&lajpuk ds
dF;&f'kYi vkSj fopkj&n'kZu ls gSA
lanHkZ xzUFk lwph %&
1-vKs; 1970 nwljk lIrd] f}rh; laLdj.k i`"B Øekad&5
2-vKs; 1970 nwljk lIrd] f}rh; laLdj.k i`"B Øekad&8
3-vKs; 1979 pkSFkk lIrd] izFke laLdj.k i`"B Øekad&11
4-vKs; 1979 pkSFkk lIrd] izFke laLdj.k i`"B Øekad&14
5- Ks; 1970 pkSFkk lIrd] izFke laLdj.k i`"B Øekad&10
6-vKs; 1970 pkSFkk lIrd] izFke laLdj.k i`"B Øekad&68
¼p½ vkt dh dfork ds ftl lcls cM+s nks"k *eSa* dh ppkZ
lEiknd egksn; us dh gS] og ladfyr dfo;ksa dh
jpuk/kfeZrk ij lcls vf/kd Nk;k gqvk gSA
ladfyr dfo;ksa dk *eSa* vfrLrRocks/k dh Hkwfedk ls
L[kfyr gksdj vge~ dh eqnzk esa :ikUrfjr gks x;k gSA
fu'p; gh *pkSFkk lIrd* dh ,dek= dof;=h bldk
viokn gSA mudh jpuk eqnzk esa *eSa* dh Hkafxek tgka Hkh
mHkjh gSA ge] rqe ;k lcls tqM+h gqbZ gSA mYysf[kr esa ls
prqFkZ fcUnq ds lanHkZ esa jktdqekj dqEHkt dk ;g oDrO;kax
fd &**jktuhfr esa 'kjhd gksuk dksbZ vNwr vFkok vU;Fkk
ckr ugha gS] fdUrq flQZ jktuhfr esa 'kjhd gksuk jpukdkj
dh 'kjkQr ughaA eSa bl fopkj ls vlger ugha gwa fd
jktuhfr thou esa lkspus dk LoHkko] LokHkkfod rkSj ij
P a g e | 31 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected]
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) Fixed point theorem in Fuzzy metric space by using compatibility of type beta M S Chouhan*, Manoj Kumar Khanduja** and Bharat Singh# * Asst. Professor Govt. Mandideep Collge Raisen (M.P.) ** Lecturer SOC. and E. IPS Academy Indore (M.P.) #
Reader SOC. and E. IPS Academy Indore (M.P.) ABSTRACT In this paper we prove common fixed point theorem in ‐Fuzzy metric space. We prove the result with help of compatibility of type β. INTRODUCTION The notion of Fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [6].Various concepts of fuzzy metric spaces were considered in [15 ,9 , 10 , 7 ].Many authors studied fixed point theory in fuzzy metric space[12, 14 , 8 ,13, 2 , 3 ]. In 2008 Milet proved a Banach Contraction Theorem in M‐conplete non‐Archimedean L‐
fuzzy metric space and .In the sequel we shall adopt the usual terminology, notation and conventions of L‐Fuzzy metric spaces introduced by Saadati et al.[11] which are a generalization of Fuzzy metric spaces[1] Preliminaries Definition1.1
Let ,
beacompletelattice,andUanonemptysetcalleduniverse.An ‐
fuzzyset onUisdefinedasamapping : U → LForeachuinU,
representsthedegree inL to
whichsatisfies .
Considertheset ∗ andtheoperation
∈ 0,1 , forevery
(ii) ∀ ,
x, i x, y ∈
(iii) ∀ , ,
x ; ∈
(iv) ∀ , ′, , ′ ∈
1 ,
x, y
min x, y and ,
x, y x′, y′ monotonocity A t‐norm on issaidtobecontinuousifforany , ∈ and any sequences converge to x and y we havelim
x, y . For example , ∗
x, y , z ; ,Then
→ satisfyingthefollowingconditions:
y, x ; y, z definedby
Definition 1.3 A triangular norm (t‐norm) on is a mapping :
(i) ∀ ∈
x, y
and which xy are two continuous t norms on 0,1 . A t‐norm P a g e | 32 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) ∈
can also be defined recursively as an (n+1) –ary operation
For 2 and and ………………….
