RECOPILACIÓN y TRANSCRIPCIÓN de RESÚMENES de TRABAJOS PUBLICADOS en REVISTAS INTERNACIONALES correspondientes a parte de la bibliografía recomendada a los alumnos de FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN por su profesor titular Juan María Ulberich PARTE I Relacionada con los distintos capítulos del LIBRO de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción" PARTE I I En relación con el "ANEXO" al libro de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción" 1 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. PARTE I Relacionada con los distintos capítulos del libro de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción" CAPÍTULO I INFERTILIDAD - INFECUNDIDAD - ESTERILIDAD DHALIWAL, G.S.; MURRAY, R.D.; DOBSON, H. "Effects of milk yield, and calving to first service interval, in determining herd fertility in dairy cows", "Animal Reproduction Science","FEB1996","41","2","109-117", "H. Dobson/Univ Liverpool/Dept Vet Clin Sci & Anim Husb/Wirral L64 7TE/Merseyside, England" "Fertility and 305-day milk yield data, comprising 3527 lactation records over a period of 2 to 8 years from eight dairy herds, were used to assess the interrelationship between different calving to first service (C-S) intervals and levels of production. Lactatingcows were placed into low and high yielding groups with due consideration to parity. Fertility parameters such as first service to conception (S-C) interval, calving to conception (C-C) interval and serves per conception for cows conceiving (S/C) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) for low yielding cows than high yielding animals. Low yielding cows had higher first service conception rate (FSCR) and overall conception rate (OCR).%Overall, the high yielding cows conceived 19 days later after calving than low yielding herd- mates and required 0.27 extra inseminations per conception. The differences were even greater for those cows inseminated within 80 days of calving, i.e. approximately 25 days longer from calving to conception with 0.42 extra inseminations needed for the high yielding cows. With the increase of C-S interval, the FSCR of low yielding cows increased steadily while there was a sudden step-wise increase in high yielding animals; the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001) for the cows served within 60 days of calving but were more consistent for the matings after 100 days. Within high and low yielding groups, the probability of conceiving to each successive service did not differ significantly.%To conclude, the inherent genetic potential of milk production of individual cows may lower their fertility." GELLERMANN, G.; HOPPE, H.; AURICH, C. "Factors influencing fertility in the horse" "Praktische Tierarzt","APR 1 1996","77","4","320" "G. Gellermann/Tierarztl Klin Pferde/Kurzenmoor 13/D-25370 Seester, Germany" "In this study fertility on a large stud farm between 1945 and 1988 was evaluated and factors influencing fertility in the horse are discussed. During the period of investigation, a total of 2672 mares were bred, resulting in 2050 pregnancies (77 per cent) and 1893 foals born (71 per cent). Under stud farm conditions, the anovulatory season in warmblood mares usually is restricted to only a few weeks and prolongation of the breeding season can contribute to improved annual fertility rates. No obvious decrease in fertility with increasing age of the mares was found, indicating that reduced fertility in old mares can be compensated 2 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. to a certain degree by management and veterinary intervention. The incidence of foal losses due to infectious diseases could be markedly reduced, when new therapeutic approaches became available in the early sixties. In a total of 36 cases (1,8 percent of all foalings) twins were born, however only 9 twin foals survived the neonatal period. Fertility also differed markedly between stallions. For breeders it would therefore be help ful if information on the fertility of individual stallions would be available." HEUWIESER, W.; MANSFELD, R.; FOOTE, R.H. "Effect of GnRH treatment on fertility of dairy cows with special regard to body condition score" "Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995", "76","10","886" "W. Heuwieser/Free Univ Berlin/FB Vet Med/Tierklin Fortpflanzung/Konigsweg 63/D-14163 Berlin,Germany" "The objective of this study was to determine the effect of GnRH treatment in dairy cows differing in body condition score. A total of 2437 primiparous and multiparous cows was allocated randomly to receive either GnRH (100 mu g) or placebo at the post partum exam (25 to 35 d) and at the first breeding. Complete records were available from 1906 cows: Group 1 (n = 535) placebo and placebo;Group 2 (n = 489) GnRH and placebo; group 3 (n = 438) placebo and GnRH; and Group 4 (n = 444) GnRH and GnRH. The change of body condition score during early lactation was determined on a 1 to5 scale (1 = emaciated to 5 = obese). Cows with a high body condition score (3.0) at the first breeding had 8.8 fewer days to first service and 6.4 fewer days open but more services per conception (0.16) than cows with low body condition score (< 3.0). Conception rate improved when GnRH was administered at the first breeding to cows with a body condition score of < 3.0 at the first breeding regardless of parity. The administration of GnRH at the post partum exam decreased the conception rate in first lactation cows but was beneficial for cows in second and greater lactations. Thus the efficacy of GnRH was not consistent in all parities and body condition groups." MACMILLAN, K.L.; LEAN, I.J.; WESTWOOD, C.T. "The effects of lactation on the fertility of dairy cows" "Australian Veterinary Journal","APR 1996","73","4","141-147" "K.L. Macmillan/Dairying Res Corp/Private Bag 3123/Hamilton, New Zealand" "Lactation has been negatively associated with fertility because pregnancy rates in maiden heifers exceed those obtained after first or subsequent calvings. The extent of this difference is less in pasture-fed dairy cows (< 10%) than in American Holsteins (> 20%) fed grain and conserved forages. The latter cows have pregnancy rates to first insemination and oestrus detection rates of only 40 to 45%. This suggests that the subsequent fertility of inherently fertile Holstein heifers may be severely compromised by high levels of milk production. International comparisons show that pasture-fed dairy cows may experience extended periods of anovulatory anoestrum but have normal fertility (60% pregnancy rate to first insemination) once cycling, The high-producing American Holstein may ovulate within 4 weeks postpartum but is more likely to continue ovulating without being detected in oestrus.%Both situations are associated with negative energy balances (NEB) during early lactation. The severity and duration of this NEB may vary with body condition at calving, age or parity, ration formulation, production level and environmental factors. Relative daily milk yield is not an absolute indicator of NEB, because some lower producing cows within a herd have lower feed intakes and more severe energy deficits. NEB is not simple to measure; nonetheless, it is correlated with genetic improvement for milk yield.%A positive energy 3 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. balance, greater weight gain and higher body condition score have all been shown to be positively correlated with plasma progesterone concentrations in early lactation. No studies have investigated the possibility that the rapid increase in metabolic rate at this time may also alter steroid concentrations with consequent effects on oestrous behaviour and fertility.%Studies to more precisely define the effects of increasing milk yields in early lactation, especially in Holsteins, may need to be completed in Australia and New Zealand. Oestrus detection rates and pregnancy rates for American Holsteins of less than 50% are accepted widely in the USA. Such low detection rates confound studies on fertility. The objective should be to increase these 2 rates to at least 80% and 60% respectively. This may involve the use of controlled breeding, especially if oestrous behaviour is less overt in high-producing Holstein cows." PLATEN, M.; MUNNICH, A.; LINDEMANN, E.; KROCKER, M. "Fertility and milk production in high yielding dairy cows" "Tierarztliche Umschau","DEC 1995","50","12","815" "M. Platen/Humboldt Univ Berlin/Inst Angew Nutztierwissensch/Fg Tierhaltungssyst/Philippstr 13/D-10115 Berlin, Germany", "The inter-relationship between milk production and fertility was examined in a dairy herd with art average of 10,071 litres per lactation. The variability in fertility and milk yield which is influenced by environmental factors are discussed. Regression coefficients indicated that the reproductive status of high yielding factors was independent of the variation in milk yield factors. The competition between milk yield and fertility is the product of physiological factors and not genotype. A milk yield of 8,400 litres per lactation is the point at which this physiological competition begins. The relatively high milk yield and fertility status of approximately one third of the herd indicated that individual animals which are capable of the necessary adaptation can achieve this. The best milk yield together with art acceptably fertility status was observed in animals with a high quotient of protein- to- fed in the milk." SENATORE, E.M.; BUTLER, W.R.; OLTENACU, P.A. "Relationships between energy balance and post-partum ovarian activity and fertility in first lactation dairy cows" "Animal Science","FEB 1996","62"," Part 1","17-23" "E.M. Senatore/Univ Milan/Ist Alimentazione Anim/Milan, Italy" "Forty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were monitored from calving through 100 days in milk to evaluate the effect of energy balance in the early post-partum period on subsequent fertility. The post-partum interval to first ovulation (R(2) = 0 . 41; P < 0 . 005) was lengthened by greater negative energy balance, and reduced by greater body Weight at parturition or decreased body-Weight loss during the experimental period. Luteal activity (R(2) = 0 . 58; P < 0 . 0001), measured by plasma progesterone area under curve, was increased in the first cycle post partum by a shorter interval to first ovulation, improved energy balance during the 1st week of lactation and by decreased body-weight loss. Pregnancy status following first artificial insemination was related positively to the number of ovulations before insemination, improved energy balance during the 1st month post partum, fewer days to first ovulation and greater body weight at calving. These data suggest that energy balance and body weight are important in determining the post-partum interval to first ovulation and the subsequent fertility of first lactation dairy cows." 4 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. THATCHER, W.W.; DELASOTA, R.L.; SCHMITT, E.J.P.; DIAZ, T.C.; BADINGA, L.; SIMMEN, F.A.; STAPLES, C.R.; DROST, M. "Control and management of ovarian follicles in cattle to optimize fertility" "Reproduction Fertility and Development"," 1996","8","2","203-217" "W.W. Thatcher/Univ Florida/Dept Dairy & Poultry Sci/Gainesville, FL 32611 USA" "Experiments were designed to elucidate the control of ovarian follicle turnover and the impact of follicular dynamics on the subsequent fertility of dairy cattle. An experimental model was established to examine the interrelationships of gene expression for steroid enzymes, the insulin- like growth factor system and inhibin production as associated with follicle selection, dominance and atresia, Follicular dynamics during the postpartum period and the oestrous cycle are shown to be altered markedly by the metabolic demands of lactation. The feeding of ruminally- inert fat stimulated follicular development and improved reproductive performance. The development of persistent follicles during oestrus synchronization causes a reduction in fertility that can be corrected by recruitment and selection of a new ovulatory follicle after the injection of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist. Present systems of oestrus synchronization need to consider both synchronization of follicular development and corpus luteal regression in order to optimize fertility. With current systems manipulating follicle development, the potential to implement a timed insemination programme to improve reproductive management exists. Ovulation of the first-wave dominant follicle with human chorionic gonadotrophin provides a means to markedly enhance concentrations of plasma progesterone in the luteal phase." CAPÍTULO I I TRASTORNOS FUNCIONALES de INFERTILIDAD o de ESTERILIDAD en la HEMBRA ADAMS, N.R. "Detection of the effects of PHYTOESTROGENS on sheep and cattle" "Journal of Animal Science 73: 5 (MAY 1995) Page(s) 1509-1515." "N.R. Adams, CSIRO, Div Anim Prod, Wembly, Wa 6014, Australia." "Cows and ewes fed estrogenic forage may suffer impaired ovarian function, often accompanied by reduced conception rates and increased embryonic loss. Males are relatively unaffected, but the mammary glands in females and castrate males may undergo hypertrophy of the duct epithelium, accompanied by secretion of clear or milky fluid. In cows, clinical signs resemble those associated with cystic ovaries. The infertility is temporary, normally resolving within 1 mo after removal from the estrogenic feed. However, ewes exposed to estrogen for prolonged periods may suffer a second form of infertility that is permanent, caused by developmental actions of estrogen during adult life. The cervix becomes defeminized and loses its ability to store spermatozoa, so conception rates are reduced, although ovarian functio n remains normal. Importantly, both temporary and permanent infertility in ewes often occur without observable signs and can be detected only by measurement of phytoestrogens in the diet, or measurement of their effects on the animal. Low background concentrations of dietary phytoestrogens are suggested to play an important role in prevention of disease in humans and laboratory rats, but subclinical effects of phytoestrogens in cattle have not yet been described. Effects of low concentrations of phytoestrogens on reproductive function in ruminants are likely to receive increasing attention." 5 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. BORROMEO, V.; BRAMANI, S.; BERRINI, A.; SIRONI, G.; FINAZZI, M.; CREMONESI, F.; SECCHI, C. "Growth hormone but not prolactin concentrations in the fluid of bovine ovarian cysts are related to the cystic stage of luteinization" "Theriogenology","AUG 1996","46","3","481-489" "C. Secchi/Univ Milan/Inst Vet Physiol & Biochem/Via Celoria 10/I-20133 Milan, Italy" "Regulation of follicular growth and ovulation as well as steroid production by the ovary depends principally on gonadotropins. However nonsteroid systemic hormones and autocrine and paracrine factors contribute to the regulation of ovarian function. The objectives of the present work were 1) to asses the presence of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in fluid drawn from normal bovine ovarian follicles, cysts or cystic corpora lutea; 2) to relate the stage of luteinization of the cyst with the GH and PRL concentrations in fluids; and 3) to asses the feasibility of providing a defined nonsteroid hormone marker to distinguish between normal and pathological ovarian structures. Cysts were classified according to histological and morphological appearance as follicular or luteal. Concentrations of GH, PRL, estrogens (E(2)), progesterone (P-4) and testosterone (T) were measured in follicular and cystic fluids. On the basis of the E(2) to P-4 ratio, ovarian formation classes were further divided into two subclasses (E(2) dominant and P-4 dominant). The results provide evidence of 1) the presence of immunoreactive GH and PRL in all the follicular and cystic fluids assayed, 2) an increasing concentration of GH correlated to the stage of luteinization of the cyst and a direct correlation between GH and P-4 concentrations, 3) a significant variability of intraovarian fluid PRL concentration not related to the histological class of the cyst nor to the concentrations of steroid hormones examined, and 4) the possibility of distinguishing 6 different ovarian formation classes by merely measuring GH, P-4, E(2) and T concentrations in fluids. These data contribute to a better understanding of the endocrine milieu of bovine ovarian cystic degeneration." CARSONDUNKERLEY, S.A.; HANSON, R.R. "Ovariectomy of granulosa cell tumors in mares by use of the diagonal paramedian approach: 12 cases (1989-1995)" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association" "JUL 15 1997","211","2","204" "S.A. Carsondunkerley/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849 USA" "Objective-To describe the short- and long-term survival rates in horses undergoing ovariectomy for granulosa cell tumors by use of the diagonal paramedian approach.%Design-Retrospective case study.%Animals-12 horses with granulosa cell tumors.%Procedure-A diagonal paramedian approach for unilateral ovariectomy was used for removal of each mare's granulosa cell tumor. Information about complications and outcomes was analyzed.%Results-Only minimal complications were detected postoperatively when the diagonal paramedian approach was used, regardless of the preferred technique for ovarian pedicle ligation or incisional closure and the use of pre- and postoperative medications. Clinical signs of moderate or severe postoperative abdominal pain were not evident in any of the 12 horses. Short- and longterm survival rates were 100%.%Clinical Implications-The diagonal paramedian approach was advantageous for ovarian tumor removal, because the ovary was immediately adjacent to the body wall at a portion of the incision site. Size of the ovary was not a limitation, because muscle tissues al the edges of the incision were flexible and easily retractable. All of these factors improved exposure, decreased traction on the 6 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. ovary, increased our ability to observe the vasculature, and decreased postoperative morbidity, aiding in the removal of granulosa cell tumors in mares." FIKE, K.E.; WEHRMAN, M.E.; BERGFELD, E.G.M.; KOJIMA, F.N.; KINDER, J.E. "Prolonged increased concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol associated with development of persistent ovarian follicles do not influence conception rates in beef cattle" "Journal of Animal Science","MAY 1997","75","5","1363-1367" "J.E. Kinder/Univ Nebraska/Dept Anim Sci/Lincoln, NE 68583 USA" "Objectives were to evaluate conception rates and time to estrus following cessation of treatments designed to either cause prolonged elevated concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol associated with development of persistent ovarian follicles or to inhibit elevated concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and development of persistent ovarian follicles. Beef heifers (n = 80) and 2-yr-old nonlactating cows (n = 39) were stratified by age, blocked by estrual status (previously exhibited estrus or anestrus) and assigned to receive either 1) four norgestomet implants (4 Norg; n = 59) for 9 d (d 0 = treatment initiation) or 2) one norgestomet implant from d 0 to 7 and three additional norgestomet implants from d 7 to 9 (1 + 3 Norg; n = 60). All animals received PGF(2 alpha) on d 0 to lyse corpora lutea. All implants were removed on d 9 followed by estrus detection every 6 h for 7 d following implant removal. Females exhibiting estrus were artificially inseminated 6 to 12 h after detection of estrus. A treatment x day interaction (P < .01) for concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol from d 0 to 9 of the experiment with elevated 17 beta-estradiol occurring in females treated with 1 + 3 Norg implants. The interval from treatment withdrawal to estrus was longer (P < .01) in females treated with 1 + 3 Norg (105 h) than in those treated with 4 Norg (61 h). Synchrony of estrus among anestrous females was greater (P < .10) in females treated with 4 Norg (97%) than in females treated with 1 + 3 Norg (67%) but was similar in estrual females. Conception rates (number conceiving to AI/number bred by AI) did not differ (4 Norg = 67%; 1 + 3 Norg = 72%; P > .10). Pregnancy rates (number conceiving to AI/number in treatment group) also did not differ between treatment groups of either estrual or anestrous females. Conception rates are not compromised in females that develop persistent ovarian follicles and have prolonged elevated concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol when persistent ovarian follicles are not allowed to ovulate." FOLEY, G.L. "Pathology of the corpus luteum of cows" "Theriogenology","MAY 1 1996","45","7","1413-1428" "G.L. Foley/Univ Illinois/Dept Vet Pathobiol/Urbana, IL 61801 USA" "The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ which can manifest a number of pathologic conditions such as cysts, inflammation, adhesions, dysfunction and neoplasia. Luteal and follicular cysts are the most commonly encountered abnormalities and need to be distinguished from cysts within a normal CL. Inflammatory lesions are also frequently encountered and can be caused by viral, bacterial, or iatrogenic causes. If inflammation is severe, adhesions and subfertility/infertility can result. Luteal dysfunction is a broad classification of another pathologic condition encountered in the cow. Generally this results in abnormal production of progesterone or abnormal luteal lifespan resulting in infertility. Neoplasms are relatively rare in the CL but include both primary and metastatic tumors. Understanding the pathologic conditions that occur within the CL will allow a more accurate clinical assessment of these very dynamic endocrine structures." 7 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. GARVERICK, H.A. "Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows" "Journal of Dairy Science","MAY 1997","80","5","995-1004" "H.A. Garverick/Univ Missouri/Dept Anim Sci/Anim Sci Res Ctr 163/Columbia, MO 65211 USA" "Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that occur in 10 to 13% of dairy cows. This review focuses upon the dynamics of cyst growth, development, and persistence as well as on associated endocrine and cellular mechanisms. During the estrous cycle of cows, two to four waves of follicular growth occur. From a cohort of recruited follicles, one is selected for continued growth and dominance while the others undergo atresia and regress. In contrast, cysts have long been thought to be static structures that persist for extended periods. Although cysts can persist for extended periods, most regress over time and are replaced during subsequent follicular waves. The next dominant follicle either ovulates or develops into a new cyst. The recruitment of a cohort of follicles from which a cyst develops and the growth rate of cysts to ovulatory size are similar to ovulatory follicular waves, but the cyst continues to grow for a longer period. The interval between waves of follicular growth is longer for cows with cysts than for cows with normal estrous cycles. Each wave is preceded by a transient increase in circulating FSH. Near the time of cyst development and persistence, the concentration of FSH is not different from that during normal estrous cycles. Serum concentrations of LH and estradiol-17 beta are higher in cows that develop cysts than in cows that do not. Conversely, hypothalamic content of GnRH is lower in cows with cysts. Thus, cysts are dynamic structures, and their deve lopment and lifespan are likely associated with altered hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian function." GASTAL, E.L.; KOT, K.; GINTHER, O.J. "Ultrasound-guided intrafollicular treatment in mares" "Theriogenology","NOV 1995","44","7","1027-1037" "E.L. Gastal/Univ Wisconsin/1655 Linden Dr/Madison, WI 53706 USA" "A technique for intrafollicular treatment with a transvaginal ultrasound-guided injection needle was developed using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) as the test substance. An injection was made into one growing follicle of a wave when the follicles were 20 to 23 mm.The treated follicles were injected with 1000 iu of eCG in 0.2 ml saline solution and control follicles were injected with 0.2 ml of the saline vehicle (10 mares per group, 1 follicle per mare). The injection system used an inner 25-gauge needle and an outer 20-gauge needle inserted together through the needle-guide channel of a linear-array transvaginal transducer. The outer needle was pushed through the vaginal wall and the inner needle was then advanced into the follicle during monitoring on the ultrasound screen. The turbulence in the follicular fluid associated with injection was observable on the screen. Seven follicles were successfully injected in each group. The follicular fluid in the control follicles remained anechoic until thefollicle was no longer identifiable or ovulated. All 7 follicles in the eCG group showed ultrasonic indications of luteinization, based on the formation of an echogenic, thickened wall or area. Five of the 7 developed a central area that had the ultrasonic appearance of a blood clot similar to the appearance of a corpus hemorrhagicum. Ovulation was not detected in any of the eCG-treated follicles. The maximum post-treatment diameter of follicles was greater (P<0.05) for the eCG group (32.7 +/- 3.8 mm) than for the control group (23.4 +/- 1.8 mm). The mean diameter for the first 5 days post-treatment (before the occurrence of an ovulation in any mare) was also greater (P<0.002) in the eCG group (21.6 +/- 0.8 mm vs 19.6 +/- 0.8 mm). Results indicated that this novel research approach is 8 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. practical and has potential for studies on folliculogenesis. The technique provides a research model between the extremes of an in vitro culture system and treatment of the who le animal." GRYGAR, I.; KUDLAC, E.; DOLEZEL, R.; NEDBALKOVA, J. "Volume of luteal tissue and concentration of serum progesterone in cows bearing homogeneous corpus luteum or corpus luteum with cavity" "Animal Reproduction Science","DEC 5 1997","49","2-3", "77-82" "R. Dolezel/Univ Vet & Pharmaceut Sci Brno/Brno 61242, Czech Republic" "Ultrasonographical examinations of ovarian structures were performed in 27 inseminated cows at estrus days and on days 4, 9, 20, 25, 30, and 40 after ovulation. Three cows were used twice, Corpora lutea (CLs) with a cavity were compared with homogeneous CLs in pregnant and nonpregnant cows. Diameters and volumes of CLs and cavities, as well as volumes of luteal tissue and concentrations of serum progesterone were determined, The volumes of the structures were calculated using a mathematical formula for a rotary ellipsoid. Homogeneous CLs and CLs with a cavity and their luteal tissue reached a maximum volume in nonpregnant and pregnant cows on day 9 after ovulation. At this time, CLs volumes were 7.52 +/- 3.14 (homogeneous CLs, n = 4) and 4.54 cm(3) (CLs with a cavity, n = 1) in nonpregnant cows, and 6.05 +/- 1.71 (homogeneous CLs, n = 10) and 9.54 +/- 2.67 cm(3) (CLs with a cavity, n = 15) in pregnant cows. The volumes of luteal tissue were 7.52 +/- 3.14 and 4.33 cm(3) in nonpregnant cows and 6.05 +/- 1.71 and 8.62 +/- 3.46 cm(3) in pregnant cows. Concentrations of progesterone in peripheral blood in pregnant cows bearing a homogeneous CLs or CLs with a cavity on day 9 were 3.15 +/- 0.69 ng ml(-1) and 4.12 +/1.28 ng ml(-1), respectively. The concentrations of progesterone were higher in pregnant cows in comparison with nonpregnant cows. CLs with a cavity in pregnant cows contained a higher volume of luteal tissue and higher secretory activity compared to homogeneous CLs. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V." KASARI, T.R.; FULLER, D.T.; WIDEMAN, D.; JAQUES, J.T.; SLAY, L.; LEE, J. "Bovine cystic ovarian disease and the role norgestomet can play in its treatment" "Veterinary Medicine","FEB 1996","91","2","156-162" "T.R. Kasari/Texas A&M Univ/Coll Vet Med/Texas Vet Med Ctr/Dept Large Anim Med & Surg/College Stn, TX 77843 USA" "In the case described in this article, norgestomet implants were used to treat cystic ovarian disease after other established hormonal therapies failed." OHNAMI, Y; KIKUCHI, M; ONUMA, H. "The use of ultrasonography to study the responses of cystic ovarian follicles in cows to treatment with GnRH analogue" "Irish Veterinary Journal 48: 7-8 (JUL-AUG 1995)- Page(s) 275-276" "Y. Ohnami, Kitasato Univ, Sch Vet Med & Anim Sci, Towada, Aomori 034, Japan" "A single intramuscular injection of 200 mu g GnRH-A induced rupture of persistent follicles in nine cows within one or two days. On four occasions the luteal tissue that developed at the site of rupture was not identified by rectal palpation but in each case transrectal ultrasonography revealed the doughnut image of a cystic corpus luteum and hormone assay revealed that it was actively secreting normal quantities of progesterone." 9 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. OSAWA, T.; NAKAO, T.; KIMURA, M.; KANEKO, K.; TAKAGI, H.; MORIYOSHI, M.; KAWATA, K. "Fertirelin and buserelin compared by LH release, milk progesterone and subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows treated for follicular cysts" "Theriogenology","OCT 15 1995","44","6","835-847" "T.Osawa/RakunoGakuen Univ/Dept Vet Obstet & Gynecol/582-1 Midorimachi Bunkyodai/Ebetsu/Hokkaido 069, Japan" "This field study compared the efficacy of a single injection of 200 mu g fertirelin with that of 20 mu g buserelin in shortening the recovery period of 68 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with ovarian follicularcysts 65 d post partum or later. Differential diagnosis was based not only on palpation per rectum but also on skim milk progesterone profiles (less than or equal to 1.0 ng/ml) spanning a 15-d period rather than the conventional 7-d period, and diagnostic accuracy was markedly enhanced by the 15-d progesterone profiles. At 2 to 2.5 h post treatment all the cows showed an LH increase four- fold or greater. Luteinization, indicated by progesterone levels (greater than or equal to 1.0 ng/ml) 1 wk after treatment, was evidenced in 75% of the fertirelin group and 72% of the buserelin group. A 74% conception rate was achieved in fertirelin-treated cows, with a mean interval of 71 d from treatment to conception. In the buserelin-treated cows, 65% conceived and the treatment-to-conception interval was 63 d. Differences were insignificant. At the doses used the two GnRH analogs were deemed equally effective in managing particularly stubborn follicular cysts." RAGLE, C.A.; SOUTHWOOD, L.L.; HOPPER, S.A.; BUOTE, P.L. "Laparoscopic ovariectomy in two horses with granulosa cell tumors" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","SEP 15 1996","209","6","1121" "C.A. Ragle/Washington State Univ/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Pullman, WA 99164 USA" "Two mares were admitted for ovariectomy of unilateral granulosa cell tumors. Both mares were ovariectomized (1 unilateral and 1 bilateral) by use of a ventral abdominal laparoscopic technique. This approach required tilting the operative table 30 degrees to elevate the pelvis and to allow observation of the ovaries. Using a single laparoscopic portal and 3 to 4 instrument portals, a triangulation technique was used. The ovarian pedicles were isolated and secured via loop ligation. The ovaries then were divided from the ligated pedicle and placed within specimen bags for extraction. The specimen bags then were removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Using this technique, it was determined that granulosa cell tumors or ovaries of up to 20 cm in diameter can be removed. Laparoscopic ovariectomy provided a means to provide tension- free dissection and ligation of the ovarian pedicle. In comparison to conventional techniques, this may improve suture security and reduce complications related to excessive pedicle tension. Improved observation during surgery, less pedicle tension, and minimal invasiveness made laparoscopic ovariectomy of these 2 mares advantageous." WOLLGARTEN, B. "Treatment of ovarian cysts in cattle by injection of a non-specific irritant agent into ovarian associated acupuncture points" "Tierarztliche Umschau","DEC 1996","51","12","754" "Wollgarten/Univ Giessen/Ambulator & Geburtshilfliche Vet Klin/Frank furter Str 106/D-35392 Giessen,Germany" "The effect of the injection of diluted formidium acid into ovarian associated acupuncture points on the oestrus cycles of dairy cows was examined. This involved the 10 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. bilateral sub- and intra-cutaneous injection of 4 ml of formidium(R) D4 between the first and second and second and third lateral processes of the lumbar vertebra approximately 8 cm paravertebrally. The oestrus rates were 37.5% until day 7, 71.4% until day 14 and 87.5% until day 20 after treatment. The ultimate pregnancy rate was 72.9% and that after first insemination after the first oestrus was 56.1%. The results therefore indicate and improvement competitive to classical hormonal therapy." CAPÍTULO I I I AFECCIONES de las VIAS GENITALES de la HEMBRA COHEN, R.O; BERNSTEIN, M; ZIV, G."Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinomyces pyogenes recovered from the uterus of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes and post parturient Endometritis" "Theriogenology 43: 8 (JUN 1995) Page(s) 1389-1397" "R.O. Cohen, Hachaklait, Qiryat Tivon, Israel" "The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents for Actinomyces pyogenes isolates recovered from the uterus of cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) and post-partur ient endometritis (PPE) were determined. Cows with RFM received a course of intrauterine tetracycline therapy, whereas some cows with PPE received a similar treatment and others did not. Samples of uterine exudate were aseptically collected at least 10 d after the last treatment. A profuse growth of A. pyogenes was observed on blood agar plates inoculated with uterine exudate from 72% of the 54 cows sampled. Differences were not observed in the type and characteristics of bacterial growth in the exudate of cows with PPE which were sampled before and after antibiotic treatment. The MIC of penicillin G, amoxycillin, cephalothin lincomycin and tylosin for 90% of the isolates was < 0.5 mu g/ml; the corresponding value for streptomycin, oxytetracycline (OTC), chloramphenicol, nor for floxacin and sulfadiazine/trimethoprim was > 10.0 mu g/ml. The MIC of OTC for 90% of the A. pyogenes isolates was >100 mu/ml. The susceptibility of 14 A. pyogenes isolates of bovine udder origin and 3 A. pyogenes ATCC isolates from the bovine udder and abscesses in sheep and swine to antibiotics was determined, for comparative purposes. Most of the isolates recovered from the uterus were resistant to OTC and sulpha/TMP whereas this was not the case for isolates recovered from other sources." COHEN, R.O.; COLODNER, R.; ZIV, G.; KENESS, J. "Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria recovered from the uteri of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes and postparturient endometritis" "Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe B Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health","JUN 1996","43","4","193-199" "G. Ziv/Kimron Vet Inst/Minist Agr/POB 12/IL-50250 Bet Dagan, Israel" "The uteri of 77 postparturient dairy cows were sampled. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically, and the nature of bacterial growth was identified. A mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection was found in 55 % of the samples. Actinomyces pyogenes was the predominant aerobic species; it was found in 70 % of the samples, whereas Bacteroides melaninogenicus was the most frequent anaerobic species isolated. Altogether, 16 species belonging to the genus Bacteroides were identified with variable frequencies. It 11 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. appears that more than one Bacteroides species colonizes the uterus of a given cow postpartum. %The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clindamycin, metronidazole, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin for 83 anaerobic isolates were determined. All isolates were susceptible to clindamycin (MIC(90) of 0.064 mu g/ml) and all but two to metronidazole. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was variable, with a bimodal distribution of MIC values. The MIC of tetracycline for 90 % of the isolates was >256 mu g/ml." DOHMEN, M.J.W.; LOHUIS, J.A.C.M.; HUSZENICZA, G.; NAGY, P.; GACS, M. "The relationship between bacteriological and clinical findings in cows with subacute chronic endometritis" "Theriogenology 43: 8 (JUN 1995) Page(s) 1379-1388" "M..J.W. Dohmen, Intervet Int BV, POB 31, 5830 AA Boxmeer, Netherlands" "Bacteriological data from the uterine swabs of 101 cows with subacute/chronic (> 14 d post partum) endometritis, with additional clinical observations (cervical discharge score), were collected before and at 14 d after intrauterine treatment with antibiotics. The discharge score ranged from 0 (clear mucus) to 4, and increased when it was more purulent. On the day of treatment, Actinomyces pyogenes, Bacteroides spp. and Fusobacterium necrophorum were isolated from 65, 77 and 61% of the uterine swabs. Escherichia coli was present in 36% and other bacteria in 48% of the swabs. The presence of A. pyogenes was positively correlated with that of Bacteroides spp. (P < 0.001) and F. necrophorum (P < 0.05), whereas E. coli and streptococci were negatively associated with the presence of A. pyogenes (P < 0.05). Actinomyc pyogenes, Bacteroides spp and F. necrophorum were positively correlated with a discharge score (P < 0.05). The absence of A. pyogenes and/or F. necrophorum at 14 d after treatment resulted in higher clinical cure rates (defined as absence of pathologic discharge), (P < 0.01). These data support the importance of A. pyogenes and Gram- negative anaerobes in the pathology of endometritis. We also conclude that vaginoscopic examination is a good tool for the diagnosis of subacute/chronic endometritis and evaluation of the result of the treatment". LAMPE, A. "Recurring colic in a mare with an ovary hematoma" "Praktische Tierarzt","SEP 1 1997","78","9","744" "A.Lampe/Tierarztlichen Praxis Dr Kraemer/Lindenstr 10/D-41569 Rommerskirchen, Germany" "An incomplete left dorsal displacement of the large colon with an impaction of the stenostenotic gut segment was diagnosed in a 6-year-old Trakehner mare. The presence of an ovarian hematoma on the left ovary is a possible reason for appearance of colic." PEELER, E.J.; OTTE, M.J..; ESSLEMONT, R.J. "Inter-relationships of periparturient diseases in dairy cows" Veterinary Record 134: 6 (FEB 5 1994) Page(s) 129-132 E.J. Peeler, Univ Reading, Dept Agr,Vet Epidemiol & Econ Res Unit, Reading RG6 2AT, England. The associations between periparturient diseases in 3603 lactations over three calving seasons were assessed on 10 dairy farms in the south west of England by using logistic regression. Calf mortality and dystocia were strongly associated. Twinning and dystocia were important predictors of calf mortality. Twinning was also a significant predictor for retained fetal membranes. Retained fetal membranes, twins, calf mortality and dystocia,in that order of importance, were risk factors for vulval discharge. Twinning, dystocia, retained fetal 12 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. membranes and lameness before service increased the risk of mastitis before service. Similarly, mastitis and dystocia before service increased the risk of lameness before service. Oestrus was less likely to be observed in cows that had twinned or suffered lameness before service, the latter having a significantly greater influence in first calvers than older cows. SAR, G.C.; MOHANTY, B.N.; RAY, S.K.H.; MOHANTY, D.N. "Endometrial biopsy in infertile cows" "Indian Journal of Animal Sciences","NOV 1996","66","11","1100-1105" "G.C. Sar/Frozen Semen Bank/Sambalpur/Orissa, India" "Endometrial samples from 39 clinical cases and 18 slaughtered cows were collected by Nielson's biopsy cathetor. These samples revealed acute and sub-acute inflammation of uterus in 90 and 10% samples, respectively, in repeaters with normal discharge, whereas in cows with abnormal discharge the corresponding percentage was 10 and 40 with 50% showing chronic form of endometritis. Occurrence of acute, sub-acute and chronic forms of endometritis in 18 sterile cows was 22.22, 27.78 and 50.00%, whereas all the control animals did not show any inflammatory changes in the biopsy materials." SLIMANE, N.; AHMADI, C.; OUALI, F.; KACHTI, M.; THIBIER, M. "Epidemiological and clinical analysis of post puerperium endometritis in dairy cows " "Recueil de Médecine Veterinaire 170: 12 (DEC 1994) Page(s) 823-832" "N. Slimane, Ecole Natl Med Vet, Sidi Thabet 2020, Tunisia" "The aim of the present study was to analyse some of the epidemiological factors involved in post-partum endometritis and their influence on the subsequent fertility in tunisian dairy herd as well as the effectiveness of various treatments. This study was carried on a number of 250 cows approximately from the same farm during four consecutive years in which a Reproduction survey such as the so-called Integrated Veterinary Program of Action for Reproduction (PAVIR) was applied. The overall rate of endometritis was 17,2 p. cent. Significant factors susceptible to modify this rate were the age and season. By contrast, individual repeatability and milk production were without effect. Corynebacterium were the most often isolated from the vulvae and uterine cavity in respectively 39.5 p. cent and 52.5 p. cent of these cases of endometritis. Treatments with Antibiotherapy and Prostaglandine F-2 alpha resulted in a conception rate of 70 p. cent in the 120 days after calving. In conclusion, systematic clinical examination performed 30 day after parturition was found to be an important feature to preduce the detrimental effect of such post-puerperium endometritis and the majority of cases had recovered in an interval of time compatible with the herds economics." WATSON, E.D.; THOMSON, R.M. "Lymphocyte subsets in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares susceptible to endometritis" "Equine Veterinary Journal","MAR 1996","28","2","106-110" "E.D. Watson/Royal Dick Sch Vet Studies/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Easter Bush/Roslin EH25 9RG/Midlothian, Scotland" "The density and distribution of MHC Class II positive cells and subpopulations of lymphocytes were studied in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares susceptible to endometritis. In genitally normal mares, more MHC Class II positive cells were present in the epithelium and stratum compactum during oestrus than dioestrus, Significantly more CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were present in the stratum compactum than in the 13 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. stratum spongiosum, CD4+ lymphocytes were present in greater numbers than CD8+ lymphocytes in the stratum compactum but approximately equal numbers were present in the stratum spongiosum and in lymphoid aggregates, Occasional CD4+ and CD8+ cells were seen in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Infrequently, B cells were present in the endometrium and were not observed in the epithelium. Numbers of T and B cells did not appear to be affected by cycle stage, In mares with endometritis, the densities of CD4+, CD8+ and B cells were significantly increased, Large aggregates of lymphoid cells which containe approximately twice as many CD4+ cells as CD8+ cells were present in the endometrium of these mares and all 3 subclasses of lymphocyte were seen occasionally in luminal and glandular epithelium. WATSON, E.D. "Swabbing protocols in screening for contagious equine metritis" "Veterinary Record","MAR 15 1997","140","11","268-271" "E.D. Watson/Univ Edinburgh/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Vet Field Stn/Easter Bush/Roslin EH25 9RG/Midlothian, Scotland" "Outbreaks of contagious equine metritis in Britain during 1996 emphasised the importance of preventing the disease through full and widespread implementation of the Horserace Betting Levy Board's code of practice. The provision of satisfactory samples for testing represents an integral part of applying the cone. Here, in an article commissioned by the British Equine Veterinary Association, Dr Elaine Watson describes the techniques involved." WEBER, J.A.; WOODS, G.L.; AGUILAR, J.J. "Effects of cervical dilation and intrauterine infusions on the timing of oviductal transport of equine embryos" "Theriogenology","JUN 1996","45","8","1443-1448" "G.L. Woods/Univ Idaho/Dept Vet & Anim Sci/NW Equine Reprod Lab/Moscow, ID 83844 USA" "Equine embryos spend 5 to 6 d in the oviduct before entering the uterus as expanded blastocysts, and cannot be consistently collected nonsurgically until Day 7. Technologies such as cryopreservation and embryo splitting, which are most successful with embryos at the morula or early blastocyst stage, have not been used in mares because equine morulae and early blastocysts are located in the oviduct and cannot be recovered nonsurgically. These experiments test the hypothesis that transport of equine embryos through the oviduct can be hastened by cervical dilation or by acute, sterile endometritis induced by intrauterine oyster glycogen treatment. Cervical dilation with or without intrauterine infusion of 0.5 ml PBS on Day 4 did not appear to hasten the transport of embryos into the uterus since Day 5 uterine embryo recovery rates were not higher (P >0.1) for mares with cervical dilation or cervical dilation plus PBS infusion vs mares receiving no treatments (0 of 5 and 0 of 5 vs 0 of 10, respectively). Intrauterine infusions of 40 ml of 1% oyster glycogen or 40 ml of PBS on Day 3 did not appear to hasten the transport of embryos into the uterus since Day 5 uterine embryo recovery rates were not higher (P >0.1) for oyster glycogen- or PBS-treated vs untreated mares (2 of 12 and 3 of 11 vs 0 of 10, respectively). Cervical and uterine treatments on Day 3 or Day 4 and uterine lavages on Day 5 decreased (P <0.05) Days 11 to Day 15 pregnancy rates compared with that of untreated mares. Day 11 to Day 15 pregnancy rates were 1 of 5 for mares with Day 4 cervical dilation and Day 5 uterine lavage, 1 of 5 for mares with Day 4 PBS infusion and Dy 5 uterine lavage, 2 of 12 for mares with Day 3 oyster glycogen infusion and Day 5 uterine lavage, and 3 of 11 for mares with Day 3 PBS infusion and Day 5 uterine 14 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. lavage vs 7 of 10 for mares that received no treatment or lavage. Cervical and uterine manipulations on Day 3 or 4 and uterine lavage on Day 5 appeared to decrease pregnancy rates by Days 11 to 15. The results of these experiments do not support the hypothesis that cervical dilation or uterine infusion hasten oviductal transport, since neither cervical manipulation nor transcervical infusion of oyster glycogen or PBS into the uterus significantly hastened the rate of embryo transport into the uterus." WELLE, M.M.; AUDIGE, L.; BELZ, J.P. "The equine endometrial mast cell during the puerperal period: Evaluation of mast cell numbers and types in comparison to other inflammatory changes" "Veterinary Pathology","JAN 1997","34","1","23-30" "M.M. Welle/Univ Bern/Inst Tierpathol/Langgass Str 122/CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland" "Endometrial biopsies of 44 broodmares were histologically examined on days 3, 6, and 9 postpartum. The mares were subdivided into three groups according to the course of the puerperal period. In 29 mares, parturition and expulsion of the placenta was normal, six mares showed dystocia, and in nine mares, the placenta was retained for >2 hours. Tissue samples were evaluated histologically, and the average numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, siderophages, and mast cells was determined. Protease content of mast cells was examined with a double-enzyme immunohistochemical staining technique, using a histochemical reaction for chloroacetate esterase and fast blue to detect chymase activity and an immunohistochemical staining method with a polyclonal antibody and fast red for the detection of tryptase. Analyzing the cell numbers using the statistical software Statistica, a marked inflammatory reaction was observed in the endometrium postpartum. Although the number of granulocytes decreased during the first 9 days postpartum, the number of lymphocytes, macrophages, and siderophages increased. No significant difference in the number of any of these cell types could be demonstrated in the three different courses of the puerperal period, although the numbers of these cells seemed to be lower in mares with dystocia. In contrast with other cells, no change in the number of endometrial mast cells was observed during the puerperal period, but a significantly lower number were found in the endometrium of mares with retained placenta. The enzyme immunohistochemical double-labeling technique could demonstrate only tryptase-positive mast cells; no chymase activity was detectable in any endometrial mast cells. The number of mast cells detected with the metachromatic staining technique was significantly higher than that detected with double labeling. These results support the hypothesis that a sufficient number of mast cells may be necessary for a normal postnatal period and suggest a mast cell subtype in the equine endometrium that is tryptase and chymase negative." ZERBE, H.; SCHUBERTH, H.J.; HOEDEMAKER, M.; GRUNERT, E.; LEIBOLD, W. "A new model system for endometritis: Basic concepts and characterization of phenotypic and functional properties of bovine uterine neutrophils" "Theriogenology","DEC 1996","46","8","1339-1356" "H. Zerbe/Hannover Sch Vet Med/Ctr Bovine Gynecol & Obstet/D-30173 Hannover, Germany" "The intention of this study was to develop a model system of puerperal endometritis in cows, which would permit detailed analysis of components and mechanisms relevant to the onset and development of this disease. As the first essential step we examined the induction and migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) into the uterus under defined conditions. Migration of neutrophils into the uterus of healthy estrus synchronized heifers (n=8) was induced by intrauterine infusion of 50 ml of a 30 nmol/l solution of 15 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. leukotriene B-4 (LTB(4)). Before and 24 h after the infusion, cells were flushed from the uterine lumen. In addition to total leukocyte counts, viability and morphological differentiation of various leukocyte populations, phenotypic characteristics of PMNs were monitored by means of quantitative immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. The capacity of PMNs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) following activation with phorbol ester was measured using dihydrorhodamine 123. The phagocytic activity of PMNs was determined by their ingestion of fluorochrome labeled nonviable staphylococci. Most methods mentioned above were adapted to flow cytometric analysis. The LTB(4) attracted selectively large numbers of PMNs into the uterus. In comparison with contemporarily harvested blood PMNs, neutrophils recovered from the uterine lumen showed changes in the expression of some but not all of their surface structures. Phagocytic activity of uterine PMNs was significantly lower when compared with that of blood PMNs. In contrast, the generation of ROS was not different between blood and uterine PMNs. Thus, the concept of inducing endometritis directly by local application of a physiological mediator of inflammation such as LTB(4) has been successful. This bovine model permits detailed analysis of migration of PMNs into the uterus and their behavior under defined conditions within the autologous system. CAPÍTULO IV FACTORES GENÉTICOS de ESTERILIDAD o de INFERTILIDAD JUSTI, A.; HECHT, W.; HERZOG, A.; SPECK, J. "Comparison of different methods for the diagnosis of freemartins - Polymerase chain reaction, blood group serology and karyotyping" "Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","DEC 1995","102","12","471-474" "A.Herzog/Univ Giessen/Fachgebiet Vet Med Genet & Zytogenet/Hofmannstr 10/D-35392 Giessen, Germany" "The percentage of freemartins among blood samples tested by chromosome analysis amounted to 83,9%, by blood group serologie 71,4%. 