∈ . Definition 1.4 A negation on isanydecreasingmapping
1 and
0 .If
: L → satisfying
xforall ∈ ,then
1 and
is called involutive negation. Definition 1.5 The 3‐tuple X, , is said to be an fuzzymetricspaceifXisarbitrary non‐empty set, isacontinuoust‐normonand isanfuzzyseton
0, ∞ satisfyingthe
Following conditions for every x , y , z in X and t , s in 0, ∞ : (a)
, ,
(b) , ,
(c) , ,
0 ; 1 for all , ,
, ,
0 if and only if x = y; ; , ,
, ,
; , , . : 0, ∞ → is continuous. Let X, , be an ‐fuzzymetricspace.For ∈ 0, ∞ ,wedefinetheopenball
centre ∈ andradius ∈ \ 0 , 1 ,as
, ,
∈ :
0 and ∈ \ 0 , 1 such that , , ⊆ . Let denote the family of all open subsets of X.Then by ‐fuzzymetric . Lemma 1.6 10 Let , ,
Definition 1.7
ε ∈ \ 0 and be an ‐fuzzymetricspace.Then
in an ‐fuzzymetricspace X,
0, there exist ∈ such that
The sequence by → ) If ∈
r . , ,
A subset ⊆ is called open if for each ∈ , there exist , ,
is called the topology induced , ,
is called Cauchy sequence , if for each , ,
ε is said to be convergent to ∈ in the ‐fuzzymetricspace X,
, , , , → 1 whenever → ∞ for every t > 0. A ,
(denoted ‐fuzzymetricspaceissaidtobecompleteifandonlyifeveryCauchysequenceisconvergent.
Henceforth,weassumethat isacontinuoust‐normonthelattice suchthatforevery ∈ \
0 , 1 ,thereisa ∈ \ 0 , 1 suchthat
P a g e | 33 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) Definition 1.8 Let ,
iflim →
, , ,
whenever a sequence lim
, ,
Lemma 1.9 Let X
be an ‐fuzzymetricspace.
, , ,
in X
0, ∞ convergestoapoint , ,
1 andlim
, , ,
, , .
be an ‐fuzzymetricspace.
0, ∞ 0, ∞ i.e.
0, ∞ .
Definition 1.10 Let A and S be mappings from an ‐fuzzymetricspace , , intoitself.Thenthe
Ax=Sx impliesthatASx SAx.
Definition 1.11 Let A and S be mappings from an ‐fuzzymetricspace
1 ∀
Definition 1.12 Let A and S be mappings from an ‐fuzzymetricspace
mappingsaresaidtobecompatibleoftypetype if
1 ∀
Poposition 1.13 If self mappings A and S of an ‐fuzzymetricspace
→ nondecreasinginfirst
Definition 1.14 Let ϕbesetofallrealcontinuousfunctionsϕ:
For ,
, , ,
Lemma 1.15 Let ,
be an ‐fuzzymetricspace. If ,
for some k
1 and ∈
Example 1.16 Let , be a metric space. Denote ,
and , in ∗ and let M and N be fuzzy sets on , ,
.Then isaCauchysequence.
. .
for all 0, ∞ be defined as follows: ,
P a g e | 34 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], ,
International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) Main Result Theorem 2.1 Let ,
for every ,
∈ some
be a complete ‐fuzzy metric space and assume S, T , I , J : X→ be four mappings such that ⊆ ,
⊆ and ,
1 and ,
or ,
0 is a closed subset of X in addition that either
(I) T and I are compatible of type , I is continuous and S and J are weak compatible or (ii) S , J are compatible of type , J is continuous and T and I are weak compatible, then S , T , I , J have a unique fixed point. and a Proof Let ∈ be given . By ∗ one can choose a point ∈ such that point ∈ such that .Continuing in this way. We define by induction a sequence in X such that Ix
0,1,2 … … .. n
0,1,2 … … .. Jx
Put in equation (1) ,
, ,
0 ,
, ,
, ,
0 ,
0 1
0 ,
P a g e | 35 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) ,
is a Cauchy sequence , then it converges to ∈ That is By Lemma( 1.15) sequence lim
→ → .Since T and I are compatible of type implies Now suppose that (i) satisfied. Then that → . Now we wish to show that a common fixed point of I , J , S and T. a is a fixed point of I. Indeed if Ia a we have ,
Put ,
0 ,
0 ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
0 0 , ,
, ,
, ,
0 ,
by implicit relation (1.14) which is a contradiction Hence Ia=a .a fixed point of T .Indeed put ,
, ,
And letting n → ∞ . if ,
0 ,
gives , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
0 ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
1 ,1 ,
, ,
0 ,
,1 ,
0 P a g e | 36 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) , ,
, ,
0 0 ,
, ,
by implicit relation(1.14) which is a contradiction, Hence ,Ta = a. Since ⊆
for all ∈ ,there is a point ∈ such that we have put We show that b is coincidence point of J and S .If Jb
0 ,
, ,
0 ,
, ,
, ,
0 0 0 ,
by implicit relation (1.14) which is a contradiction therefore a=Sb .Thus Ta = S b =J b = a. Since J and S are weak compatible we deduce that ⇒
So if Ta Sa We have put x = y =a in (1) We show that ,
0 ,
, ,
, ,
0 P a g e | 37 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) ,
1 ,
1 ,
0 , ,
0 0 , ,
, ,
by implicit relation (1.14) is a contradiction Therefore Sa = a. Now Sa = Ta =Ja = a if be another fixed point of of I, I ,T and S , then put x = a and y = b , , ,
, ,
, ,
0 , ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
0 , ,
, ,
, ,
1 ,
1 ,1 ,
0 1 ,1 ,1
, , ,
, ,
0 , ,
, ,
, ,
by implicit relation 1.15.which is a contradiction. Therefore a = b Refrences [1] A. George and P. Veeramani, (1994), On some results in fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets and System 64 395–399. [2] D.Mihet, A Banach (2004) contraction theorem in fuzzy metric spaces ,Fuzzy Sets Syst.144 431‐439. [3] E. Pap, O. Hazdic and R .Mesiar, (1996) A fixed point theorem in probabilistic metric spaces and and an application J. Math. Anal. Appl. 202) 433‐449. [4]G.DschrijvecrCCornelisand