126 blood samples have been tested by blood group serology and PCR. Employing blood group serology, 71,3% and using PCR with BOV97M primers 85,8% of the animals proved to be freemartins. 40 blood samples were additionally analysed using PCR with zinc- finger-gene primers. 36 animals (90%) were identified as being freemartins by means of BOV97M and 34 animals (85%) by means of the zinc-finger- gene primer. The PCR method proved to be a rapid and very sensitive method for the diagnosis of freemartins and also suitable for routine testing. The BOV97M primer showed to have a higher Y chromosome specifity than the zinc-finger- gene primer." MIYAKE, Y.I.; KANEMAKI, M.; CHIBA, A. "Chromosomal analysis of cases with chimerism that consisted of normal cells and cells with 1/29 translocation in homosexual twin cows and their calves" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","MAY 1997","32","3","175-177" "Y.I. Miyake/Iwate Univ/Fac Agr/Dept Vet Med/Lab Theriogenol/Morioka/Iwate 020, Japan" "This communication describes cases with chimeric patterns that consisted of cells with 60,XX and 59,XX,t(1:29) in homosexual twin cows and a dam having heterozygosity for 1/29 Robertsonian translocation. The calves from one partner twin had 1/29 translocation 16 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. only. On the other hand, calves from another partner twin had normal cells only. From the results obtained, it is proposed that germ cells would not migrate in bovine freemartin syndrome." MOMMENS, G.; VANZEVEREN, A.; PEELMAN, L. "Detection of freemartins by a Y chromosome specific DNA sequence" "Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift","MAR-APR 1997","66","2","88-92" "G.Mommens/Lab Bloedgrp Onderzoek Runderen/St Lenaartsebaan 29/B-2390 Malle, Belgium" "Freemartins which go unrecognized represent an economic loss for the farmer holding them for breeding. Consequently, early diagnosis is needed. The presence of the Y chromosome in freemartins can be detected immediately after birth by a DNA technique. This method is quicker than classical karyotyping, is easier to interpret than blood typing, and its efficiency is guaranteed by the inclusion of a control band. The results of 36 cases are presented. Freemartinism was diagnosed in 31 (86%) of them. Comparisons with blood typing were made in 20 cases. Seventeen freemartins and two negatives were diagnosed with both techniques. In one case the Y chromosome was revealed only by the DNA technique." NG, A.; SATHASIVAM, K.; LAURIE, S.; NOTARIANNI, E. "Determination of sex and chimaerism in the domestic sheep by DNA amplification using HMG-box and microsatellite sequences" "Animal Reproduction Science","FEB 1996","41","2","131-139" "E. Notarianni/Univ Newcastle/Sch Med/Dept Physiol Sci/Newcastle Tyne NE2 4HH/Tyne & Wear, England" "We describe a rapid, reliable method for the sexing of the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) by amplification of Y-chromosome-specific sequences in male ge nomic DNA using the polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). Oligonucleotide primers were selected from a conserved sequence, the HMG box, in the sequence of ovine Sry, permitting amplification of a defined 161 bp fragment only from male-specific genomic DNA. As a control, microsatellite primers also were used in PCR reactions, recognising a sequence that is amplifiable in genomic DNA from both males and females. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique for the detection of Y-specific sequences in foetal biopsies (specifically small numbers of foetal germ cells), and in reconstruction mixtures of male and female genomic DNA to simulate the analysis of intersex chimaeras which would be produced when pluripotent cells have been established for this species." SATOH, S.; HIRATA, T.I.; MIYAKE, Y.I.; KANEDA, Y. "The possibility of early estimation for fertility in bovine heterosexual twin females – Note" "Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","MAR 1997","59","3","221-222" "Y.I. Miyake/Iwate Univ/Fac Agr/Dept Vet Med/Lab Theriogenol/Morioka/Iwate 020, Japan" "To diagnose the possibility of early estimation for fertility in bovine heterosexual twin females, we designed a new diagnostic program. The 9 freemartins (FM) and 5 normal females (Normal) were used in this study. All 14 cases, at 4 months of age, were given Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) 1.5-2 days later. Thereafter, the concentration of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) was determined by RIA, and that of progesterone (P) was done by RIA and EIA (Ovcheck EIA Kit). The concentration of E(2) in the Group of Normal rapidly increased after administration of PMSG, but in the Group of FM, the concentration of E(2) changed in very low levels over 14 17 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. days. The concentration of P in the Group of Normal rapidly increased after administration of PMSG, but in the Group of FM, the concentration of P changed in very low levels over 14 days." SCHMUTZ, S.M.; MOKER, J.S.; PAWLYSHYN, V.; HAUGEN, B.; CLARK, E.G. "Fertility effects of the 14;20 robertsonian translocation in cattle" "Theriogenology","MAR 1997","47","4","815-823" "S.M. Schmutz/Univ Saskatchewan/Dept Anim & Poultry Sci/Saskatoon/SK S7N 0W0, Canada" "Superovulation and embryo collection procedures were used to study the effect of the 14;20 Robertsonian translocation on fertility and embryo viability. Karyotypes were successfully completed on cells from 77 of the 279 embryos prepared for such analysis. Embryos from 4 cows heterozygous for the translocation were studied. Two bulls with the same condition were studied by using their semen in artificial insemination of cows with normal karyotypes. The proportions of fertilized ova and transferable embryos were not different between cows with the 14;20 translocation and those with normal karyotypes, indicating that fertilization rates were not affected: by the translocation. Twenty-two percent of the embryos which were karyotyped had an unbalanced karyotype and would theoretically not have survived to term. All of the theoretically predicted chromosome complements from such a translocation were observed as were three 58,XX,t karyotypes and a 58,XX karyotype. There was no difference in the percentage of embryos with abnormal karyotypes whether the cow or bull was the carrier. Results therefore indicate that fertility is rather severely impaired in carriers of the 14;20 translocation, as was observed with the 1;29 translocation, with most loss due to embryo mortality rather than a lowered conception rate. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc." CAPÍTULO V ENFERMEDADES QUE AFECTAN LA REPRODUCCIÓN ALBINA, E. "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: ten years of experience (1986-1996) with this undesirable virus infection" "Veterinary Research","JUL-AUG 1997","28","4","305-352" "E Albina/Cneva Ploufragan/Lab Cent Rech Avicole & Porcine/Unite Rech Virol & Immunol Porcines/BP 53/F-22440 Ploufragan, France" "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease in swine that emerged 10 years ago. Today, PRRS is endemic in many if not all the pig-producing countries. The syndrome is due to a small enveloped RNA virus which belongs to the new Arteriviridae group. This group also includes the equine arterivirus and the simian hemorrhagic fever virus. The disease produces many clinical symptoms in pigs of any age but the two major features of the syndrome are respiratory and reproductive failure. An influenza- like illness is often observed consisting of a transient loss of appetite, slight hyperthermia and respiratory distress. The reproductive problems include late-term abortion, stillbirth and young piglet mortality. The virus is remarkably well adapted to its natural host. It infects almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. For unexplained reasons, the 18 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. virus may persist in the body for extended periods (several weeks) after an antibody immune response has been mounted. Within herds, the virus may persist for several years. In the acute phase of the infection, the immune functions of the pig may be impaired, however, a chronic immunosuppressive effect does not seem to occur thereafter. Several vaccines are available, which all have protective value against PRRS clinical disorders.None of them, however, has been tested for its ability to prevent or shorten the persistent infection in individual pigs or the long-term effect of virus circulation within herds. In the future, PRRS virus may be only an additional contaminant of farms with limited effects on profitability; however the possibility for this persistent infection to supply swine or eventually other species with new pathogenic variants must be also considered. This review provides a detailed description of the aetiology, pathology, immunology, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of PRRS." ANDERSON, M.L.; PALMER, C.W.; THURMOND, M.C.; PICANSO, J.P.; BLANCHARD, P.C.; BREITMEYER, R.E.; LAYTON, A.W.; MCALLISTER, M.; DAFT, B.; KINDE, H.; READ, D.H.; DUBEY, J.P.; CONRAD, P.A.; BARR, B.C. "Evaluation of abortions in cattle attributable to neosporosis in selected dairy herds in California" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","NOV 1 1995","207","9","1206" "M.L. Anderson/Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Vet Diagnost Lab/Davis, CA 95616USA" "Objective-To estimate the minimum rate of abortion attributable to infection with Neospora sp in selected California dairy herds.%Design-Prospective study.%Animals-Twenty-six dairy herds containing 19,708 cows were studied. Fourteen herds had a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and 12 were herds in which neosporosis had not been identified as a cause of abortions.%Procedure-During a 1-year period, all available aborted fetuses were submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to determine the cause of abortion. Reproductive records of cows that aborted were reviewed.%Results-Neospora sp infection was the major cause of abortion identified (113/266 abortions, 42.5%). The majority (232/266, 87.2%) of the aborted fetuses were submitted from herds with a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and Neospora sp infection was identified as the causative agent in 101 of 232 (43.5%) of the abortions from these herds. Fewer aborted fetuses were submitted from the 12 herds that did not have a history of abortion attributable to Neospora sp; however, neosporosis was confirmed as a cause of abortion in 6 of these 12 herds and was identified as the causative agent in 12 of 34 (35.3%) abortions from these herds. The disease was widespread throughout the state (19/26 herds in our study). Available reproductive histories of cows that had abortions attributed to neosporosis were evaluated, and 4 cows were identified that twice aborted Neospora- infected fetuses." BJORKMAN, C.; JOHANSSON, O.; STENLUND, S.; HOLMDAHL, O.J.M.; UGGLA, A. "Neospora species infection in a herd of dairy cattle" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","MAY 1 1996","208","9","1441" "C. Bjorkman/Swedish Univ Agr Sci/Dept Cattle & Sheep Dis/POB 7019/S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden" "Objective-To investigate the route of transmission of Neospora sp in a herd of dairy cattle in which sporadic abortions had been observed since the establishment of the farm in 1980.%Design-Serum samples were screened for antibodies to Neospora sp, and records from an artificial insemination program were analyzed.%Animals-58 female cattle.%Procedure-An ELISA was used to screen serum samples for antibodies to Neospora sp. Fertility, calf mortality, and relationships between specific cattle were investigated. Statistical analysis was 19 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. performed on the fertility data.%Results-Antibodies were detected in 17 of 58 (29%) tested cattle, All seropositive cattle were descendants of 2 cows purchased in 1980. Cattle that were descendants of those 2 cows were compared with their herdmates, but significant differences were not detected in the number of inseminations per confirmed pregnancy or in the number of cattle that required more than 1 insemination/pregnancy. Since 1980, there were 323 confirmed pregnancies in the herd, and calf mortality (prenatal and perinatal mortality) was 24 of 323 (7%).%Clinical implications-Congenital transmission of Neospora organisms together with the apparent lack of horizontal transmission observed in the herd reported here indicated that Neospora sp has the ability to be transmitted from dam to offspring for several generations. This mode of transmission would explain the maintenance of infection in a population of cattle despite the lack of a definitive host for the parasite." BJORKMAN, C.; HOLMDAHL, O.J.M.; UGGLA, A. "An indirect enzyme -linked immunoassay (ELISA) for demonstration of antibodies to Neospora caninum in serum and milk of cattle" "Veterinary Parasitology","FEB 1997","68","3","251-260" "C. Bjorkman/Swedish Univ Agr Sci/Dept Cattle & Sheep Dis/Box 7019/S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden" "An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in serum from cattle is described, Extracted tachyzoite proteins incorporated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms) were used as coating antigen and a mouse monoclonal antibody to bovine immunoglobulin G1 as conjugate. Western blot analysis of the iscom preparation revealed a restricted number of antigens compared with whole parasite homogenates. When probed with a serum from an experimentally infected calf, heavily stained antigens with apparent molecular masses of 28, 35, 45 and 78 kDa were seen, The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 100% and 96%, respectively, against an indirect fluorescent antibody test as indicator of true status, The applicability of the ELISA for demonstration of antibodies in milk was evaluated and the agreement between serum and milk ELISA was 95%." BONDURANT, R.H. "Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of trichomoniasis in cattle" "Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice","JUL 1997","13","2","345" "R.H. Bondurant/Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Dept Populat Hlth & Reprod/Davis, CA 95616 USA" "Bulls are increasingly able to carry Tritrichomonas foetus in the folds of epithelium on the surface of the penis and prepuce as they age. Transmission to the female reproductive tract at coitus does not necessarily interrupt fertilization, but results in embryonic or fetal death after the determination of pregna ncy. A definitive diagnosis in a suspect herd requires positive identification of the cause, either from preputial scrapings/flushings, or from aspirated cervicovaginal mucus. The self- limiting nature of infection in the female, and the chronic nature of infection in the male, make it more profitable to pursue the diagnosis in the bull battery first. Serological tests for screening female herds have been successful under experimental conditions. In natural service management systems, control involves segregation of the female by pregnancy status; the use of young, culture- negative bulls; and vaccination of females in enzootic areas." 20 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. BRENDEMUEHL, J.P.; CARSON, R.L.; WENZEL, J.G.W.; BOOSINGER, T.R.; SHELBY, R.A. "Effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on eCG and progestogen concentrations from gestation days 21 to 300 in the mare" "Theriogenology","JUL 1996","46","1","85-95" "J.P. Brendemuehl/Auburn Univ/Coll Agr & Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849 USA" "The influence of grazing endophyte- infected tall fescue on endometrial cup formation and function, progestogen production, and embryonic and fetal development were examined in pregnant mares between Day 21 and Day 300 of gestation. Total immunoreactive progestogens and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) concentrations were compared between untreated controls (endophyte- free, n=12) and treated mares (endophyte- infected, n=12). There were no differences in endometrial cup formation or function, as determined by eCG concentrations at Days 45, 60, 75, 90 and 120 (P > 0.05) between mares grazing endophyte-infected and endophyte- free tall fescue. Mares grazing the endophyte- infected tall fescue had lower total progestogen concentrations (P < 0.01) from Days 90 to 120 than the mares grazing endophyte- free tall fescue. Embryonic development based on mean vesicle height was not affected by endophyte exposure. No pregnancies were lost by mares in either treatment group during the trial period. The results of this study indicate that grazing endophyte- infected tall fescue between Day 21 and Day 300 does not alter endometrial cup formation and function, or result in increased pregnancy losses during this period. Lower progestogen concentrations between Days 90 and 120 with exposure to endophyte- infected tall fescue could reflect decreased luteal progesterone production." BUXTON, D.; BREBNER, J.; WRIGHT, S.; MALEY, S.W.; THOMSON, K.M.; MILLARD, K. "Decoquinate and the control of experimental ovine toxoplasmosis" "Veterinary Record","MAY 4 1996","138","18","434-436" "D. Buxton/Moredun Res Inst/408 Gilmerton Rd/Edinburgh EH17 7JH/Midlothian, Scotland" "Decoquinate was tested for its ability to reduce the effect of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in pregnant ewes, Sheep were given decoquinate in their feed daily at either 2 mg or 1 mg/kg bodyweight from 10 days before an oral challenge with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at 90 days of gestation, until lambing, Feeding decoquinate at the higher rate caused a delay in the onset of the febrile response to infection, reduced the overall severity of the fever and delayed the production of antibodies to the parasite. This treatment also reduced the placental damage caused by the parasite, lengthened the mean gestation period and increased the number and weight of live lambs, in comparison with ewes not fed decoquinate but challenged with T gondii oocysts. The treatment with 1 mg of decoquinate had smaller effects." BUXTON, D.; CALDOW, G.L.; MALEY, S.W.; MARKS, J.; INNES, E.A. "Neosporosis and bovine abortion in Scotland" "Veterinary Record","DEC 27 1997","141","25","649-651" "D. Buxton/Moredun Res Inst/408 Gilmerton Rd/Edinburgh EH17 7JH/Midlothian, Scotland" "Serum samples were collected over a two-year period from aborting cows and their fetuses from throughout Scotland; 465 maternal sera were examined using an 21 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. immunofluorescent antibody test for IgG antibody to Neospora caninum and 547 fetal sera were examined for IgM and IgG antibody to the parasite; 355 of the maternal sera were paired with their respective fetal samples. The maternal titres ranged from ys to 1/16,384, with 59 per cent (275) having titres of 1/128 or 1/256, Of the 547 fetal sera, 9.9 per cent had IgM titres equal to or greater than 1/64, 11.2 per cent had IgG titres equal to or greater than 1/64 and 15.9 per cent had IgM and/or IgG titres equal to or greater than 1/64, It is concluded that a fetal IgM or IgG titre of 1/64 or more is evidence of fetal exposure to N caninum but that the examination of maternal sera is less reliable on an individual basis, although valuable for indicating the degree of infection in a herd, Although fetal seropositivity does not necessarily provide proof that N caninum was the cause of death in a given case, the observation that 15.9 per cent of aborted fetuses had antibody to the parasite shows that vertical transmission from dam to fetus is relatively common and may be an important cause of fetal loss in cattle in Scotland." COX, B.T.; REICHEL, M.P.; GRIFFITHS, L.M. "Serology of a Neospora abortion outbreak on a dairy farm in New Zealand: A case study" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","FEB 1998","46","1","28-31" "M.P. Reichel/Maf Qual Management/Cent Anim Hlth Lab/POB 40063/Upper Hutt, New Zealand" "To describe the kinetics of serological titres after an abortion outbreak in April- May 1995 due to Neospora caninum affected 17 dairy cows in a herd of 320.%Methods. Thirty- five cows, that had either aborted, carried mummified calves, were not pregnant or calved normally were bled several times at regular intervals and the sera tested for Neospora antibodies in the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT).%Results. Maximal IFAT titres of up to 1:4000 occurred within 6 weeks of the abortion outbreak, decreased over the next 2 months to less than or equal to 1:200 and remained at this level until the next scheduled bleed a further 2 months later. A rise in titres was subsequently observed in the cows that had aborted or were not pregnant (at the time of the abortions) or had carried mummified foetuses, Seroconversion was also observed in some of the control cows, which had, up until then, remained seronegative. A dog and cat in contact with the cows in the herd investigated were, however, negative in the IFAT.%Conclusions, Maximal serological titres in Neospora abortions are observed within weeks of the abortion event and then quickly return to very law levels. Subsequently, a recrudescence of titres can be observed in infected cows during the next pregnancy, without it being associated with repeat abortions." CHRISTOPHERHENNINGS, J.; NELSON, E.A.; NELSON, J.K.; BENFIELD, D.A. "Effects of a modified-live virus vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in boars" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","JAN 1997","58","1","40-45" "J. Christopherhennings/S Dakota State Univ/Anim Dis Res & Diagnost Lab/Brookings, SD 57007 USA" "Objectives-To determine whether Vaccine virus is found inserum and semen of vaccinated boars, whether vaccination prevents subsequent shedding of wild-type virus after challenge exposure, and whether semen and blood variables are altered after vaccination or challenge exposure with wild-type virus, or both.%Design- Throughout the 50-day postvaccination period, serum and semen from exposed boars were eva luated for the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). All boars were then challenge-exposed with PRRSV isolate VR-2332 and evaluated for an additional 27 days. 22 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. Semen quality variables, serostatus, and blood variables were monitored.%Animals-7 PRRSV-seronegative adult boars.%Procedure-Semen was collected 3 times weekly and evaluated by use of a nested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of PRRSV RNA. Serum was obtained weekly and evaluated by nested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation. and PRRSV ELISA. Semen quality variables were evaluated 3 times weekly, and CBC was performed weekly.%Results-Vaccine virus was shed in the semen of all vaccinated boars, but shedding was of shorter duration in 4 of 5 vaccinated boars than that generally observed after exposure to wild-type virus. After challenge exposure, shedding of wild-type Virus in semen was shortened or eliminated in 4 of 5 vaccinated boars. Percentage of forward movement and normal spermatozoal morphology and motility were significantly reduced in vaccinated boars after challenge exposure. %Conclusions-Vaccine Virus was shed in semen of vaccinated boars, but vaccination generally reduced or eliminated shedding of wild-type PRRSV after challenge exposure. Semen quality appeared to be less than optimal, particularly after vaccination and subsequent challenge exposure with wild-type virus.%Clinical Relevance-Extra- label use of the PRRSV vaccine in boars remains controversial because some boars may still shed wild-type virus in semen after challenge exposure at postvaccination day 50. Semen quality also appeared to be altered after vaccination and subsequent challenge exposure." CRAVENS, R.L.; ELLSWORTH, M.A.; SORENSEN, C.D.; WHITE, A.K. "Efficacy of a temperature -sensitive modified-live bovine herpesvirus type -1 vaccine against abortion and stillbirth in pregnant heifers" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","JUN 15 1996","208","12","2031" "R.L. Crave ns/Pfizer Anim Hlth/812 Springdale Dr/Exton, PA 19341 USA" "Objective-To evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available temperature-sensitive modified- live bovine her pesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) vaccine against BHV-1 challenge- induced abortion and stillbirth.%Design-Prospective randomized control trial. %Animals-20 cycling, nonpregnant, BHV-1 seronegative heifers of various breeds and weights, 12 to 15 months old.%Procedure-Heifers were randomly assigned to a vac cinate (n = 10) or nonvaccinate control (n = 10) group. Seventeen td 26 days after members of the vaccinate group received a second dose oi vaccine, all heifers were artificially inseminated. Heifers were challenged intravenously with Cooper strainBHV-1 between days 177 and 187 of gestation. Aborted fetuses and stillborn calves were necropsied, and tissues collected for histologic examination and virus isolation. Heifers, calves, and fetuses were tested for BHV-1 antibody throughout the study.%Results-The difference in number of abortions or still-births between vaccinated heifers (1/10) and control heifers (10/10) was significant (P < 0.003). Seven of 10 control heifers had a virus neutralization antibody titer to BHV-1 at abortion or stillbirth that declined or remained unchanged from their titer at a previous serologic evaluation (7 to 66 days earlier).%Clinical Implications-Prebreeding vaccination of replacement heifers with modified- live BHV-1 vaccine provides fetal protection at 6 months of gestation (7 months after vaccination) and appears to be a reasonable precaution to control economic losses associated with BHV-1 infection-Abortions induced by BHV-1 are not necessarily associated with rising or markedly high virus neutralization antibody titers. These titers should be used cautiously when assessing the role of BHV-1 in bovine abortion and stillbirth." CRUZ, N.; ARAYA, O.; ZAROR, L.; DELCAMPO, C.H. "Reproductive problems related to fescue toxicosis in mares" "Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria"," 1997","29","1","167-169" "N. Cruz/Gen Gorostiaga 548/Santiago, Chile" 23 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. "An outbreak of abortion, agalactia and weak foals was observed in a thorougbred breeding farm in south central Chile. Of 96 pregnant mares, grazing on tall fescue, 11 aborted and 6 presented agalactia. A high percentage of weak foals was also observed.%Acremonium coenophialum was isolated from tall fescue, suggesting that the reproductive problem observed was due to the presence of the endophyte." DEKRUIF, A.; OPSOMER, G.; DEMEULEMEESTER, L. "Abortion on a Belgian dairy farm due to Neospora caninum" "Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift","JUL-AUG 1997","66","4","179-182" "A. Dekruif/Vakgrp Voortplanting/Verloskunde & 133/B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium" "In this article special attention is paid to infections with Neospora caninum as a cause of abortion in cattle. Recently (1996) Neospora caninum was diagnosed in an aborted calf. This calf originated from a dairy herd with 65 cows. During the last seven years on average nine cows (14 %) have aborted per year on this farm. This finding shows that Neospora caninum infections are enzootic in Belgium." DONE, S.H.; PATON, D.J.; WHITE, M.E.C. "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): A review, with emphasis on pathological, virological and diagnostic aspects" "British Veterinary Journal","MAR 1996","152","2","153-174" "S.H. Done/Cent Vet Lab Weybridge/Addlestone KT15 3NB/Surrey, England" "Despite early attempts to control the spread of the disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has now become endemic in many countries including Britain. The occurrence of subclinical herd infections, the prolonged circulation of virus within herds and probable aerogenic virus spread all mitigated against the success of control measures. The origin of the disease is unknown but the causative agent has been shown to be an arterivirus with shared features to lactate dehydrogenase virus of mice. There is evidence of extreme genetic and antigenic variability between American and European isolates. PRRS virus has a predilection for alveolar macrophages and does not grow in most cell lines. In infected pigs, viraemia can persist for many weeks in the face of circulating antibodies and little is known about the mechanisms by which immunity to infection develops. A wide spectrum of disease has been reported from the field, accompanied in some cases by heavy economic losses. Reproductive and perinatal losses were most prominent when the disease first appeared. In the endemic phase, PRRS may be more significant as a contributory factor to a post-weaning respiratory syndrome of young pigs of 3-8 weeks. On- farm techniques have been developed to reduce the recycling of PRRS virus fi om older infected nursery pigs to the younger newly weaned pig. Vaccines are now marketed for the control of PRRS, but are not licensed for use in Britain. Improvements in knowledge of virion composition and antigenic stability and in the nature of the immune response of the pig should result in genetically engineered subunit vaccines becoming available. Diagnosis of PRRS is still difficult as many animals do not show clinical signs and may only be detected by serology and often only when other respiratory diseases are being investigated, Now that the infection is widespread, serological testing must be properly targeted and interpreted to give meaningful results about virus circulation. An increasing arsenal of diagnostic methods are becoming available to detect virus in both fresh and fixed specimens. The pathogenic mechanisms of PRRS remain poorly defined and more work is needed to reveal the nature of the interaction between PRRS virus and other factor's in disease.","Bailliere Tindall/24-28 Oval Rd/London/England NW1 7DX","" 24 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. EAGLESOME, M.D,; SAMPATH, M.I.; GARCIA, M.M. "A detection assay for Campylobacter fetus in bovine semen by restriction analysis of PCR amplified DNA" "Veterinary Research Communications 19: 4 (AUG 1995) Page(s) 253-263" "M.D. Eaglesome, Agr Agrifood Canada, Anim Dis Res Inst. POB 11300, Stn H, Nepean, on K2H 8P9, Canada." "A rapid screening assay for Campylobacter fetus in bull semen was developed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) to complement isolation by culture. An oligonucleotide primer pair (C-1/C-2) from the hypervariable region of 16S rRNA of C. fetus was used to amplify a 362 base pair fragment by PCR. Tile PCR/REA assay, which is completed in 10 hours, detected as few as three C. fetus subsp. venerealis cells in experimentally infected raw bull semen and in semen diluted with milk or egg yolk Tris (EYT). All the strains tested, of both subspecies of C. fetus, were amplified, as were some other Campylobacter species. Restricting the amplified products by AluI differentiated C. fetus from the other organisms. There was no visible product generated by PCR from C. sputorum subsp. bubulus, a saprophytic organism found in the prepuce of bulls, or from seven other species of bacteria found in semen. A modification of the PCR assay, using another primer pair (C-3/C-2) and two temperature PCR cycling conditions, increased the proba of detecting C. fetus subsp, venerealis. PCR amplification followed by REA could be used to screen bovine semen rapidly for C. fetus. In most cases, sequencing of C-1/C-2 PCR generated products would be preferable fo r distinguishing between the two subspecies of C. fetus. GAY, J.M.; EBEL, E.D.; KEARLEY, W.P. "Commingled grazing as a risk factor for trichomonosis in beef herds" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","AUG 1 1996","209","3","643" "J.M. Gay/Washington State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Field Dis Invest Unit/Pullman, WA 99164 USA" "Objective-To evaluate commingled grazing on public lands as a risk factor for Tritrichomonas foetus infection in beef herd bulls.%Design-Case-control study.%Sample Population-Based on 1994 data from the mandatory Idaho bull testing program, all 65 infected herds (case herds), 78 randomly selected test-negative herds that tested < 10 nonvirgin bulls, and 81 randomly elected test-negative herds that tested greater than or equal to 10 nonvirgin bulls (control herds). %Procedure-Managers of government-owned grazing lands in Idaho identified producers who had grazing permits for an allotment under their jurisdiction in 1993 and for that allotment recorded the number of animals the producer was permitted to graze on the allotment, the number of herds with grazing permits, The total number of animals permitted, and the dates on which grazing began and ended. The number of bulls tested, number of times tested, and test results were collated from the testing database.%Results-The relative sensitivity of bacterial culture of preputial smegma was 81%. The attributable fraction of T foetus infection associated with commingled grazing was 33%, and the odds ratio of infection was 9.0 for herds commingled with greater than or equal to 14 other herds. The total number of animals permitted on an allotment, the use of public lands, and type of public lands used were not significantly associated with infection status.%Clinical implications-These results suggest that to control the spread of trichomonosis, the number of herds commingling on a grazing allotment should be minimized and commingled herds should be managed collectively. 25 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. GRIFFITHS, P.C.; PLATER, J.M.; MARTIN, T.C.; HUGHES, S.L.; HUGHES, K.J.; HEWINSON, R.G.; DAWSON, M. "Epizootic bovine abortion in a dairy herd: Characterization of a Chlamydia psittaci isolate and antibody response" "British Veterinary Journal","NOV-DEC 1995","151","6","683-693" "P.C. Griffiths/Cent Vet Lab/Dept Virol/Minist Agr Fisheries & Food/Addlestone KT15 3NB/Surrey, England" "A chlamydial agent was recovered from the placental cotyledons of an aborting cow from a 100-cow dairy herd in Cumbria. Immunoblotting analysis of purified elementary bodies of the isolate revealed a reactivity pattern typical of serotype I Chlamydia psittaci strains. Nucleotide sequencing of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene further confirmed the isolate, BA1, as a serotype I strain. The sequence was identical to that of the type strain of ovine enzootic abortion, B577. In both the antigenic and MOMP sequencing analyses BA1 was distinguishable from serotype II C. pecorum strains. A sequential series of sera obtained from the aborting cow, from which BA1 was recovered, was analysed by immuno-blotting against the homologous isolate, and demonstrated reactivity to major chlamydial antigens over a 110-day period. Close contact between ruminant species on the farm suggested that the C. psittaci strain may have been transmitted to cattle from infected sheep." GUMBRELL, R.C.; SAVILLE, D.J.; GRAHAM, C.F. "Tactical control of ovine Campylobacter abortionoutbreaks with a bacterin" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1996","44","2","61-63" "C.F. Graham/Lincoln Anim Hlth Lab/POB 24/Lincoln, New Zealand" "Abortions due to Campylobacter fetus fetus (C. fetus fetus) were diagnosed in three Canterbury ewe flocks 6 weeks prior to lambing. In two of the necks, two inoculations of a C. fetus fetus bacterin, 10 days apart, reduced the incidence of abortions in the treated ewes to about one third and one half respectively of the level in the control ewes in the same nock. The treatment had no effect in a third nock where an outbreak had been in progress for 2 weeks before investigations started. The results confirm earlier Scottish work where pregnant sheep were inoculated with a C. fetus fetus vaccine following artificial challenge with C. fetus fetus. This inoculation significantly reduced the number of C. fetus fetus abortions. The results also indicate that treatment must start very early in an outbreak." ISHIYAMA, T.; NISHIMORI, T.; KATO, M.; YAMADA, H.; SATO, K.; SENTSUI, H. "Direct detection of equine herpesvirus DNA in tissues of aborted equine fetuses" "Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe B Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health","DEC 1996","43","10","639-642" "T. Ishiyama/Natl Inst Anim Hlth/Hokkaido Branch/Kannondai 3-1-1/Tsukuba/Ibaraki 305, Japan" "Restriction endonuc lease analysis of equine herpesviruses 1 (EHV-1) and 4 has been investigated using cultured cells infected with these viruses. The DNA cleavage patterns of these viruses were observed in the intracellular DNA after digestion with Eco RI and electrophoresis. This procedure mas applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus infection in aborted equine fetuses. The characteristic Eco RI restriction pattern of EHV-1 DNA was directly detectable in the emulsion of lungs collected from aborted equine fetuses." 26 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. JAMALUDDIN, A.A.; CASE, J.T.; HIRD, D.W.; BLANCHARD, P.C.; PEAUROI, J.R.; ANDERSON, M.L. "Dairy cattle abortion in California: Evaluation of diagnostic laboratory data" "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","APR 1996","8","2","210-218" "A.A. Jamaluddin/Univ Calif Davis/Calif Vet Diagnost Lab Syst/Davis, CA 95616 USA" "A descriptive study was undertaken on 595 dairy cattle abortion submissions to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System from July 1, 1987, to December 31, 1989, to determine the etiologic nature and distribution (seasonal and geographical) of dairy cattle abortion in California as reflected by laboratory submissions. Univariate analysis was performed to characterize abortion-related submissions by farm and laboratory variables, and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors that may influence success of abortion diagnosis in the laboratory. The proportions of dairies that submitted abortion-related specimens from northern, central, and southern milksheds during the 2.5-year period were 20.3%, 15.7%, and 13.1%, respectively, and 60% of submissions were from medium-sized (200-999 cows) dairies. Submissions consisted of fetus (58%), placenta (2%), fetus and placenta (12%), and fetus, placenta, and materna l blood (0.84%); fetal tissues and uterine fluid constituted the rest. An apparent pattern in abortion submissions was indicated by a peak in submissions during the winter and summer of 1988 and 1989. Infectious agents were associated with 37.1% of submissions; noninfectious causes, 5.5%, and undetermined etiology, 57.3%. Bacterial abortion accounted for 18% of etiologic diagnoses; protozoal, 14.6%; viral, 3.2%; and fungal, 1,3%. Submissions comprising fetus, placenta, maternal blood, or their combinations were associated with a higher likelihood of definitive diagnosis for abortion than tissues, as were fresher specimens and submissions associated with the second trimester of fetal gestation." JONES, G.E.; LOW, J.C.; MACHELL, J.; ARMSTRONG, K. "Comparison of five tests for the detection of antibodies against chlamydial (enzootic) abortion of ewes" "Veterinary Record","AUG 16 1997","141","7","164-168" "G.E. Jones/Moredun Res Inst/408 Gilmerton Rd/Edinburgh EH17 7JH/Midlothian, Scotland" "Five tests for antibodies against chlamydial (enzootic) abortion of ewes were compared using 255 sera from experimentally (group 1) or naturally (group 2) infected animals, flocks free of the disease (group 3) and individual animals testing positively by the complement fixation test but from flocks with no evidence of chlamydial abortion (group 4) Sera from five specific pathogen-free lambs vaccinated with two different subtypes of Chlamydia pecorum were also included (group 5), AU tests used some form of processed culture of C psittaci as antigen, Specificities, established with groups 3 and 4 sera, ranged between 96 per cent (ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigen) and 59 per cent (Immunocomb). Reactions with group 5 sera suggested that the cause of false positive results in the field might be cross-reactive antibodies against tile arthritogenic subtype of C pecorum. Sensitivities, Established with groups 1 and 2 sera, ranged between 81 per cent (Immunocomb) and 51 per cent (ELISA using solubilised protein antigen), The minimum sample sizes required to be 95 per cent certain of detecting at least five seropositives in two infected flocks (combined data) were 15 to 48, dependent on the test applied, The Western blot test, applied to a proportion of samples, yielded no false positives with group 3 sera bat 31.7 per cent with group 4 sera, Thus, none of the tests in this comparison emerged as sufficiently satisfactory in all respects, suggesting that further improvements in chlamydial serology must come through the use of non-native antigens or in the form of a competitive ELISA." 27 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. KAMOGAWA, O.; TOMITA, Y.; KANEKO, M.; YAMADA, S.; KUBO, M.; SHIMIZU, M. "Isolation of porcine respiratory coronavirusfrom pigs affected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome" "Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","APR 1996","58","4","385-388" "M. Shimizu/Natl Inst Anim Hlth/3-1-1 Kannondai/Tsukuba/Ibaraki 305, Japan" "Four cytopathogenic viruses were isolated in CPK cells derived from porcine kidneys from tonsils and lungs of 3 of 15 pigs affected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Physicochemically and morphologically, the isolates were similar to a coronavirus. The isolates were not distinguished from transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) by a neutralizatio n test using polyclonal antibodies, but differentiated from TGEV by monoclonal antibodies capable of discriminating between TGEV and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), indicating that the isolates were PRCV. In a serological survey of 30 serum samples each collected from about 50 days old pigs in the 2 affected farms, 29 (97%) and 15 (50%) sera were positive for neutralizing antibody against the isolate with the titers ranging from 2 to 64, respectively." KASZANYITZKY, J.E.; BAJMOCY, E.; BACSADI, A.; MATIZ, K. "Observations on the abortion caused by leptospiras in domestic farm animals" "Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","JUL 1997","119","7","415-419" "J.E. Kaszanyitzky/Debrecen Allat Egeszsegugyi Intezet/Bornemissza U 3-7/H-4002 Debrecen, Hungary" "Patho logical, bacteriological and histological investigations of 50 horse fetuses, 1141 bovine fetuses, 709 swine fetuses and 247 sheep fetuses have been carried out at the Mammalian Diagnostic Department of the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen during the past 7 years since 1990. Of them abortion caused by leptospiras was diagnosed by the histological investigation in 21 bovine and 41 swine fetuses (Table 1). Serological examination of the blood of dams served valuable data to clarify the etiology of abortions. Of the blood samples collected from 843 aborted cows, as well as from 644 aborted sows and investigated at the Bacteriological Department of the institute 210 and 16s samples were positive for one of the leptospira serotypes, respectively (Table 2).%To clarify the role of different serotypes in the damage caused in Hungarian cattle stocks, 23,867 blood samples were investigated for 12 leptospira strains which occurred also in Europe according to the literature data and caused diseases or seroconversion in cattle and might play a role in human diseases also (Tables 3 and 4). According to the data obtained, the Hungarian cattle stocks were most frequently infected by L.bardjo, L.grippotyphosa and L.pomona. The incidence of other serotypes was less frequent (Tables 5 and 6).%Considering that cattle is the main reservoir of L.bardjo, this serotype persists in cattle stocks for a long time, its high incidence is comprehensible. The role played of L.grippotyphosa and L.pomona in the infections of cattle stocks is essentially determined by the environmental factors and by the vicinity of most important natural hosts (rodents, pigs). I.e. the role of natural hosts - in case of leptospiras sensitive for the environmental effects - is important for maintaining the infections in different territories.%Laboratory investigations are needed to clarify the etiology of abortions caused by leptospiras. Owing to the frequent subclinical seroconversion, the serological investigation in itself is not enough to clarify their role. The pathological findings - due to the existing differences among serotypes, as well as depending on the time of infection and pathogenicity of the strain - can be variable. Only a positive histological finding can be consider pathognostic for leptospirosis. The negative histological findings do not exclude the role of leptospiras in an abortion.