E.E.Kerre 2001 Ontherepresentationof
[5]G.DschrijvecrandE.E.Kerre 2003 Onthe
6 I.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, (1965), Inform and Control 89 ,338–353. [7] I. Kramosil and J. Michalek, (1975), Fuzzy metric and statistical metric spaces, Kybernetica 11 326–334. [8] J.Goguen fuzzysets, 1967 J.Math.
9 M.A. Erceg(1979) Metric spaces in fuzzy set theory J. Math. Anal. Appl. 69 ,205‐230. [10] O.Kaleva and S.Seikkala , (1984), On fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets Syst. 12 ,215‐220. P a g e | 38 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (32 – 39) [ 11 ] R. Saadati , A. Razani and H. Adibi 2006, A common fixed point theorem in ‐fuzzy
101016/jchaos.01.023 [12] .S. Chang ,Y.J.Cho.,B.S.Lee,J.S. Jung and S.M.Kang Coincidence point and mini‐
mization theorems in fuzzy metric spaces Fuzzy Sets Syst. 88 (1997) 119‐128. [13] V.Gregori and A.Sapena, On fixed point theorems in fuzzy metric spaces,Fuzzy Sets. Syst.125 (2002) 245‐252. [14] E. Pap, O. Hazdic and R .Mesiar, A fixed point theorem in probabilistic metric spaces and and an application J. Math. Anal. Appl. 202 (1996) 433‐
449. [15] Z.K.Deng Fuzzy pseudo metric spaces J.Maths Anal.Appl. 86 (1982) 74‐95. P a g e | 39 Corresponding Author : email : [email protected], [email protected], International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND BUSINESS Pavan Mishra Professor And Director Rajeev Gandhi Management Institute, Bhopal ABSTRACT The environment today is no longer just the air we breathe, or the water to meet people’s requirements has been practiced since Pre‐Vedic era. Over exploitation of natural resources by growing population resulted in various severe problems. As a first step towards the goals for environmental concerns is to establish an “Environmental Management System “or EMS. Environmental Management System is formal system concerned with managing the aspects of company’s activities, products and services that have or could have an impact on environment. INTRODUCTION As it is a fact that business creates wealth and is basis of economy, same is the fact that natural environment is the basis of all economic activity. Our life depends on nature to fulfill our necessities which are basics and natural environment and ecosystem services provide us with food water and materials for production system and living. From scenic beauty and recreational opportunities to direct inputs into the production process, environmental resources proves to be the means to provide a complex set of values and many advantages to the society. There exists both direct and indirect benefits which are relevant in environmental valuation. Our life depends on nature to fulfill our necessities which are basics and natural environment and ecosystems services provide us with food ,water and materials for production system and living. The precious non‐renewable resources which are scarce are exploited and indiscriminately used for the growth of the economy of the nation which results in environmental problems and hence leads to imbalance in ecosystem. MATERIAL AND METHODS : ISSUES OF BUSINESS WITH ENVIRONMENT A book published by Paul How ken in 1993 named "The Ecology of Commerce” which reveals that business has three issues to face. These include: 1 What it takes 2 What it makes 3 What it wastes 1 What it takes:‐ States that It takes natural resources from earth’s ecosystem through mining, extracting, growing, hunting and other such like things. 2 What it makes:‐It means that the product and services derived from above resources through industrial processes 3 What it wastes:‐It is not only in the form of garbage or pollution but also eco‐cost i.e. damage to the ecosystem. If Our business practices neglect and ignore the significance of above analysis especially the issue of eco‐cost it would mean to destroy our life support system our “Environment” ENVIRONMENT means surrounding in which any organization or living system operates. It includes natural, physical entities like our water land and its resources, human beings, plants, animals and their interrelationship. P a g e | 40 Corresponding Author : email : International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) So, protection of environment must become part of business issue worthy of commitment and action on the part of companies. So, protection of environment or achievement of goals for environmental concerns needs the EMS Systems which are necessary for business activities.. Environmental management system (EMS) refers to the management of an organization's environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental protection. An Environmental