%Anamnestic data, as well as complex evaluation of the results of 28 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. laboratory investigations of the samples originating from the same place can be very useful to achieve an accurate diagnosis." LAGER, K.M.; HALBUR, P.G. "Gross and microscopic lesions in porcine fetuses infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus" "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","JUL 1996","8","3","275-282" "K.M. Lager/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Virol Swine Res Unit/POB 70/Ames, IA 50010 USA" "Diagnosis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- induced reproductive failure in swine is difficult because of the rapid inactivation of virus in fetuses that have died prior to abortion or farrowing. In this report, we describe gross and microscopic lesions of diagnostic value found in fetuses transplacentally infected with PRRSV during late gestation. Seven sows free of PRRSV-specific antibody and 1 sow (#8) that had been previously infected with PRRSV were oronasally exposed to a PRRSV inoculum at or about 90 days of gestation (DG). One control sow (#9) was oronasally exposed to a sham inoculum at 90 DG. Sows were euthanized 21 days postexposure, and fetuses were tested for virus. Transplacental infection was detected in litters 1-7, and gross lesions of the umbilical cord were observed in some fetuses in 6 of the 7 litters. No transplacental infection or fetal lesions were found in litters 8 and 9. The gross lesions in the umbilical cords ranged from segmental hemorrhagic areas 1-2 cm in length to a full length involvement of the cord, which was grossly distended with frank hemorrhage. All live fetuses that had gross lesions in the umbilical cord were viremic, and histopathologic examination revealed a necrotizing umbilical arteritis with periarterial hemorrhage. This was the most consistent microscopic lesion in fetuses infected with PRRSV. Sows 1-7 had endometritis and myometritis of various degrees, suggesting PRRSV also may induce these lesions. Careful gross and microscopic examination of the umbilical cord may aid in the diagnosis of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure." LEHMANN, C.; ELZE, K. "Results of microbiological investigations of abortions in horses, cattle, pigs and sheep in Germany" "Tierarztliche Umschau","SEP 1 1997","52","9","495" "K. Elze/Univ Leipzig/Fak Vet Med/Ambulator & Geburtshilfl Tierklin/Margarete Blank Str 8/D-04103 Leipzig, Germany" "The results of microbiological investigations of abortions in horses, cattle, pig and sheep in North-west and Middle Thuringia (the former district of Erfurt, Germany) from 1983 to 1992 are described. These involved 12 602 cases in cattle, 1113 in pigs, 201 in sheep and 112 in horses. Bacteriological, virological and mycological methods were used. The following were the commonest organisms detected in bovine abortion material: Actinomyces pyogenes (980); E. coli (501); Streptococcus spp (215); Listeria monocytogenes (178), and Staphylococcus spp (122). In addition, Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from 7% of cases, bur Coxiella burnetii was detected in less than 1% of bovine abortions. Virological examinations, conducted after 1990, indicated that 10 to 20% of abortions were caused by BVD/MD virus. Depending on the year, 16.6 to 88.2% of bovine abortions were associated with chlamydia with other specific abortion agents being isolated infrequently. In equine abortions, chlamydia predominated and represented 18.7% of all micro-organisms isolated. EHV was detected in 10.7% of all equine abortions and other predominant agents included Streptococcus spp of Lancefield Group C. In abortion material from pigs, E. coli predominated (49.9%) followed 29 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. by Streptococcus spp (20%) and Staphylococcus spp (19.3%). Cell culture techniques revealed chlamydia in 30 to 50% of porcine abortions." LINDSAY, D.S.; BUTLER, J.M.; BLAGBURN, B.L. "Efficacy of decoquinate against Neospora caninum tachyzoites in cell cultures" "Veterinary Parasitology","JAN 1997","68","1-2","35-40" "D.S. Lindsay/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Pathobiol/166 Greene Hall/Auburn, AL 36849 USA" "Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the United States and other countries. Abortions and neonatal mortality also occur in other ruminant species. Decoquinate is an anticoccidial that is approved for use in cattle and goats in the United States. We studied the efficacy of decoquinate against tachyzoites of N. caninum in a 5-day of treatment, cell culture flask lesion-based assay. Decoquinate killed tachyzoites at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 mu g ml(-1). Decoquinate had little measurable effect on extracellular tachyzoites. Decoquinate acted quickly to kill intracellular stages at coccidiocidal concentrations; tachyzoites were killed within 5 min at 0.1 mu g ml(-1) decoquinate." MADIC, J.; HAJSIG, D.; SOSTARIC, B.; CURIC, S.; SEOL, B.;NAGLIC, T.; CVETNIC, Z. "An outbreak of abortion in mares associated with Salmonella abortus equi infection" "Equine Veterinary Journal","MAY 1997","29","3","230-233" "J. Madic/Univ Zagreb/Fac Vet/Dept Microbiol & Infect Dis/Heinzelova 55/Zagreb 10000, Croatia" "An abortion outbreak occurred in a herd of 38 horses, 26 of which were pregnant mares. Twenty-one mares aborted between 5-10 months of gestatio n. In no case were there indications of impending abortion. Pathoanatomical, histopathological, virological and bacteriological examinations were carried out on 4 aborted fetuses. Histopathology identified Gram- negative bacteria compatible with salmonella in all 4 placentae. By subsequent bacteriological examination Salmonella abortusequi was isolated as the single causative agent in each case. Nonmotile Salmonella abortusequi with antigenic formula 4,12:- :- was isolated from one of the 4 fetuses. The described episode of equine abortion clearly indicates that Salmonella abortusequi has not been eradicated from Europe as previously thought." MASRI, S.A.; OLSON, W.; NGUYEN, P.T.; PRINS, S.; DEREGT, D. "Rapid detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 in the semen of infected bulls by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay" "Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire","APR 1996","60","2","100-107" "S.A. Masri/Agr & Agri Food Canada/Anim Dis Res Inst/Lethbridge/Ab T1J 3Z4, Canada" "A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen and compared with the virus isolation method. When extended semen, commonly used in the bovine artificial insemination indus try, was inoculated with BHV-1, the PCR assay detected BHV-1 DNA in semen inoculated at 0.25-2.5 TCID50 per 0.5 mL. In contrast, the lower limit of detection for virus isolation was 250 TCID50 of BHV-1 inoculated in 0.5 mL of extended semen. These methods were also used to detect BHV-1 in the semen of four bulls which were experimentally infected with BHV-1. All infected bulls demonstrated balanitis at 3 d post-inoculation (DPI) and severe balanoposthitis at 4 DPI. BHV-1 was detected in raw semen by virus isolation and PCR at 2 DPI, before balanitis was evident. For virus isolation, the last day that BHV-1 was detected 30 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. during primary infection was 7 DPI for two bulls and 9 and 11 DPI for the other two bulls. In contrast, PCR detected BHV-1 in the bulls' semen until 14 or 18 DPI. For individual animals, PCR detected BHV-1 during primary infection for at least 1-10 d longer than virus isolation. Reactivation of BHV-1 from latency without the presence of visible lesions was promoted twice by two series of 5 d dexamethasone injections. For the first series of dexamethasone treatments, a positive virus isolation result was obtained on the 5th d of treatment for only one bull. In contrast, two bulls demonstrated evidence of viral reactivation on this day by PCR. All bulls shed BHV-1 in semen on d 4 after dexamethasone treatment, as evidenced by positive virus isolation and PCR results. One bull was still PCR positive 13 d later. For the second series of dexamethasone treatments, a small amount of virus was isolated from semen collected on d 3 or 4 after treatment for two bulls but not from the other two bulls. In contrast, semen samples from all bulls were PCR positive for either or both of these 2 d. In total, from 80 semen samples, 45 were PCR positive and 26 were virus isolation positive. Thus, the PCR assay detected BHV-1 shedding in bulls earlier, more often, and for a longer duration, than did the virus isolation method.","Canadian Vet Med Assn/339 Booth St/Attn: Kimberely Alle/Ottawa on K1R 7K1/Canada" MCALLISTER, M.M.; HUFFMAN, E.M.; HIETALA, S.K.; CONRAD, P.A.; ANDERSON, M.L.; SALMAN, M.D. "Evidence suggesting a point source exposure in an outbreak of bovine abortion due to neosporosis" "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","JUL 1996","8","3","355-357" "M.M. Mcallister/Univ Wyoming/Wyoming State Vet Lab/1174 Snowy Range Rd/Laramie, WY 82070 USA" "A Holstein dairy farm suffered an abortion outbreak due to neosporosis. Abortion losses were > 18%. Cows with the highest Neospora antibody titers were at the greatest risk of aborting. Mummified fetuses were found after the 43rd day of the outbreak. The epidemic curve was suggestive of a point source exposure, which is consistent with the hypothesis that Neospora can be spread by a definitive host." MEDVECZKY, I. "Comprehensive review on the recent knowledge of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)" "Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","JUN 1996","51","6","367-371" "I. Medveczky/Aote/Jarvanytani & Mikrobiol Tanszek/Hungaria Krt 23/H-1143 Budapest, Hungary" "A comprehensive review has been given on the recent scientific results (causative agent, pathogenesis, epizootiology, diagnosis, clinical symptoms, control) of PRRS, a diseases endangering also the Hungarian pig population. Clinical features and economical losses have been detailed in Tables which characterized the PRRS infections observed by Danish SPF farms with mild clinical symptoms. Of the symptoms observed by the Danish farmers, agalactia (64%) and drastic increase of the number of stillbirths (56%) were the most characteristics at the beginning of the infection on the 40 SPF farms investigated (Table 1). Table 2 gives information about the number of piglets born alive and dead pro litter, as well as about the number of losses observed on Danish SPF farms. Losses in finishing units originated mainly from the decrease of daily weight gain (26 g/day) and from the increased feed conversion (0.4 FEs/kg, Table 3). Production indices of the infected farms reached the original levels 26 weeks after the outbreaks, on an average.%The review has been based on the information of the lectures held on the Expert Course organized by the Federation of 31 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. Danish Pig Producers and Slaughterhouses and 2nd International Symposium on PRRS (Copenhagen, 1995). Hungary is still free of the diseases at the time of receiving the article (January, 1996). PRRS is a reportable disease since 1996." MENGELING, W.L.; VORWALD, A.C.; LAGER, K.M.; BROCKMEIER, S.L. "Comparison among strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus for their ability to cause reproductive failure" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","JUN 1996","57","6","834-839" "W.L. Mengeling/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Virol Swine Res Unit/POB 70/2300 Dayton Ave/Ames, IA 50010 USA" "Objective-To compare the virulence of selected strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) relative to reproductive performance of pregnant gilts.%Design-16 pregnant gilts (principals) were exposed oronasally to 4 strains (vaccine strain RespPRRS, field strains VR-2385, VR-2431, and NADC-8, 4 gilts/strain) of PRRSV on or about day 90 of gestation. 4 pregnant gilts (controls) were kept under similar conditions, except for exposure to PRRSV. Samples and specimens obtained from gilts, pigs (before ingestion of colostrum), and fetuses were tested for PRRSV and homologous antibody.%Animals-20 pregnant gilts.%Procedure-The virulence of each strain of PRRSV was evaluated mainly on the clinical status of the corresponding litters at farrowing.%Results-Most gilts remained clinically normal throughout the study and farrowed normally at or near the expected farrowing time. All virus strains crossed the placenta of principal gilts to infect fetuses in utero. The number of late-term dead fetuses (which appeared to be the best measure of relative virulence) ranged from 0 for litters of control gilts and gilts exposed to strain RespPRRS, to 38 for gilts exposed to strain NADC-8. Ail principal gilts became viremic and developed antibody against PRRSV, Ail strains persisted in alveolar macrophages of at least some principal gilts for at least 7 weeks after exposure;%Conclusion-Strains of PRRSV vary in virulence.%Clinical Relevance-The effects of PRRSV on reproductive performance are strain dependent and this should be considered in making a tentative diagnosis on the basis of clinical observations." OLSEN, S.C.; EVANS, D.; HENNAGER, S.G.; CHEVILLE, N.F.; STEVENS, M.G. "Serologic responses of Brucella abortus strain 19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle following adult vaccination with strain RB51" "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","OCT 1996","8","4","451-454" "S.C. Olsen/Agr Res Serv/USDA/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Ames, IA 50010 USA" "This study was designed to determine if Brucella abortus strain RB51, which expresses small amounts of the lipopolysaccharide O side chain, would cause positive responses on brucellosis serologic surveillance tests when given to adult cattle that were vaccinated as calves with B. abortus strain 19. Cattle vaccinated as adults with strain RB51 that had been vaccinated as calves with strain 19 (n = 40) had significantly greater antibody titers (P < 0.05) against strain RB51 at 4 and 8 weeks postvaccination in the dot blot assay than did animals (n = 10) not vaccinated with strain RB51. When evaluated using the card or buffered acid plate agglutination presumptive tests, 7 strain RB51 vaccinates tested positive at either 4 or 8 weeks following vaccination as compared with 4 cattle in the control group that were not vaccinated with strain RB51. One strain RB51 vaccinate was scored as suspect on the standard tube agglutination (STA) test at 8 weeks following vaccination. Remaining samples from strain RB51 vaccinates tested negative on the STA, complement fixation (CF), rivanol, and particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA) confirmatory tests. Samples from 2 control cattle were PCFIA positive at time 0; 1 of these animals was CF 32 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. positive throughout the study. This study suggests that use of strain RB51 in cattle vaccina ted with strain 19 as calves will not cause positive responses on confirmatory tests and will not impair brucellosis serologic surveillance efforts." PALMER, M.V.; CHEVILLE, N.F.; JENSEN, A.E. "Experimental infection of pregnant cattle with the vaccine candidate Brucella abortus strain RB51: Pathologic, bacteriologic, and serologic findings" "Veterinary Pathology","NOV 1996","33","6","682-691" "M.V. Palmer/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Brucellosis Res Unit/2300 Dayton Ave/Ames, IA 50010 USA" "To determine the placental tropism and abortigenicity of the vaccine candidate Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51), a rough mutant of the virulent strain 2308, ten Polled Hereford heifers were inoculated intravenously in the 6th month of gestation. Heifers were euthanatized and examined at postinoculation week (PIW) 8 (n = 5) or at full term (n = 5). Four of five infected heifers sampled at PIW 8 and three of four infected heifers at term had placentitis, whereas reproductive tissues of three normal cows used for comparison had no placentitis. Numerous macrophages, immunoreactive for SRB51 antigen, as well as neutrophils, fibrin, and cell debris filled the arcade zone between chorion and maternal septae. Trophoblastic epithelium of the placentomal arcade zone had intracellular bacteria that were immunoreactive for SRB51 antigen. The tips of maternal septa had a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with small multifocal erosions and ulcerations of maternal epithelium. SRB51 was cultured from all tissues in which lesions were seen. Placentae of one cow from each group had no placentitis and contained no SRB51. In mammae, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and suppurative infiltrates within alveoli and intralobular ductules were seen in two of five heifers at PIW 8. SRB51 was cultured from liver, spleen, lung, and bronchial lymph nodes in four of five calves at PIW 8 and three of four full;term calves, but no lesions were seen. One near-term heifer had disseminated infection, placentitis, and lymphoplasmacytic endometritis, and delivered a premature weak calf. These results establish that SRB51 is less abortifacient than previously published reports with strain 19, in that only one of four heifers delivered prematurely following intravenous inoculation with SRB51, whereas intravenous inoculation with strain 19 leads to 100% abortion. However, it also shows that SRB51 can infect the bovine placenta, mammary gland, and fetus, can induce placentitis, and, in some cases, can lead to preterm expulsion of the fetus." PALMER, M.V.; OLSEN, S.C.; CHEVILLE, N.F. "Safety and immunogenicity of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in pregnant cattle" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","MAY 1997","58","5","472-477" "M.V. Palmer/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Zoonot Dis Res Unit/POB 70/Ames, IA 50010 USA" "Objective-To determine the safety and immunogenicity of Brucella abortus strain RB51 as a vaccine in pregnant cattle.%Animals-12 Polled Hereford heifers obtained from a brucellosis- free herd and bred on site at 16 months of age to a brucellosis-free bull.%Procedure-Pregnant heifers were vaccinated at 6 months' gestation with 10(9) colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51 (n = 5), 3 x 10(8) colony- forming units of B abortus strain 19 (n = 5), or sterile pyrogen- free saline solution (n = 2). Samples were periodically collected for serologic testing and lymphocyte blastogenesis assays. At full gestation, heifers were euthanatized and specimens were collected for bacteriologic culture, histologic analysis, and lymphocyte blastogenesis assay, using various antigenic 33 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. stimuli.%Results-None of the strain RB51- or strain 19-vaccinates aborted or had gross or microscopic lesions at necropsy that were consistent with brucellosis. Maternal blood mononuclear cells from strain RB51- and strain 19-vaccinates had proliferative responses to gamma- irradiated strain RB51 and strain 19 that were greater than responses by cells from nonvaccinated controls. In contrast, maternal superficial cervical lymph node cells from strain 19-vaccinates had proliferative responses to gamma- irradiated strain RB51 or strain 19 bacteria greater than those of cells from RB51-vaccinates and nonvaccinated controls. None of the heifers vaccinated with strain RB51 developed antibodies detected by use of the standard tube agglutination test, but all developed antibodies to strain RB51 that reacted in a dot ELISA, using irradiated strain RB51 as antigen. %Conclusions-Pregnant cattle can be safely vaccinated with strain RB51 without subsequent abortion or placentitis. Furthermore, strain RB51 is immunogenic in pregnant cattle, resulting in humoral and cell- mediated immune responses, but does not interfere with serologic diagnosis of field infections." PAPP, J.R.; SHEWEN, P.E.; THORN, C.E.; ANDERSEN, A.A. "Immunocytologic detection of Chlamydia psittaci from cervical and vaginal samples of chronically infected ewes" "Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire","JAN 1998","62","1","72-74" "J.R. Papp/Univ Guelph/Ontario Vet Coll/Dept Pathobiol/Guelph/on N1G 2W1, Canada" "An immunocytologic method was developed for the detection of chronic Chlamydia psittaci infection from the reproductive tract of ewes. Vaginal and cervical samples from 8 infected and 2 non- infected ewes were stained with a C. psittaci-specific monoclonal antibody. Cells containing C. psittaci were only detected from the 8 infected ewes and the level of detection varied with respect to the estrus cycle. An increased number of infected cells were observed during the periovulation period, thus indicating an optimal window for detection." POUILLOT, R.; GARINBASTUJI, B.; GERBIER, G.; COCHE, Y.; CAU, C.; DUFOUR, B.; MOUTOU, F. "The Brucellin skin test as a tool to discriminate false positive serological reactions in bovine brucellosis" "Veterinary Research","JUL-AUG 1997","28","4","365-374" "B. Garinbastuji/Lab Reference Oie Brucellose/BP 67/F-94703 Maisons Alfort, France" "Three experiments were performed in order to assess the diagnostic value of the Brucellin allergic skin test (AST) in a brucellosis false positive serological reactions (FPSR) context. First, 1 259 cattle from 20 Brucella- free herds in a FPSR area were tested twice with AST to estimate its specificity. Secondly, AST and serological tests (complement fixation test [CFT], tube agglutination test, dithiothreitol- microagglutination test and ELISA) sensitivities were evaluated on 111 cattle positive to the Rose Bengal test (RBT) belonging to 15 Brucella- infected herds. Thirdly, AST was used in a field trial to discriminate FPSR from true brucellosis reactions. AST specificity in non-vaccinated cattle was very high (99.83%; confidence interval 95% [CI95%]: 99.67-99.96%). Skin thickening 72 h post- injection was significantly higher on vaccinated cattle (1.42 vs 0.15 mm). In this sub-population, AST specificity decreased significantly to 78% (CI95%: 68-87%). Individual sensitivity of AST relative to Rose Bengal test was 64% (CI95%: 54-72%), while all infected herds were AST positive (n = 15). When associated with CFT, it detected 95% (CI95%: 90-98%) of the infected cattle. These results were consistent with the field trial. In a FPSR context, AST was 34 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. more specific than RBT or CFT. Therefore, this test could be used at herd level as a confirmation test, on cattle non vaccinated against brucellosis." REICHEL, M.P.; DRAKE, J.M. "The diagnosis of Neospora abortions in cattle" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","AUG 1996","44","4","151-154" "M.P. Reichel/Maf Qual Management/Cent Anim Hlth Lab/POB 40063/Lower Hutt, New Zealand" "An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific anti-Neospora antibodies in bovine sera and foetal fluids were compared with histological examination results on aborted foetal material. The agreement between serological and histological examination results was poor, while the two serological tests showed a high degree of agreement. Serological testing of diagnostic serum samples and foetal fluids suggests that the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in cattle which recently aborted is around 40%, in line with previous estimates of the number of abortions in dairy cattle caused by Neospora sp. A sero-epidemiological approach to the diagnosis of Neospora abortions in cattle may be suggested from these data." SCHARES, G.; PETERS, M.; WURM, R.; TACKMANN, K.; HENNING, K.; CONRATHS, F.J. "Neospora caninum causes abortions in a cattle herd in North Rhine Westphalia" "Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","JUN 1997","104","6","208-212" "G. Schares/Bundesforsch Anstalt/Viruskrankheiten Tiere/Inst Epidemiol Diagnost/Seestr 55/D-16868 Wusterhausen, Germany" "In a cattle herd in North Rhine-Westphalia a series of eight abortions occurred between 15th August and 14th October, 1996. Four of the aborted fetuses were histopathologically, virologically, bacteriologically and parasitologically examined. A multifocal necrotising encephalitis was observed in two fetuses. In addition, the liver of two fetuses and the placenta of one fetus contained infected foci. In three fetuses protozoan stages were detected which were identified as N. caninum by immunohistochemistry. A polymerase chain reaction conducted with histological material revealed N. caninum- DNA in the placenta of an aborted fetus. When seven cows that had aborted were tested for antibodies directed against N. caninum, six animals were positive by immunofluorescence and all seven by immunoblotting. The serological examination of the entire herd revealed a high herd seroprevalence of antibodies directed against N. caninum. Potential modes of infection with N. caninum in the herd are discussed, in particular the possibility of exposure to a point source (definitive host)." SMITH, K.C. "Herpesviral abortion in domestic animals" "Veterinary Journal" "MAY 1997","153","3","253-268" "K.C. Smith/Anim Hlth Trust/Ctr Prevent Med/POB 5/Newmarket CB8 7DW/Suffolk, England" "Abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. The alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus EHV-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. In cattle, the alpha- herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all been implicated as causes of abortion. In 35 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. pigs, suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1: pseudorabies virus), an alpha-herpesvirus, and SHV-2 (porcine cytomegalovirus), a beta- herpesvirus, each cause abortion or neonatal piglet losses. Caprine herpesvirus-1, canine herpesvirus and feline herpesvirus-1, all alpha-herpesviruses, cause abortions or neonatal deaths in goats, dogs and cats, respectively. This review discusses the pathogenesis, pathology and laboratory diagnosis of these herpesviral abortions and neonatal disease, with an emphasis on experimental studies of each disease. Alternative reviews covering other aspects of each infection, such as the genetic and antigenic structure of the viruses, host immune responses and approaches to vaccination and disease control are indicated at appropriate points in the test." SMITH, K.C.; MCGLADDERY, A.J.; BINNS, M.M.; MUMFORD, J.A. "Use of transabdominal ultrasound-guided amniocentesis for detection of equid herpesvirus 1-induced fetal infection in utero" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","SEP 1997","58","9","997-1002" "K.C. Smith/Anim Hlth Trust/Ctr Prevent Med/POB 5/Newmarket CB8 7DW/Suffolk, England" "Objective-To evaluate transabdominal ultrasound- guided amniocentesis for detection of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV- l)-induced fetal infection in utero.%Animals-4 Welsh Mountain mares.%Procedure-Pregnant mares were inoculated intranasally with EHV-1 during the ninth month of gestation. Amniocentesis was initiated on postinoculation day (PID) 12, and was performed at 2- to 3-day intervals in standing mares under deep sedation. Amniotic fluid samples were tested by virus isolation (VI), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunoperoxidase cytologic examination (IC) for detection of EHV-1.%Results-Exposure to EHV-1 in the ninth month of gestation resulted in nasal shedding of infective virus, establishment of cell-associated viremia, and seroconversion. Eq uid herpesvirus 1 was detected by VI, PCR, and IC in amniotic fluid collected on PID 14 from 1 mare and on PID 16 and 17 from a second mare. Specimens of amniotic fluid from a third mare were VI negative until PID 18, when collections ceased, although this mare subsequently aborted an EHV- l-infected fetus on PID 28. The fourth mare aborted an EHV-1 infected fetus on PID 14. The 2 mares with VI-positive amniotic fluid were each carrying an EHV-1 infected fetus in utero, confirmed by examination of the uterus, placenta, and fetus, using specific immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Endothelial cells in the endometrium and allantochorion were often virus- infected, with accompanying vascular lesions. The fetus had been infected via the chorionic vasculature in the first and fourth mares, and by inhalation of infected amniotic fluid in the second mare.%Conclusion-Amniocentesis permits specific detection of EHV- l- induced fetal infection in utero.%Clinical Relevance-Amniocentesis may have a clinical role in the specific identification and isolation of mares carrying virus- infected fetuses during EHV-1-induced abortion epizootics." STING, R. "Chlamydia psittaci infection in cows and ewes in northern Baden-Wurttemberg" "Tierarztliche Umschau","JUN 1 1997","52","6","332" R. Sting/Azenbergstr 16/D-70174 Stuttgart, Germany" "The excretion of Chlamydia psittaci by cows and ewes in herds and flocks experiencing fertility problems was studied to elucidate the potential sources of infection for the transmission of this pathogen. The prevalence of infection in cows, as determined by testing of samples of genital swabs, placentae andfetuses, using the capture ELISA was 37% with 73% of the herds infected The corresponding values for ewes and flocks were 71% and 87%, respectively. The complement fixation test (CFT) on sera revealed an 8% prevalence 36 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. and the ELISA a 40% prevalence of the cows sampled, and herd prevalences of 45% and 91%, respectively. Serological examinations of ewes revealed a prevalence of 22%, using the CFT, and 64% using the ELISA, with flock prevalences of 74% and 91%, respectively. The zoonotic significance of C. psittaci is discussed. TAKIKAWA, N.; KOBAYASHI, S.; IDE, S.; YAMANE, Y.; TANAKA, Y.; HIGASHIHARA, M.; YAMAGISHI, H. "Early serodiagnosis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection of pigs by detection of slow-reacting and complement -requiring neutralizing antibody" "Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","JAN 1997","59","1","31-34" "N. Takikawa/Kitasato Inst/Res Ctr Vet Sci/111/Arai 6 Chome/Kaitamotoshi/Saitama 364, Japan" "In order to evaluate and enhance the sensitivity of the neutralization (NT) test for detecting antibody in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, the effect of altered incubation conditions and complement use on neutralizing (NT) antibody titer were investigated. Higher NT antibody titers were consistently obtained by addition of 20% guinea pig fresh serum to virus-serum mixtures in NT tests. Furthermore, the comp lement-requiring NT antibody titer increased in many serum samples when the virus-serum mixtures, rather than being incubated at 37 degrees C for 60 min, were incubated first at 4 degrees C for 48 hr and then with a complement at 37 degrees C for 60 min. The slow-reacting and complement-requiring NT antibody was detected as early as 8 days post-inoculation. It was detected in sera collected at 8 to 28 days post- inoculation and was sensitive to 2- mercaptoethanol treatment. Sera collected at 35 to 44 days post-inoculation contained 2- mercaptoethanol resistant NT antibodies. These results indicate that the modified NT test is useful for early serodiagnosis of PRRS virus infection through detection of higher NT antibody titers, and in detecting them earlier." THOMA, R.; GUSCETTI, F.; SCHILLER, I.;SCHMEER, N.;CORBOZ, L.;POSPISCHIL, A. "Chlamydiae in porcine abortion" "Veterinary Pathology","SEP 1997","34","5","467-469" "A.Pospischil/Univ Zurich/Inst Vet Pathol/Winterthurerstr 268/CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland" "Formalin- fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal livers and lungs from 139 cases of swine abortion were investigated retrospectively for chlamydiae by means of immunohistochemistry. Using a genus-specific antibody, chlamydial antigen was found in eight livers obtained from five (3.6%) abortion cases from different herds. All lung sections were negative. Chlamydiae were also labeled in five of the eight positive livers using a monoclonal antibody against immunotype 1 of Chlamydia psittaci; the remaining three livers were negative. No reactivity was seen using an antibody specific for C. trachomatis. Chlamydiae should be considered a cause of abortion in sows in Switzerland. Porcine abortigenic strains identified in this study differed immunologically from intestinal strains (known to be mainly C. trachomatis) but shared similarities with abortigenic chlamydiae of ruminants." VEZNIK, Z.; KUMMER, V.; CANDERLE, J.; MASKOVA, J.; SVECOVA, D.; POSPISIL, L.; DIBLIKOVA, I.; ZRALY, Z. "Role of Chlamydia sp in inflammatory conditions of the birth canal of cows" "Veterinarni Medicina","OCT 1996","41","10","297-304" "Z. Veznik/Vet Res Inst/Hudcova 70/Brno 62132, Czech Republic" 37 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. "Clinical findings in cows of seven farms with a frequent occurrence of birth canal inflammations were matched against results of serological and direct immunofluorescence tests for Chlamydia sp. infection. Normal clinical picture, weak to moderate and serious inflammations were found in 16.1%, 46.7% and 37.2% of the 205 examined cows, respectively. The results of micro CFT were negative in 32.7% and titres 1 : 5, 1 : 10, 1 : 20, and 1 : greater than or equal to 40 were found in 8.7%, 38.0%, 12.3%, and 8.3%, respectively. Direct immunofluorescence test of cervical swabs, using the Progen Biotechnic GmbH set, was negative in 29.1% and clearly positive in 34.7% of the tested cows. The rest was animals in which sporadic elementary bodies were seen. The significance of the findings is discussed and the necessity to test Chlamydia infections in herds affected by frequent and/or chronic inflammations of genital organs is stressed. Evidence of the transmission of Chlamydia infection by contaminated semen is presented." WEBER, A.; ROTH, M.; EWRINGMANN, T.; KELLER, B. "Abortion in cattle - microbiological findings" "Praktische Tierarzt","AUG 1 1997","78","8","661" "A.Weber/Landesuntersuchungsamt Gesundheitswesen/Heimerichstr 31/D-90419 Nurnberg, Germany" "Bacteria are still the most frequent cause for infectious abortions in cattle. In this connection is described the present significance of Brucella ssp., Campylobacter ssp., Actinomyces pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia psittaci, Salmonella ssp., Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Mycobacterium ssp. Further the difficulties of the isolation of BVD-and IBR-virus as infectious cause of bovine abortion are mentioned. In addition a report ist given for the significance of mould fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and Mortierella wolfii as well as the parasites Tritrichomonas foetus and Neospora caninum as cause of bovine abortion." WEBBER, J.J.; PRITCHARD, D.H.; GORDON, L.M.; DEAN, H.F. "Isolation of bacteria resembling Histophilus ovis from cattle" "Australian-Veterinary-Journal. 1983, 60: 9, 276; 14 ref." "Dep. Agric., Reg. Vet. Lab., PO Box 406, Hamilton, Victoria 3300, Australia." "Although both H. ovis and Haemophilus somnus are significant pathogens of domestic animals, these names are not valid. H. somnus has not been reported from Australia, but H. ovis has been isolated frequently from cases of septicaemia, synovitis, abscessation, perinatal death, meningitis, mastitis and suppurative epididymitis in sheep over the past 10 years. In addition, an organism resembling H. ovis morphologically and biochemically has been isolated from cattle with vaginitis (14 herds), puerperal endometritis (3 herds), infertility (more than 10 herds) and sporadically from cases of pneumonia, abortion and haematuria since 1978. Two calves were inoculated with an isolate of this organism from a case of bovine endometritis into the cisterna magna through the atlanto-occipital joint. Both developed clinical signs and lesions similar to those described in H. somnus- induced thrombo-embolic meningoencephalitis, and the organism was recovered in pure culture from the CNS and spinal cord of both calves, also from blood and stifle synovial fluid of one calf and liver of the second." WOUDA, W.; MOEN, A.R.; VISSER, I.J.R.; VANKNAPEN, F. "Bovine fetal neosporosis: A comparison of epizootic and sporadic abortion cases and different age classes with regard to lesion severity and immunohistochemical identification of organisms in brain, heart, and liver" 38 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","APR 1997","9","2","180-185" "W. Wouda/Anim Hlth Serv/Drachten, Netherlands" "Eighty bovine fetuses with confirmed neosporosis were used to score lesion severity and presence of parasites in brain, heart, and liver. A comparison was made between epizootic and sporadic abortion cases. The possible influence of fetal age was also investigated. Histologic lesions of multifocal encephalitis, myocarditis, and periportal hepatitis with or without focal hepatocellular necrosis were almost always observed. Neospora caninum tachyzoites were identified immunohistochemically in 85% of the brains, 14% of the hearts, and 26% of the livers. Tissue cysts were observed in 21% of the brains. Significant differences between epizootic and sporadic abortion cases were found only in the liver. Hepatic lesions were more prominent and N. caninum tachyzoites were observed more frequently and in higher numbers in epizootic cases. Examination by immunohistochemistry of the liver in addition to the brain can be highly contributive diagnostically, particularly in epizootic cases. There were no significant age-related differences except for a higher presence of tachyzoites in the hearts of younger fetuses (3-4 months gestational age)." ZAMBRANO, A.J.; VILLAVA, F.M.; SCHURIG, G.G.; CHERWONOGRODZKY, J.W. "Preliminary results for the vaccination of pregnant cattle with Brucella abortus strain 19 or B. abortus RB51" "Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria"," 1995","27"," Sp. Iss.","119-123" "A.J. Zambrano/Inst NaCl Hig & Med Trop/Leopoldo Izquita Perez/Labs Vet/Ave Amer/C 5584/Guayaquil, Ecuador" "As cattle are the most susceptible to Brucella abortus infections when these animals are pregnant, a study was done to compare the effects of vaccine strains 19 and RB51. Three cows served as controls, six received 4x10(7) strain 19 subcutaneously into the neck and six received 5x10(7) strain RB51 by the same route. Although one of the controls aborted, this was subsequently found to be due to a Staphylococcus aureus infection. The pregnant cattle, that were vaccinated with strain 19, showed sero-conversion and one cow aborted with B. abortus S19 isolated from the fetus. Pregnant cattle that received B. abortus RB51 neither showed any sere-conversion nor any abortions." CAPITULO VI NUTRICIÓN e INFERTILIDAD COSGROVE, J.R.; FOXCROFT, G.R. "Nutrition and reproduction in the pig: Ovarian aetiology" "Animal Reproduction Science","APR 1996","42","1-4","131-141" "J.R. Cosgrove/Alberta Swine Genet Corp/Box 3310/Leduc/Ab T9E 6M1, Canada" "All mammalian reproductive processes will ultimately be determined by nutrient availability, from gametogenesis to lactation, The modem production gilt and sow, selected for lean growth rate and optimal milk production over an abbreviated lactation, represent extreme models in which to investigate interactions between the demands of somatic growth and reproduction, The focus of this review is nutritional modulation of the porcine gonad and, more specifically, the ovary, rather than the entire hypothalamo-hypophysial- gonadal axis. The influences and mechanisms of action of metabolic hormones and growth factors of both 39 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. extra- and intra-ovarian origin are considered, Additionally, regulation of circulating gonadal steroids by nutrition and the consequent implications for gonadotrophin secretion and embryo mortality are discussed." FEKETE, S.; HUSZENICZA, G. "Relations between feeding and reproduction. Review article" "Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","JUL 1996","51","7","413-420" "S. Fekete/Aote/Takarmanyozastani Tanszek/Rottenbiller U 50/H-1077 Budapest, Hungary" "Long- lasting effect of feeding (first of all the energy and protein supply) has been reviewed on the reproduction of male and female animals. Energy deficiency does not harm permanently the embryonic development of primordial germ cells. However even a slight feed deficiency in ewe during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy or during the lactation period can worsen the future ovulation rate of lambs. Questions of nutriment supply and sexual maturation have been treated in case of both sexes. Thereafter the effect of feed doses on the number of ovulated eggs has been reviewed. Hormonal bases of flushing effect has also been treated. Fertility rate and survival of embryos determine the realization of the potential of ovulated eggs. Incorporation rate of different nutriments int the embryos has also been treated. Energy deficiency together with protein deficiency in highly pregnant dams diminish most firmly the body- mass of offsprings to be born. %System of lobulo-alveolar epithelial cells in the mammary gland of ruminants develops mainly during th pregnancy. The undernutrition not only diminishes the quantity of colostrum but the start of milk production is also retarded. Nutriment supply has a significant effect on the length of period between birth and refertilization. In this case, the restart of ovarian functio n is the key factor. Although deficiency of certain mineral matters (P, Mn,I) may also cause anoestrus, in most of practical cases disturbances of energy and protein supply cause the most problems.%Hormonal changes in the background of the above mentioned processes have also been evaluated. Finally, the most important future research areas of the topic have been prognosticated." GIRARD, C.L. "B-complex vitamins for dairy cows: A new approach" "Canadian Journal of Animal Science","1998","78","","71-90" "Girard C.L./Agr & Agroalimentaire Canada/Ctr Rech & Dev Bovin Laitier & Porc/CP 90/Lennoxville/PQ J1M 1Z3/CANADA" "It is generally accepted that ruminant requirements for B-complex vitamins are fulfilled by the synthesis of these vitamins by ruminal microflora. Most of the studies on this topic were conducted during 1940-1950. These works demonstrated that, even when ruminants are fed a B-complex vitamin- free diet, the synthesis of these vitamins by the ruminal microflora was sufficient to avoid deficiency symptoms if the rumen is welldeveloped and functional. These works led to the conclusion that dairy cow requirements for B-complex vitamins are the minimal quantity to be fed to avoid deficiency symptoms. However, in a context of maximisation of the effects of nutrition on dairy cow health and performances, the criteria used to define the requirements need to reviewed. As for the major nutrients, requirements for B-complex vitamins need to be studied, not on the point of view of deficiency, but rather in rela tion with an optimisation of cow health, performances and the quality of the product. Only some of the B-complex vitamins, biotin, nicotinic acid, folic acid and vitamin B-12, have been studied in that purpose, they will be discussed in the present talk.", "","0008-3984","Agr Inst Canada/Suite 907/151 Slater St/Ottawa on K1P 5H4/Canada" 40 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. ROBINSON, J.J. "Nutrition and reproduction" "Animal Reproduction Science" - "APR 1996","42","1 -4","25-34" "J.J. Robinson/Scottish Agr Coll/Ferguson Bldg/Craibstone Estate/Aberdeen AB21 9YA, Scotland" "Through their influence on embryonic and early fetal development dietary nutrients affect the size, vigour and viability of the newborn and, in the case of SHEEP, adult ovulation rates. Nutritional regimens that impair post- natal growth reduce ovarian follicular development and delay puberty but have little, if any, effect on either N-methyl- D-aspartate stimulated GnRH release or the pituitary content of gonadotrophins. Nutritional effects on ovulation rate in ewes are not always accompanied by shifts in circulating FSH concentrations. Instead they may operate through altered ovarian hormone feedback mechanisms that influence the duration of exposure of the gonadotrophin-dependent follicles to FSH or through threshold-reducing actions of specific nutrients and dietary- induced metabolites on the amount of FSH needed to support the gonadotrophin-dependent follicles. Recent results suggest that the enhanced faecal excretion of oestradiol by well- fed ewes may increase ovulation rate by reducing ovarian oestradiol feedback.%In the post-partum period, the key hypothalamic and pituitary secretions for successful ovulation develop normally despite undernutrition but ovulation is prevented by failure of GnRH release with, in the case of suckler beef COWS, a delay in oestrus arising from the repeated developmen and atresia of dominant ovarian follicles. This affect is accentuated in cows that are in poor body condition at calving. Alleviating the energy deficits of high- yielding dairy cows in early lactation by giving supplements of dietary fat can reduce the interval to first oestrus but subsequent fertility can be impaired. Loss of body protein delays oestrous cyclicity; paradoxically attempts to coned this loss in ruminants by feeding diets high in rumen undegradable protein can stimulate body fat mobilization and milk production with detrimental effects on rebreeding. Excess rumen degradable protein and high feeding levels reduce embryo survival, the latter by suppressing circulating progesterone concentrations. In superovulated ewes diet- induced reductions in progesterone concentrations during oocyte maturation can impart a legacy of developmental retardation leading to decreased embryo survival. In late pregnancy, undernutrition decreases uterine blood flow, fetal insulin and IGF-I concentrations and impairs growth and development. In the newborn, low insulin and a low selenium and iodine status inhibit thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue. Insulin may also be important in conveying info rmation on nutritional status to the GnRH neurones thereby initiating the cascade of events that is required for successful reproduction in both sexes." SEJRSEN, K.; PURUP, S. "Influence of prepubertal feeding level on milk yield potential of dairy heifers: A review" "Journal of Animal Science","MAR 1997","75","3","828-835" "K. Sejrsen/Natl Inst Anim Sci/Dept Prod Qual/DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark" "In replacement heifers, high levels of feeding resulting in high growth rates in the prepubertal period can cause severe reduction of the milk production potential. This has been demonstrated in many experiments; however, there are a number of experiments where this effect is not seen. In many cases, the reason for the lack of effect seems fairly obvious (short treatment periods, high pretreatment growth rates, small growth rate differences between treatment groups, variation of growth rates within treatment groups, treatment periods outside the critical period, etc.). However, in a few experiments absence of treatment effect cannot be explained in this way. This demonstrates that our knowledge on the effect of nutrition during 41 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. rearing on the future milk yield of heifers is incomplete and that it may be possible to develop high growth rate feeding regimens for heifers. Experimental evidence suggests that the observed negative effects of feeding level on subsequent milk are due to impaired mammary development. Development of suitable high growth rate feeding regimens therefore requires understanding of the influence of nutrition on the physiological regulation of mammary development. Available data suggest that the growth hormone- insulin- like growth factor I axis is involved, but it is not clear how. It is likely that understanding of the role of insulin- like growth factor binding proteins is important. Alternative hypotheses involve possible effects of growth factors and modifications of mammary tissue sensitivity to hormones and growth factors." CAPITULO VII INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD del MACHO ANDERSON, D.E.; STJEAN, G.; DESROCHERS, A.; HOSKINSON, J.J. "Use of Doppler ultrasonography and positive-contrast corpus cavernosography to evaluate a persistent penile hematoma in a bull" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","NOV 1 1996","209","9","1611" "D.E. Anderson/Ohio State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Columbus, OH 43210 USA" "A 32- month-old Angus bull was evaluated because of a 2-month history of a slowly progressive swelling located cranial to the base of the scrotum. The mass was 8 X 8 X 6 cm, and was causing phimosis. The mass was determined to be a penile hematoma on the basis of results of ultrasonography and exploratory surgery Surgical evacuation was not performed initially because the deep fascia of the penis was intact and the hematoma was small; however, the hematoma enlarged slowly during the ensuing 2 months, despite sexual rest and isolation from other livestock. Doppler ultrasonography and positive-contrast corpus cavernosography were performed, and the hematoma was seen as a space-occupying mass within the corpus cavernosum penis; vascular anomalies were not found. The penile hematoma was surgically excised, and the bull was isolated for 60 days. At followup, the owner indicated that the bull had returned to pasture-breeding soundness and was still being used 2 years after surgery. The small penile hematoma in this bull was unusual in that it did not respond to medical treatment. Surgical treatment was apparently curative, even though surgery was not performed until 4 months after the hematoma was first detected." DESROCHERS, A.; STJEAN, G.; ANDERSON, D.E. "Surgical management of preputial injuries in bulls: 51 cases (1986-1994)" "Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 36: 9 (SEP 1995) 553-556" "A. Desrochers, Kansas State Univ Agr & Appl Sci, Coll Vet Med, Dept Clin Sci, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA" "The purpose of this study was to compare success rates for preputial surgery depending on the initial diagnosis, ability to extend the penis, use of sedation and local anesthesia versus general anesthesia for surgery, and surgical technique, Medical records of 51 bulls treated surgically for preputial injury were reviewed, The mean age of the bulls was 2.5 years ranging from 1 to 5 years. Bos taurus breeds (82.3%) were more often affected than Bos indicus breeds (17.7%), The most common breeds represented in this study were Angus (45.1%), Simmental (11.8%), and brangus (9.8%). The seasonal incidence of preputial 42 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. injuries was higher during the period of May-July (52.9%) and November-February (33.3%), The overall success rate was 70%, Posthioplasty was more successful than circumcision (90% to 43%) (P < 0.05), The success rate for surgeries performed under inhalation anesthesia in the surgery suite was 100% compared with a success rate of 63% for those animals operated on with injectable and local anesthesia in a rotary chute (P < 0.05), The success rate was 88% if the penis could be extended before the surgery and 36% if extension was not achieved (P < 0.05)." MAARSCHALKERWEERD, R.J.; ENDENBURG, N.; KIRPENSTEIJN, J.; KNOL, B.W. "Influence of orchiectomy on canine behaviour" "Veterinary Record","JUN 14 1997","140","24","617-619" "R.J. Maarschalkerweerd/Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Dept Clin Sci Compan Anim/POB 80-145/NL-3508 Td Utrecht, Netherlands" "One hundred and twenty-two dog owners were interviewed to obtain information about the effects of orchiectomy on the behaviour, unwanted side effects, and testosterone-dependent disease processes in their dogs. Behavioural problems were the main reason for orchiectomy, unwanted sexual behaviour being the most common, together with roaming, aggression, and abnormal urination behaviour, Objectionable sexual behaviour, inter- male aggression, roaming, and abnormalurination were reduced after orchiectomy in approximately 60 per cent of the dogs, The side effects of orchiectomy included increased bodyweight, increased appetite and decreased activity in less than 50 per cent of the dogs, and there was asignificant relationship between increased appetite and bodyweight, The clinical signs of testosterone-dependent disease in most of the dogs either decreased or disappeared after orchiectomy." NIE, G.J.; POPE, K.C. "Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate administration in a horse" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","SEP 1 1997","211","5","587" "G.J. Nie/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849 USA" "Prolonged penile prolapse in horses has been reported in association with administration of phenothiazine tranquilizers, trauma, neuropathies, severe general debilitation or exhaustion, starvation, rabies, herpes myeloencephalitis, equine infectious anemia, and purpura hemorrhagica. A 5-year-old gelding was admitted for treatment of prolonged penile prolapse of 12 days' duration that developed after acepromazine maleate was administered to allow examination of a laceration that had resulted in severe blood loss. The horse was sedated, and the penis was replaced in the preputial cavity by use of a combination of massage and bandaging. Treatment was successful, and recovery was complete." ROSER, J.F. "Endocrine regulation of reproductive function in fertile, subfertile and infertile stallions" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","AUG 1995","30","4","245-250" "J.F. Roser/Univ Calif Davis/Dept Anim Sci/Davis, CA 95616 USA" "The specific nature and relative contribution of the various factors involved in the endocrine/paracrine/autocrine control of reproductive function in normal stallions are not well defined nor have they been elucidated in the idiopathic subfertile/infertile stallion. Over the last 9 years, our laboratory has been engaged in characterizing the 43 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in