Management System (EMS): • Serves as a tool to improve environmental performance • Provides a systematic way of managing an organization’s environmental affairs • Is the aspect of the organization’s overall management structure that addresses immediate and long‐term impacts of its products, services and processes on the environment • Gives order and consistency for organizations to address environmental concerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes • Focuses on continual improvement of the system An Environment Management System (EMS) is a tool for managing the impacts of an organization’s activities on the environment. It provides a structured approach to planning and implementing environment protection measures. The main components of an Environmental Management Strategy in order of development are: • Collect preliminary data • Identify stakeholders • Determine scope • Develop aim and goals • Develop an Action Plan • Implement the Action Plan • Monitor and Review • Report An EMS monitors environmental performance, similar to the way a financial management system monitors expenditure and income and enables regular checks of a company's financial performance. An EMS integrates environmental management into a company's daily operations, long term planning and other quality management systems. BENEFITS OF AN EMS An EMS can assist a company in the following ways: • minimize environmental liabilities; • maximize the efficient use of resources; • reduce waste; • demonstrate a good corporate image; • build awareness of environmental concern among employees; • gain a better understanding of the environmental impacts of business activities; and • increase profit, improving environmental performance, through more efficient operations. An EMS can be a powerful tool for organizations to both improve their environmental performance, and enhance their business efficiency. An EMS is not prescriptive, rather, it requires organisations to take an active role in examining their practices, and then determining how their impacts should best be managed. This approach encourages creative and relevant solutions from the organisation itself. Although the implementation of an EMS is essentially a voluntary initiative, it can also become an effective tool for governments to protect the environment as it can assist regulation. For example, regulatory systems can encourage organisations to use EMS to meet P a g e | 41 Corresponding Author : email : International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) standards, by providing incentives for strong environmental performance. Likewise, organisations can use EMS to ensure that their performance is within regulatory requirements, and to keep ahead of more stringent regulations which might be introduced in the future. BUSINESS STRATEGIES IN RESPECT OF MARKETING AND MANUFACTURING : New ideas are emerging to reduce impacts of consumption such as producing zero emission vehicles, changing annual crops to perennials creating zero wastes textile mills and utilizing electronic paper and compos table footwear. It is imperative to follow business strategies in respect of marketing, manufacturing, accounting and trade as described below:‐ Marketing Strategy :‐ The traditional marketing depends on business and marketing these two are interlinked concepts. In today’s market mechanism. The eco‐cost factor is missing. To make marketing mechanism compatible and sustainable there is need to account eco‐costs and other consideration. For sustainable marketing eco‐cost have to become standard operating procedure spread over the product life cycle. Life cycle of a product refers to material flows starting with the stage of raw materials, its mining manufacturing, finished product its consumption and finally disposal of waste produced as a result of consumption. The life cycle analysis (LCA) gives an idea of eco‐costs associated with each stage. The companies desirous of adopting sustainable marketing have to use full‐cost accounting practice so that eco‐costs are included in the product may increase which may affect the profit maximization goal and shareholder’s interest of the company. In order to avoid such situation the company should go for state‐of‐the‐art technology. This involves 1. The state‐of‐the‐art technology which will be costly. 2. Materials used may have less impact on ecosystem can be more costly. 3. The non‐conventional energy used in the production may be more expensive. 4. To dispose the hazardous wastes is important and if it is not come in consideration in prescribed manner could lead to penalties. 5. Costs associated with installing EMS and certification (ISO 14001) is also important. ECO COST FLOW CHART
It is clear from the above conclusion that to
encourage the companies for adopting sustainable
business practice the govt. of developing nations
should provide incentives or subsides.