fertile, subfertile (idiopathic oligospermia) and infertile (idiopathic azoospermia) stallions. Our studies have not only identified endocrine factors and mechanisms important for normal reproductive function, but they have demonstrated specific hormonal alterations in pituitary and testicular function between fertile, subfertile and infertile stallions. Recent evidence suggests that the primary defect is at the level of the testes. The nature of the dysfunction does not appear to involve changes in LH receptor binding kinetics but may be related to post-receptor mechanisms." CAPITULO VIII ENFOQUE CLÍNICO de la INFERTILIDAD y de la ESTERILIDAD del MACHO AURICH, C.; BADER, H.; TOPFERPETERSEN, E. "Diagnosis of reproduc tive disorders in the stallion" "Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995","76","10","905" "C. Aurich/Hannover Sch Vet Med/Inst Reprod Med/Bunteweg 15/D-30559 Hannover, Germany" "This article reviews possibilities for the diagnosis of reproductive disorders in the male horse. The procedure of reproductive evaluation (examination of genital organs and sexual behaviour, analysis of semen parameters) is described. Possibilities for reproductive endocrine function testing in stallions and cryptorchids are given. Recent procedures in reproductive evaluation of the male (ultrasonography of testes and accessory sexual glands, endoscopic examination of the urethra, computerized analysis of sperm motility, assessment of membrane integrity by fluorescent stains) are shown. The physiology of sperm-egg- interactions and the use of zona-sperm binding assays for the assessment of equine sub- and infertility are described." JOHNSON, L.; BLANCHARD, T.L.; VARNER, D.D.; SCRUTCHFIELD, W.L. "Factors affecting spermatogenesis in the stallion" "Theriogenology","NOV 1997","48","7","1199-1216" "L. Johnson/Texas A&M Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Vet Anat & Publ Hlth/College Stn, TX 77843 USA" "Spermatogenesis is a process of division and differentiation by which spermatozoa are produced in seminiferous tubules. Seminiferous tubules are composed of somatic cells (myoid cells and Sertoli cells) and germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids). Activities of these three germ cells divide spermatogenesis into spermatocytogenesis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis, respectively. Spermatocytogenesis involves mitotic cell division to increase the yield of spermatogenesis and to produce stem cells and primary spermatocytes. Meiosis involves duplication and exchange of genetic material and two cell divisions that reduce the chromosome number to haploid and yield four spermatids. Spermiogenesis is the differentiation without division of spherical spermatids into mature spermatids which are released from the luminal free surface as spermatozoa, The spermatogenic cycle (12.2 days in the horse) is superimposed on the three major divisions of spermatogenesis which takes 57 days. Spermatogenesis and germ cell degeneration can be quantified from numbers of germ cells in various steps of development throughout spermatogenesis, and quantitative measures are related to number of spermatozoa in the 44 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. ejaculate. Germ cell degeneration occurs throughout spermatogenesis; however, the greatest seasonal impact on horses occurs during spermatocytogenesis. Daily spermatozoan production is related to the amount of germ cell degeneration, pubertal development, season of the year, and aging. Number of Sertoli cells and amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum of Leydig cells and Leydig cell number are related to spermatozoan production. Seminiferous epithelium is sensitive to elevated temperature, dietary deficiencies, androgenic drugs (anabolic steroids), metals (cadmium and lead), x-ray exposure, dioxin, alcohol, and infectious diseases. However, these different factors may elicit the same temporary or permanent response in that degenerating germ cells become more common, multinucleate giant germ cells form by coalescence of spermatocytes or spermatids, the ratio of germ cells to Sertoli cells is reduced, and spermatozoan production is adversely affected. In short, spermatogenesis involves both mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and an unsurpassed example of cell differentiation in the production of the spermatozoon. Several extrinsic factors can influence spermatogenesis to cause a similar degenerative response of the seminiferous epithelium and reduce fertility of stallions. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc." THOMPSON, J.A.; JOHNSON, W.H. "Scrotal size of yearling sires and early calving in beef herds: Epidemiological investigation of possible causal pathways" "Theriogenology 43: 7 (MAY 1995) Page(s) 1279-1287" "J.A. Thompson, Texas A&M Univ, Texas Vet Med Ctr, College Stn, TX 77843 USA" "Scrotal circumference has been recommended as a clinical test for predicting the fertility potential of yearling bulls. The objectives of this study were to determine if scrotal size of yearling bulls influences herd fertility and to investigate specific causal pathways. Calving records from 44 herds enrolled in the Beef Herd Improvement Plan were selected from the data base for 1984 to 1989. Logistic regression was used to model the event of calving within the first 3 wk of the calving season as a function of scrotal circumference, herd size, age and the interactions of scrotal circumference with age, scrotal circumference with herd size, and herd size with age and the random effects of herd. The odds of cows calving in the first 3 weeks of the calving season were lower in large herds (> 30 vs 20 to 30 calves born per season) and with younger yearling bulls (12 to 15 vs. 16 to 18 months of age). Early calving was not associated with scrotal circumference, or the interactions scrotal circumference with herd size and scrotal circumference with age p > 0.15). It was concluded that the female:male ratio and age of bull both affected the odds of a cow calving early, but neither of the associations was altered by selection for bulls with a larger scrotal circumference, and therefore scrotal circumference is not included in either of the 2 causal pathways. 45 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. PARTE II En relación con el "ANEXO" al libro de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción" ANEXO I "ACTUALIZACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA COMPLEMENTARIA" ARCHBALD, L.F.; TSAI, I.F.; THATCHER, W.W.; TRAN, T.; WOLFSDORF, K.; RISCO, C. "Use of plasma concent rations of 13,14-dihydro,15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) in the diagnosis of sub-clinical endometritis and its relationship to fertility in the postpartum dairy cow" "Theriogenology","JUN 1998","49","8","1425-1436" "L.F. Archbald/Univ Florida/Coll Vet Med/Gainesville, FL 32610 USA" "The objective of this study was to determine the value of using plasma concentrations of PGFM to diagnose subclinical endometritis in the dairy cow, and its relationship to subsequent fertility. A total of 274 cows between 24 to 29 d post partum was divided into 4 groups on the basis of clinical features of the uterus and ovary. Cows in Group 1 (n=74) had a normal, involuting uterus and a CL on the ovary; cows in Group 2 (n=51) had a normal, involuting uterus but no CL on the ovary; cows in Group 3 (n=83) did not have a normal, involuting uterus but had a CL on the ovary; and cows in Group 4 (n=66) did not have a normal, involuting uterus or a CL on the ovary. A blood sample was obtained from each cow on the day they were placed on the study, and plasma concentrations of PGFM and P4 were determined using RIA. Cows were artificially inseminated (AI) at the first observed estrus after Day 60 post partum, and pregnancy was determined by palpation of the uterus per rectum between 45 and 50 d postAI. Reproductive responses evaluated were conception rate to first service, days open, and percentage of cows pregnant by 90, 120, 150 and 180 d post partum. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS and a 2x2 factorial with contrast procedures. Polynomial regression analysis was used to determine the shape of the PGFM, P4 and fertility curves. There was no difference among mean PGFM concentrations of cows in each group. The rate of decline of plasma PGFM concentrations was lower in cows with an abnormal uterus and a CL on the ovary compared with those without a CL. A lower percentage of cows with abnormal uteri was pregnant by 90 d post partum compared with cows with normal uteri. From the results of this study, it was concluded that plasma PGFM concentrations between Days 24 to 29 post partum were not effective in identifying cows with subclinical endometritis. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc." ARECHIGA, C.F.; VAZQUEZFLORES, S.; ORTIZ, O.; HERNANDEZCERON, J.; PORRAS, A.; MCDOWELL, L.R.; HANSEN, P.J. "Effect of injection of beta-carotene or vitamin E and selenium on fertility of lactating dairy cows" "Theriogenology","JUL 1 1998","50","1","65-76" "P.J. Hansen/Univ Florida/Dept Dairy Poultry Sci/Gainesville, FL 32611 USA" "Experiments tested whether supplemental antioxidants improved fertility. To test effects of beta-carotene, cows in a hot environment were injected with prostaglandin F-2 46 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) and were given 3 injections, im, of 800 mg beta-carotene or saline at Days -6 and -3 before the anticipated date of insemination and at insemination (n=37-41 inseminated cows/group). There was no effect of beta-carotene on the proportion of cows detected in estrus following PGF(2 alpha), timing of estrus after PGF(2 alpha), injection or pregnancy rate in inseminated cows. In a second trial, cows in a temperate climate received intramuscular injections of vitamin E (500 mg) and selenium (50 mg) at 30 d post partum (n=97) or were unheated controls (n=89). Treatment did not affect interval from calving to first insemination or the proportion of cows pregnant at first service, but it increased the pregnancy rate at second service (69.8 vs 52.1%; P=0.07) and reduced services per conception(1.7 vs 2.0; P<0.05) and interval from calving to conception (84.6 vs 98.1; P<0.05). Thus, injection of vitamin E and selenium increased fertility in cattle that did not become pregnant at first service. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc." AWADEH, F.T.; ABDELRAHMAN, M.M.; KINCAID, R.L.; FINLEY, J.W. "Effect of selenium supplements on the distribution of selenium among serum proteins in cattle" "Journal of Dairy Science","APR 1998","81","4","1089-1094" "R.L. Kincaid/Washington State Univ/Dept Anim Sci/Pullman, WA 99164 USA" "The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the amount and chemical form of dietary Se on the distribution of Se among serum proteins. Six growing calves were assigned in a completely randomized design to receive diets containing either adequate (0.41 mu g/g) or excess (0.73 mu g/g) dietary Se. Proteins in serum collected from the calves were separated into albumin, glutathione peroxidase, and selenoprotein P fractions, and the concentration of Se in each was determined. The concentration of Se within serum was elevated by dietary Se supplementation. The selenoprotein P fraction within serum contained the largest percentage of Se among the serum proteins. In a second study, 12 mature cows were assigned to receive one of four experimental salt mixes containing 20, 60, or 120 mu g of Se as sodium selenite/g of salt mix; the fourth treatment was 60 mu g of Se as selenized yeast/g of salt mix. Cows given salt with 120 mu g of Se as selenite or 60 mu g of Se as selenized yeast had the highest concentrations of Se in whole blood; however, concentrations of Se in serum did not differ among treatments. Concentrations of Se in the protein fractions within serum were not affected by treatment. Within serum, the highest concentration of Se was in the selenoprotein P fraction (31.6 ng/ml), the smallest concentration was in the glutathione peroxidase fraction (4.7 ng/ml), and an intermediate amount of Se was obtained from the albumin fraction (8.5 ng/ml). In conclusion, selenized yeast and selenite as sources of Se for supplementation of cattle resulted in similar patterns of Se distribution among proteins in serum. The greatest concentration of Se was found in the selenoprotein P fraction, which may contribute to Se transportation or function as an antioxidant." BAUMGARTNER, W.; MATZKA, B.; SCHERR, E.; TATARUCH, F. "Comparison of inorganic and organically bound selenium-supplementation in dairy cows" "Praktische Tierarzt","JUN 1998","79"," Sp. Iss.","76-77" "W. Baumgartner/Vet Med Univ Wien/Med Klin Klauentiere 2/Vet Pl 1/A-1210 Vienna, Austria" "From June to September 1996 three groups of 10 cows each (Fleckvieh and Braunvieh) at the research farm of the University of Veterinary Medicine were chosen to conduct a feed trial. Group I received a daily supplement of 5 mg Selenium as selenomethionine (organic selenium), group II the same amount of Selenium as sodium 47 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. selenite (inorganic selenium) and group III was used as control group without supplementation. In this period whole blood-, serum- and milk samples were drawn every three weeks (6 times). At the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the trial feed samples were taken. For selenium analysis a direct detection method was used. In the supplemented groups all evaluated parameters increased whereas the selenium contents declined in animals of the control group. There was no significant difference in Selenium concentration in blood at any time between group I and II. Serum concentration in group I was significantly higher at day 42, 84 and 105. Milk concentration was significantly higher in group I at any time of the trial. All animals that were supplemented with 5 mg selenium/day were able to meet the requirements for selenium in blood and serum. No direct advantage for the dairy cow was seen for either selenium source. However there was a difference of the selenium content in milk. There were significantly higher selenium levels with the organic supplemented animals. Because of that, there is an advantage for the supply as well for the calves as for man." BECKETT, S.; LEAN, I.; DYSON, R.; TRANTER, W.; WADE, L. "Effects of monensin on the reproduction, health, and milk production of dairy cows" "Journal of Dairy Science","JUN 1998","81","6","1563-1573" "S. Beckett/Massey Univ/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Palmerston North, New Zealand" "A randomized clinical trial including 1109 cows from 12 Australian dairy herds was used to evaluate the effects of monensin on the health (n = >686 cows), production (n = 915 cows), and reproduction (n = >908 cows) of dairy cows. Cows were allocated to a treatment group receiving a slow-release intraruminal bolus containing 32 g of sodium monensin that was administered 40 d before and 50 d following the anticipated calving date or to a control: group. Treatment did not significantly alter any reproductive outcome; 54.5% of cows treated with monensin and 58.2% of control cows were pregnant at first service, and days to conception were lower for cows treated with monensin. The hazard rate (0.95) was not significant for these cows. The percentage of cows pregnant was 83.8 for cows treated with monensin and 83.3 for control cows, and days to first estrus (hazard rate = 1.04) and first service (hazard rate = 1.04) were not significantly higher for treated cows.%Treatment with monensin did not significantly alter the risk of any disease. The incidence of retained fetal membranes, pyometra, lameness, abortion, and infectious diseases was not significantly lower for cows in the treatment group, and the incidence of mastitis was not significantly higher for cows in the treatment group. Monensin significantly increased milk production by 0.75 L/d per cow and tended to increase milk fat and protein yields but had no significant effect on milk fat or milk protein percentages. Changes in the production of milk and milk constituents were consistent throughout lactation." BOERSMA, A.; BRAUN, J. "Computer-assisted analysis of sperm morphology in veterinary medicine" "Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","1999","112","3","81-85","German Article" "Boersma A./Univ Munich/Gynakol & Ambulator Tierklin/Koniginstr 12/D-80539 Munich/GERMANY" "The evaluation of spermatozoal morphology is an essential step to determine the fertility potential in male individuals. The method of computer-assisted morphometry provides an efficient tool to evaluate objectively morphological anomalies of the sperm head. This review describes the development acid current status of morphometry systems and addresses the various problems associated with this method in veterinary medicine. Although there are some unanswered questions, a number of interesting results have been obtained. In 48 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. all species investigated an individual influence on sperm head dimensions could be demonstrated. In the bull the extent of variability rather than absolute morphometric data is related to ind ividual fertility. The method of computer-assisted morphometry will also help to develop well defined criteria for subjective evaluation of sperm morphology. Further research has to be directed towards the evaluation of the sperm mid-piece. The ultimate goal is the automatic determination of spermatozoal morphology.","","0005-9366","Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag Gmbh/Kurfurstendamm 57/D-10707 Berlin/Germany" BRAUN, J.; WORNER, B.; STOLLA, R. "Follicular development and cyclic functions in cows after intra uterine treatment with Lotagen(R)" "Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","409-412" "J. Braun/Univ Munich/Gynakol & Ambulator Tierklin/Koniginstr 12/D-80539 Munich, Germany" "The aim of this study was to examine the follicular wave pattern in non- lactating cows (Simmenthal, Brown Swiss) during spontaneous estrous cycles and after intrauterine treatment with a 4% Lotagen(R) solution on day 5 or 15 of the estrous cycle. Follicular activity was monitored by ultrasonography using a 5-MHz linens array trans rectal transducer. Number and diameter of follicles with a diameter of >5 mm were recorded. During 22 control cycles, a two-wave pattern was detected in 16 cases and a three-wave pattern in 6 cases. The mean cycle length of two-wave inter-estrus intervals (21.4 days) was shorter than for three-wave intervals (23.7 days). Uterine infusion on day 5 led to a shortened cycle length (15.7 days). In 5 of 13 cows treated, only one follicular wave developed. A two-wave pattern was observed in 7 cases. In one-wave cycles, the treatment led to prolonged period of a static dominant follicle, before ovulation occurred.. Intrauterine infusion on day 15 (11 cows) extended the inter-estrous interval (24.9 days). In 10 cows the follicular wave producing the ovulatory follicle developed after treatment. Seven three-wave and four two-wave cycles were observed. The results demonstrate the influence of uterine infusion on estrous cycle length and follicular growth. The prolonged static phase of the dominant follicle in one-wave cycles after treatment on day 5 may compromise fertility in the following estrous period." BUSCH, W.; GRUSSEL, T. "Use of peroxiethan acid (peracetate acid Uterofertil (R)) for treatment of bovine endometritis" "Praktische Tierarzt","AUG 1 1998","79","8", "746" "W. Busch/Philippstr 13/D-10117 Berlin, Germany" "We used the drug peroxiethan acid (peracetate acid-PAS) for treatment of endometritis in cattle. PAS was used before in flushing of wounds and for desinfection in human medicine. This drug posesses a bacteriocid, a virucid and an antimycotic effect, caused by the low pH, by the O-2 in statu nascendi and by development of acetate some times after application. A lot of biochemical reactions in the cell wall and in the cell body are induced. Applied into the uterus we observed a high incidence of phagocytosis. In a clinical experiment 2.305 cows were treated, one part with PAS and the other with the traditional procedure. In five experiments we achieved equal or higher reproductive results after treatment with PAS in comparision with the traditional drugs. Besides the above described results there are additional advantages: no resistence, no residuals in milk or meat. The PAS is contained in the trademark ''Uterofertil(R) neu''." 49 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. BUXTON, D. "Protozoan infections (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis spp.) in sheep and goats: recent advances" "Veterinary Research","MAY-AUG 1998","29","3 -4","289-310" "D. Buxton/Int Res Ctr/Moredun Res Inst/Div Virol/Pentlands Sci Pk/Bush Loan/Penicuik EH26 0PZ/Midlothian, Scotland" "The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a serious cause of fetal mortality in sheep and goats. Oocysts, the parasite stage responsible for initiating infection, are produced following a primary infection in cats. A primary infection in pregnant sheep and goats can establish a placental and fetal infection which may result in fetal death and resorption, abortion or stillbirth. Diagnosis is aided by the clinical picture, the presence of characteristic small white necrotic foci in placental cotyledons, the possible presence of a mummified fetus and on fetal serology and histopathology. Development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for T. gondii may also provide a valuable diagnostic tool. Measures to control abortion include improved management: of farm cats, fodder and water. Vaccination of sheep with the live vaccine is an effective preventive measure and the use of decoquinate in feed may be useful in some situations. Neospora caninum is related to T. gondii and while its asexual life cycle is similar to that of the latter it is currently not known whether it has a similar sexual life cycle in a definitive host. Neospora is an important cause of fetal loss in cattle and parallels that of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats. While it does not appear to cause frequent losses in these latter animals, experimental infection is readily induced in them and if initiated during pregnancy provides a very good model of the bovine infection. Furthermore clinical signs and patho logical lesions in sheep and goats are similar to those induced in them by T. gondii, although there are subtle histopathological differences. These changes will aid possible diagnosis as will specific serological tests such as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the PCR. Sarcocystis, which exists as numerous species, undergoes a coccidian- like life cycle with each having a distinctive definitive (usually carnivore) host which excretes sporocysts into the environment. Clinical sarcocystiosis is much less commonly diagnosed than toxoplasmosis and neither is it normally associated with fetal infection or abortion in either sheep or goats. However, infection is extremely common throughout the world and follows ingestion of food or water contaminated with sporocysts. Clinical signs, when seen, include fever, anaemia, inappetance and weight loss or reduced weight gain. Central nervous signs (hind limb weakness, ataxia, paresis), acute myopathy and death may occur. Diagnosis is difficult as infection is %so common and clinical signs absent, mild or non-specific. Serology may be useful in some situations and histopathology/immunohistochemistry is valuable for confirming the cause of death. Control relies on preventing contamination of pasture and water with faeces of dogs, foxes and cats or by controlling access of young susceptible stock to contaminated land. Relatively little is known of the immunity induced by infection with Sarcocystis spp, but research indicates that protective immunity does develop and that cell- mediated mechanisms are probably important. It is likely that sarcocystiosis is underdiagnosed as a problem and that better diagnostic methods are needed to show the true extent of the losses caused. Neosporosis on the other hand would appear not to be so common in sheep and goats. The value of experimental infections in these animals may be to provide a comparative model of the infection in cattle in the same way that our understanding of toxoplasmosis in sheep provides a superior model of human toxoplasmosis. (C) Inra/Elsevier, Paris." 