It is truth that sustainable practice
definitely reduce the “technological co-efficient
factor” of erlich equation that is “T” factor
Erlich equation I = P x A x T
Many countries are offering
subsidies for the companies or industrial sectors
that shift to clean technologies, recycling
programmes or for energy conservation /use of
non conventional energy resources.
Incentive – It mean incentive for
those (companies or entrepreneurs) who incur
P a g e | 42 Corresponding Author : email : International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) additional costs in their operations for the
protection of ecosystem. These incentives may
be in the form of financial compensation.
Incentive for those in the developed
countries when they engage in clean technology
transfer to developing countries.
Taxes for the activities lead to
environmental damage or resource depletion. For
example levy of extra duty or tax on leaded
petrol than unleaded.
Tradable permit system has been
introduced system has been introduced in
environmental management. For example,
tradable permits for greenhouse gas emission can
be exchanged through the market.
Regulations are made in various
developed countries for controlling emission of
carbondioxide or other gases.
A certain level of emission has been
granted to the production companies by these
regulation. The companies emitting less than that
level are allowed to sell the remainder emission
(pollution) to other companies as permits.
In MBIs, the market price is
charged for a product or service for which
otherwise no market price exists as for example for
gaseous emissions, or if the price impact on
environment. In other words, a market is created
for a product for which no market existed earlier.
Environmental valuation is largely
based on the assumption that individuals are
willing to pay for environmental gains and,
conversely, are willing to accept compensation for
some environmental losses.. Environmental
economists have developed a number of market
and non-market-based techniques to value the
environment. Figure presents some of these
techniques and classifies them according to the
basis of the monetary valuation, either marketbased, surrogate market, or non-market-based.the
following diagram shows the valuation methods as;
Methods for Market Valuation
Market - Based
Surrogate Markets
Market-Based Methods. Economists rely on direct,
observable market interactions to place monetary
values on goods and services. Markets enable
economists to measure an individual's willingness
to pay to acquire or preserve environmental
services. In turn, consumers reveal their
preferences through the choices they make in
allocating scarce resources among competing
alternatives. There are a number of market-based
methods of environmental valuation. These
includes market-based techniques: a) factor of
producer/consumer surplus, and c) examination of
defensive expenditures.
Surrogate Market Methods. In the absence of
clearly defined markets, the value of
environmental resources can be derived from
information acquired through surrogate markets.
The most common markets used as surrogates
when monetizing environmental resources are
those for property and labor. The surrogate market
methods discussed below are the hedonic price
method and the travel cost method, The hedonic
P a g e | 43 Corresponding Author : email : International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) price method of environmental valuation uses
surrogate markets for placing a value on
environmental quality. The real estate market is the
most commonly used surrogate in hedonic pricing
of environmental values. Air, water, and noise
pollution have a direct impact on property values.
By comparing properties with otherwise similar
characteristics or by examining the price of a
property over time as environmental conditions
change and correcting for all non environmental
factors, information in the housing market can be
used to estimate people's willingness to pay for
environmental quality.
The travel cost method can be used to
measure not only the elimination of a site but also
the impact of access restrictions and changes in
environmental quality. The travel cost method,
however, is limited in application and captures
only direct recreational benefits and only when
there are measurable travel costs to examine.
Finally, the travel cost method does not measure
non-use and intrinsic values or other sources of
value, such as commercial values.
Random utility models (RUMs) are
econometric models that, among other uses, permit
the estimation of preferences among different
recreational areas with varying characteristics. The
RUM, with its ability to assess competing multiple
sites with varying recreational characteristics,
holds considerable appeal for economists. A RUM
is not specific to surrogate market techniques.
Rather, a RUM is an estimation procedure that can
be combined with surrogate and non-market
techniques used in valuing, for example,
recreational areas and wetland area restoration.
Travel cost studies often use RUMs; however, they
may also be applied in stated preference studies
that use choice experiments.
eNon-Market Methods. The Contingent Valuation
Method (CVM) is a non-market-based technique
that elicits information concerning environmental
preferences from individuals through the use of
surveys, questionnaires, and interviews. When
deploying the contingent valuation method, the
examiner constructs a scenario or hypothetical
market involving an improvement or decline in
environmental quality. The scenario is then posed
to a random sample of the population to estimate
their willingness to pay (for the improvement or
their willingness to accept monetary compensation
for the decline in environmental quality. The
questionnaire may take the form of a simple openended question Based on survey responses
examiners estimate the mean and median
willingness to pay for an environmental
compensation for a decline in environmental
The CVM is extremely flexible and can be
used to value most any environmental asset.
Further, CVM and other non-market methods are
required accurately to capture non-use values. This
is a significant point in a world comprised of
ecosystems under great stress from human impacts,
where increasing attention is being given to nonuse values. The question faced by social scientists,
which can be somewhat addressed through nonmarket environmental valuation methods, is how to
place a value on such an environmental resource.
The objective of the choice experiment
study was to examine community preferences
relating to various options necessary to meet the
demands of the area's growing population, while
focusing attention on resultant environmental costs
(Blamey and others, 1999).
Environmental valuation techniques are
primarily driven by the principle that individuals
are self-interested and demonstrate preferences that
form the basis of market interactions. These market
interactions demonstrate how individuals value
environmental goods and services. The marketbased nature of economic theory emphasizes the
maximization of human welfare. The market, in
P a g e | 44 Corresponding Author : email : International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) turn, determines resource allocation based on the
forces of supply and demand.
The environment, thus, is used as an
instrument to achieve human satisfaction. In turn,
the environment can be treated like any other
commodity and its associated value can be broken
down into many elemnts. In this manner,
environmental valuation can be viewed as a
mechanistic approach in which the total value of an
environmental system is assessed in terms of the
value of its individual parts.
Existence values are not demonstrated in
the marketplace and are at least somewhat based
on unselfish motives making them problematic to
environmental analysts. To quantify existence
values accurately within the framework of
environmental valuation is difficult. Revealed
preference methods (e.g., travel cost method and
hedonic pricing methods) measure the demand for
the environmental resource by measuring the
demand for associated market goods. Existence
values are not adequately captured using these
methods. Existence values are only revealed
through surveys of individual willingness to pay
for the environmental resource or willingness to
accept compensation for environmental losses.
Command and control method :- The other aspect
of market – environment relationship is command
and control method. In this method a policy
framework exists that mandates compliance to
certain standards laid down by regulatory
In command and control mechanism economic
implications are of paramount importance. If
pollution complies and invests more money in
pollution abatement it is an extra financial burden
for cleaner production for a win-win situation, the
product should ecologically sound as well as less
costly India is investing 0.3% of GNP on pollution
control. In command and control system and MBIs
in both financial implications / incentives always
exist, In MBIs, since there is no command, the
companies have a choice to use technologies that
may reduce the cost of compliance.
Conclusion / Suggestion
As a first step the aspects of company’s
activities, products and services must be managed
that could have an impact on environment by
establishing an environmental management system
(EMS) as it is necessary for business practices.
Environmental audit should be made to
know the environmental aspects and impacts to
companies activities and certified by an
independent certifier to demonstrate that system
confirms to relevant standard.
New ideas must emerge to reduce the
impacts of consumption such as producing zero
emission vehicles, changing annual crops to
perennials creating zero wastes textile mills and
utilizing electronic paper.
Lastly the most important step is to
establish market based instruments which include:
Subsides for the companies and industrial
sectors for recycling programs, cleaning
technologies & for use of non conventional
energy resources.
Incentive means incentive should be given
to developing countries when theory engages
clean technology.
And regulations and penalties made to
control the emission of harmful gases in the
“It is clear from the above conclusion that
encourage the companies for adopting
P a g e | 45 Corresponding Author : email : International Journal of Fundamental & Applied Research Website : ,( ISSN‐ 2320‐7973 Volume‐1 Issue ‐2 Month – May 2013 pp. (40 – 46) government of developing nations should provide
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P a g e | 46 Corresponding Author : email :