50 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. CAMPBELL, M.H.; MILLER, J.K.; SCHRICK, F.N. "Effect of additional cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc on reproduction and milk yield of lactating dairy cows receiving bovine somatotropin" "Journal of Dairy Science","1999","82","5","1019-1025" "Campbell M.H./Univ Tennessee/Dept Anim Sci/Knoxville,TN 37996 USA" "The objective of this study was to determine whether organically complexed Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn would improve the reproductive performance and milk and milk component production in lactating dairy cows that began receiving bovine somatotropin in the ninth week of lactation. Holstein(n = 50) and Jersey(n = 10) cows were blocked by breed, lactation number, and incidence of retained fetal membranes. Two diets assigned within blocks and fed from parturition until 154 d of lactation were control or control supplemented daily with 26 mg of Co as Co glucoheptonate, 125 mg of Cu as Cu-Lys, 199 mg of Mn as Mn-Met, and 359 mg of Zn as Zn-Met. Cows were fitted with electronic pressure-sensing devices in the second week of lactation for detection of estrus. Ovarian structures were determined via transrectal ultrasonography at 7-d intervals from parturition until observation of the first corpus luteum. Blood samples were taken at 7-d intervals and analyzed for plasma concentrations of progesterone, insulin, and urea nitrogen. Onset of luteal activity was identified by progesterone concentrations greater than or equal to 1 ng/ml. Retained fetal membranes increased days to first estrus (detected via electronic estrous detection), first luteal activity, and first corpus luteum in control cows but not in supplemented cows. Days to first observed estrus were greater for control cows than for supplemented cows. Days to first service, days open, days from first service to conception, services per conception, milk yield, milk components, and somatic cell counts were similar for control and supplemented cows. Supplementation with complexed trace minerals effectively reduced days to first estrus.","","0022-0302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA" CORRO, M.; RUBIO, I.; CASTILLO, E.; GALINDO,L.; ALUJA, A.; GALINA,C.S.; MURCIA, C. "Effect of blood metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and postpartum intervals in dual-purpose cattle farms in tropics of the State of Veracruz, Mexico" "Preventive veterinary Medicine", "1999, 38, 2-3, 101-117" "Corro M./Natl Autonomous Univ Mexico/Fac Vet Med & Zootechn/Ctr Res Teaching & Extens Trop Anim Husbandry/Apartado Postal 136/Martinez De La Torre/Veracruz/MEXICO" "Research was conducted on typical smallholder farms with dual-purpose cattle (DPC) (Bos indicus x B. Taurus) in the coastal north-central area of Veracruz, Mexico. The study was divided into two phases. The aim of the first phase was to investigate the effect of blood metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and postpartum intervals, in order to investigate if the former are suitable indicators of the reproductive and nutritional status of DPC. One hundred and sixty- five calvings of crossbred cows were recorded from January 1992 to November 1994 on 12 small farms. Milk samples were collected twice a week for progesterone analysis. Blood samples and BCS were taken once a month. However, in Phase II emphasis was placed on the effect of pasture management upon reproductive and productive performance of DPC. Records of four farms were obtained from June 1995 to November 1996. Stocking rates were 0.40, 0.87, 0.35 and 1.5 cows/ha for farms A, B, C and D, respectively. Farms A and C used a slow rotation while B and D used a rapid rotation. In Phase I, the changes in BCS during the last month of pregnancy and first month postpartum 51 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. did not correlate (p>0.05) with milk yield or reproductive performance. Blood the metabolite profiles were not consistently related to productive or reproductive variables. The effect of farm and season was significant (p<0.05) on most of the response variables and low productivity on overstocked farms lead to the conclusion that the low reproductive performance of DPC was linked to poor pasture management. During Phase II, farms A (FA) and D (FD) produce more milk than the others. Days to first service, days open, and carving interval were similar for farms B (FB) and C (FC), highest for Farm A, and lowest for Farm D. The forage availability mean was above the critical range of 6-8 kg of city matter per 100 kg of liveweight (kg DM/100 kg LW) in all Farms (range from 6.1 +/- 5.0 to 21.1 +/- 11.2 kg DM/100 kg LW). Farm D had the highest stocking rate (1.5 cows/ha), a rapid rotation (10 paddocks), a good forage availability (7.1 +/- 3.9 kg DM/100 kg LW) with a Good quality for a tropical pasture (11.6 +/- 2.4% crude protein), and an economic energy supplementation. These results suggest this type of management could be more widely employed to improve the productivity of DPC on smallholder farms in the Mexican tropics. (C) 1999 published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.","","0167-5877","Elsevier Science Bv/PO Box 211/1000 AE Amsterdam/Netherlands" DOBSON, H.; SMITH, R.F. "Stress and subfertility" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals""JUN 1998","33","3 -4","107-111" "H. Dobson/Univ Liverpool/Dept Vet Clin Sci & Anim Husb/Wirral, England" "Common stressful conditions imposed by the environment in the postpartum period reduce fertility. For example, lameness in cattle results in an extra 14 days and 0.42 inseminations to achieve conception, and a decrease in social status leads to an extra 46 days and 0.6 inseminations.%To examine the mechanisms involved in stress- induced subfertility, LH secretion has been monitored in sheep models to observe the influence of experimental stressors such as transport. A normal preovulatory LH surge occurs as a result of increasing frequency of GnRH, and hence LH pulses which drive follicles to produce increasing amounts of oestradiol. The latter develops a negative feedback on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis so that stores of LH can build- up before LH release during the pre-ovulatory surge.%Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis by 4h transport reduced by 50% the amount of LH released by small doses of exogenous GnRH, and caused an 8h delay in the onset of the LH surge. It is suggested that these effects may be mediated at pituitary level by interference with GnRH receptor activity and/or LH synthesis. Transport also reduced endogenous LH pulse amplitude by 50% and frequency by 0.25 pulses/h, possibly by effects at hypothalamic level. %Using a different model in which follicular growth was induced by exogenous LH, oestradiol production declined markedly when both LH pulse frequency and amplitude were reduced by 50% for a 12h period in the mid- follicular phase.%Clearly, stress- induced reductions of fertility are mediated by effects at pituitary and hypothalamic levels to reduce LH drive of follicular growth and oestradiol production." DRANSFIELD, M.B.G.; NEBEL, R.L.; PEARSON, R.E.; WARNICK, L.D. "Timing of insemina tion for dairy cows identified in estrus by a radiotelemetric estrus detection system" "Journal of Dairy Science","JUL 1998","81","7","1874-1882" "R.L. Nebel/Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ/Dept Dairy Sci/Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA" "The optimal time of artificial insemination (AI) was determined from data for 2661 AI in 17 herds utilizing a radiotelemetric system for estrus detection that has the potential for 52 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. continuous 24-h surveillance to monitor behavioral events associated with estrus. The system consisted of pressure-sensitive radio frequency transmitters affixed over the sacrum region of cows,The activation of the sensor sent a radiotelemetric signal to a microcomputer via a fixed antenna. Cow identification, date, time, and duration of each standing event were recorded in the software program provided with the system. Each farm selected a 3-h interval to Al far cows that were identified in estrus during the previous 24 h. Pregnancy status was determined from data for return to estrus and palpation of the uterus 35 to 75 d following Al. Standing events during estrus averaged (+/- SD) 8.5 +/- 6.6 per cow, and the number of events per estrus across herds averaged from 6.2 +/- 5.1 to 12.8 +/- 9.9 per cow. The duration of estrus ranged from 5.1 +/- 3.8 to 10.6 +/- 6.8 h across herds; the mean was 7.1 +/- 5.4 h. The interval from the first standing event to Al affected the probability of pregnancy; the highest conception rates for Al occurred between 4 and 12 h after the onset of standing activity. The probability of pregnancy was higher for cows >100 d in milk, exhibiting >2 standing events during estrus, and inseminated during March, April, or May." DRANSFIELD, M.B.G.; NEBEL, R.L.; PEARSON, R.E.; WARNICK, L.D. "Timing of insemination for dairy cows ident ified in estrus by a radiotelemetric estrus detection system" "Journal of Dairy Science","JUL 1998","81","7","1874-1882" "R.L. Nebel/Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ/Dept Dairy Sci/Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA" "The optimal time of artificial insemination (AI) was determined from data for 2661 AI in 17 herds utilizing a radiotelemetric system for estrus detection that has the potential for continuous 24-h surveillance to monitor behavioral events associated with estrus. The system consisted of pressure-sensitive radio frequency transmitters affixed over the sacrum region of cows,The activation of the sensor sent a radiotelemetric signal to a microcomputer via a fixed antenna. Cow identification, date, time, and duration of each standing event were recorded in the software program provided with the system. Each farm selected a 3-h interval to Al far cows that were identified in estrus during the previous 24 h. Pregnancy status was determined from data for return to estrus and palpation of the uterus 35 to 75 d following Al. Standing events during estrus averaged (+/- SD) 8.5 +/- 6.6 per cow, and the number of events per estrus across herds averaged from 6.2 +/- 5.1 to 12.8 +/- 9.9 per cow. The duration of estrus ranged from 5.1 +/- 3.8 to 10.6 +/- 6.8 h across herds; the mean was 7.1 +/- 5.4 h. The interval from the first standing event to Al affected the probability of pregnancy; the highest conception rates for Al occurred between 4 and 12 h after the onset of standing activity. The probability of pregnancy was higher for cows >100 d in milk, exhibiting >2 standing events during estrus, and inseminated during March, April, or May." FOOTE, R.H.; RIEK, P.M. "Gonadotropin-releasing dairy cows with hormone improves reproductive performance of slow involution of the reproductive tract" "Journal of Animal Science","1999","77","1","12-16" "Foote R.H./Cornell Univ/Dept Anim Sci/204 Morrison Hall/Ithaca,NY 14853 USA" "Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 mu g of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. La st milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the 53 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant(P < .05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.","","0021-8812","Amer Soc Animal Science/1111 North Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA" GANT, R.G.; SANCHEZ, W.; KINCAID, R.L. "Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows" "Journal of Dairy Science""JUN 1998","81","6","1637-1642" "RL Kincaid/Washington State Univ/Dept Anim Sci/Pullman, WA 99164 USA" "The objective of this trial was to determine whether anionic salts in the diets of nonlactating, pregnant cows for 14 to 21 d prepartum affected measures of Se status. One of three dietary treatments (control, anionic salts, and anionic salts plus Se) was administered to 34 nonlactating, pregnant cows using a completely randomized design with repeated measures. The anionic salts were delivered via gelatin capsules that were administered orally in two equal amounts per day, and the Se (3 mg/d) was administered via an intraruminal bolus. The incidence of milk fever among cows was not significantly different across dietary treatments. The severity of hypocalcemia as indicated by concentrations of ionized Ca in serum collected <2 h postpartum was significantly lessened by dietary anionic salts. Supplementation of anionic salts to the diet did not significantly affect serum Ca concentrations at either 7 d prepartum or 7 d postpartum. Anionic salts did not affect concentrations of Se in blood; however, Se supplementation of the diets of cows significantly increased postpartum concentrations of Se in serum. No treatment effects were detected for concentrations of Se in either serum or whole blood of newborn calves. In conclusion, these data indicate that diets supplemented with anionic salts for 14 to 21 d prepartum and the supplementation of diets with Se had independent effects On concentrations of minerals in blood. Thus, anionic salts can be administered to prevent milk fever without danger of significantly reducing the transfer of Se from the dam to the calf and without compromising the Se status of the cow when the anionic salts are limited to administration for 14 to 21 d before calving." GREEN, B.L.; McBRIDE, B.W,;SANDALS, D.; LESLIE, K.E.; BAGG, R. ; DICK, P. "The impact of a monensin controlled-release capsule on subclinical Ketosis in the transition cow" "Journal of Dairy Science", "1999, 82, 2, 333-342" "An experiment was designed to examine subclinical ketosis in periparturient dairy cows and the antiketogenic effects of monensin. Subclinical ketosis was induced through a 10% feed restriction and was quantitatively determined using a blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) threshold of 1200 mu mol/L. Monensin decreased the BHBA concentration by 35% and increased the glucose concentration by 15%. No effect of monensin on milk production was detected, but rumen fermentation was altered. Monensin decreased the acetate to propionate ratio, decreased the butyrate concentration, and increased pH. The lower 54 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. concentration of BHBA in blood and higher concentration of blood glucose in cows treated with a monensin controlled-release capsule decreased subclinical ketosis in early lactation cows.","","0022-0302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA" GRUNERT, E.; HARXHI, E.; BOOS, A. "Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of partially luteinised follicular cysts in cattle" "Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","384" "E. Grunert/Bischofsholer Damm 15/D-30173 Hannover, Germany" "This study examined the value ultrasonography in diagnosing partially luteinised follicula r cysts and monitoring the transition of histologically and endocrinologically confirmed ovarian cysts from the original state to luteal cysts. Of partially luteinised follicular cyst, only 7 (58.3%) were diagnosed by a 7.5 Mhz transrectal transducer. Using the 5 Mhz transducer only classical luteal cysts with a grey echogenic rim of luteal tissue more than 3 mm thick were diagnosed correctly. Progesterone concentrations in the cystic fluid of luteal cysts were significantly increased (3,596.7 ng/ml) compared to the fluid of follicular cysts with partial luteinisation (116-482.4 ng/ml), The findings of comparable concentrations of progesterone in the cystic fluid question the need for the treatment with PGF2 alpha analogues in or der to reduce luteal tissue in partially luteinised follicular cysts. Because of this finding ultrasonic diagnosis is of limited value, However, ultrasonography does have a diagnostic role when luteal cysts have a high progesterone concentration and detectable ultrasound signs." HENZE, P.; BICKHARDT, K.; FUHRMANN, H.; SALLMANN, H.P. "Pregnancy toxaemia (ketosis) in sheep and the role of insulin" "Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine","JUL 1998","45","5","255-266" "K. Bickhardt/Tierarztliche n Hsch Hannover/Klin Kleine Klauentiere/Ambulator Klin & Forens M/D-30173 Hannover, Germany" "214 ewes suffering from pregnancy toxaemia (ketosis) were examined. Clinical signs during onset and course of disease and laboratory findings were compared between animals that survived and those which died. In the latter the onset of ketosis was earlier in pregnancy (dap 143 +/- 7 vs, day 146 +/- 8) and duration of thr disease was shorter (10 +/- 13 vs. 14 +/- 9 days). The animals that died showed more severe clinical signs and higher values of 3-hydroxy-butyrate (4.3 +/- 3.6 vs. 3.5 +/- 2.6 mmol/l) and cortisol (72 +/- 98 vs. 52 +/- 80 nmol/l) as well as lower values of insulin (37 +/- 12 vs. 66 +/- 42 pmol/l) and potassium (4.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 mmol/l) at onset of the disease than those which survived (all of differences with P < 0.05). Glucose levels did not differ between groups.%Treated animals with glucose plus fructose infusions (n = 56) or with oral application of glucose precursors plus electrolytes (n = 126) had survival rates of 53.6% and 62.7%, respectively. Oral treatment with glucose precursors plus electrolytes and an additional subcutaneous insulin treatment (n = 15) led to an enhanced survival rate of 86.7% (P < 0.05).%Low insulin levels in ketotic pregnant sheep and the therapeutic effect of insulin treatment support the hypothesis that insulin plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of ovine ketosis." HEUER, C.; SCHUKKEN, Y.H.; DOBBELAAR, P. "Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds" "Journal of Dairy Science","1999","82","2","295-304" 55 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. "Heuer C./Univ Utrecht/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/Yalelaan 7/NL-3584 CL Utrecht/NETHERLANDS" "The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of >1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of >1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but sho wed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.","","00220302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA" HOEDEMAKER, M. "Postpartal pathological vaginal discharge: To treat or not to treat?" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","141-146" "M. Hoedemaker/Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover/Klin Geburtshilfe & Gynakol Rindes/Hannover, Germany" "In this paper, the physiology of bovine puerperium and pathogenesis of bovine postpartal endometritis were reviewed. The economic impact of a disturbed uterine involution were discussed and the current concepts of treatment of this disease critically evaluated. Despite the fact that therapy is the most controversial aspect of endometritis, some recommendations for the management of this problem were given considering the physiology and pathology of puerperium." HORUGEL, U.; FURLL, M. "Investigations on early diagnosis of disposition to parturient paresis" "Praktische Tierarzt","JUN 1998","79"," Sp. Iss.","86-92" "U. Horugel/Univ Leipzig/Fak Vet Med/Med Klin/Zwickauer Str 53/D-04103 Leipzig, Germany" "From July to September examinations were performed in a dairy cowshed with a stock of 1.930 cows. The examinations were confined to 47 cows of the breed "Schwarzbuntes Milchrind'' (03.6 lactation periods, 05850 kg milk per pear). The aims were to analyse the correlation between the acid-base-status (ABS) and the mineral-nutrient-status (MNS) in the peripartal period and to check parameters of early diagnostic information and their value for disposition to parturient paresis. For that purpose follow- up investigations of ABS and MNS with the help of blood and urine samples were performed 14 days ante partum to 14 days post partum. In order to make the differences clear all examined animals were divided into groups according to the concentrations of ionized calcium (Ca- i) in their blood sub partu and to some ABS parameters ante partum. Ante partum (a.p.) the fodder ration contained a dietary-cation-anion-difference 2 (DCAD 2) of 281 mEq/kg dry matter with 56 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. potassium clearly dominating. The Calcium (Ca) intake totalled 42 g/d and the inorganic phosphate intake was (P-i) 44 g/d. From 14 days a.p. to partus an average continuous 100 mmol/l decrease in the concentration of netto-acid-base-excretion (NABE), of bases and of potassium in the urine was established. Equally the base-acid-quotient (BAQ) fell from 4.0 to 2.1 and the pH-value fell from 8.2 to 7.8, whereas the concentration of acids, ammonium, P-i and Ca in the urine remained stable to a large extent. However, the concentration of Ca, and Pi in the blood dropped immediately before parturition. The a. p. existing alcalotic ABS is determined by a high base concentration especially of potassium. Moreover it was shown clearly that the animals with a relatively high alcalotic ABS a. p. had the lowest concentrations of Ca, in the blood at the time of parturition. Recommendations for early diagnosis of parturient paresis are given. The following recommendations can be derived for 14 d a. p. (a/) and 7 d a. p. (/b): bases < 300/ < 270 mmol/l, NAPE < 250/ < 220 mmol/l, BAQ 4,3, potassium < 300/ < 250 mmol/l, pH-value < 8,4/ less than or equal to 7,8. Unfortunately the formation of the creatinine quotient of the tested urine parameters did not provide any convincing results." JANOWSKI, T.; ZDUNCZYK, S.; CHMIELEWSKI, A.; MWAANGA, E.S. "Progesterone profiles in cows with endometritis " "Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","399-402" "T. Janowski/Ul Oczapowskiego 14/PL-10957 Olsztyn, Poland" "Plasma progesterone profiles were determined in 40 cows with endometritis and in 30 healthy cows. Blood samples were collected twice a week up to 60 days post partum. Progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA and the profiles were classified into four basic types. In the cows with endometritis, 45 per cent exhibited an irregular secretion of progesterone with 2 or more short cycles, 30 per cent had a delayed onset of ovarian activity at >30 days post partum and 15 per cent of animals had a prolonged (>20 days) luteal phase. The early initiation of ovarian activity with regular cyclicity was observed in only 5% of cows with endometritis and in 80 per cent of the healthy cows. The first ina ease in progesterone, greater than 3.18 nmol/l occurred significantly later (27.8 +/- 12.3 days post partum) in animals with uterine infection compared with normal cows (21.0 +/- 8.1 days post partum). The duration of the first cycle post partum was longer (19.7 +/- 7.3 days) in cows with endometritis compared with healthy cows (13.7 +/- 5.8 days). The mechanisms involved in puerperal endometritis and disturbances of ovarian function are discussed." JORRITSMA, R.; BALDEE, S.J.C.; SCHUKKEN, Y.H.; WENSING, T.; WENTINK, G.H. "Evaluation of a milk test for detection of subclinical ketosis" "Veterinary Quarterly","JUL 1998","20","3","108-110" "R. Jorritsma/Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/POB 80151/NL-3508 Td Utrecht, Netherlands" "This study included 190 lactating cows from eight dairy farms and was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a milk test (Ketolac) for detecting subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples were collected between 38 and 50 days post partum, At a beta- hydroxybutyric acid concentration in blood of 1.2 mmol/L, the prevalence of ketosis was 14%. A Response Operator Characteristic curve was drawn for two milk test values: 100 mu mol/L and 200 mu mol/L, Assessment of several beta- hydroxybutyric acid cut-off values in blood showed that when 100 mu mol/L on the Ketolac milk test was defined positive, the most desirable sensitivity-specificity combination was achieved. This milk test can be routinely used to screen a herd for subclinical ketosis." 57 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. KAUFMANN, C.; THUN, R. "The influence of acute stress on the secretion of cortisol and progesterone in the cow" "Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","403" "R. Thun/Univ Zurich/Klin Androl & Gynakol/Winterthurerstr 268/CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland" "The effects of acute stress, induced by immobilisation in a crush for 2 hours for. hoof treatment, on the secretion of cortisol and progesterone was studied in cows during two different stages of the oestrous cycle. Five Brown Swiss cows were exposed to this stress on two occasions, once in the luteal and once in the oestrous phase, during which cortisol and progesterone were estimated in blood samples taken every ten minutes. During stress, cortisol concentrations increased significantly in all cows with ma.maximum values of 27 ng/ml plasma, independent of the phase of the cycle. PI Progesterone concentrations were elevated only in cows in oestrous, with the greatest values between 1.9 and 8.8 ng/ml plasma. In unstressed animals progesterone concentrations during oestrus varied below 0.6 ng/ml plasma. The stress- induced increase in progesterone is most likely derived from the adrenal cotter and possibly from the ovary. The results also suggest a cycle-dependent mechanism of activating the pituitary-adrenocortical system." KITTEL, D.R.; CAMPERO, C.; VANHOOSEAR, K.A.; RHYAN, J.C.; BONDURANT, R.H. "Comparison of diagnostic methods for detection of active infection with Tritrichomonas foetus in beef heifers" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","AUG 15 1998","213","4","519" "D.R. Kittel/Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Dept Populat Hlth & Reprod/Davis, CA 95616 USA" "Objective-To compare sensitivity of a generic trypticase-yeast extract- maltose (TYM) medium versus a commercial nutrient medium in the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in heifers and to assess sensitivity when incubation of samples inoculated into commercial medium pouches is delayed overnight. Design-Prospective study. Animals - 30 virgin beef heifers. Procedures-20 heifers vaccinated with a trichomonad antigen and 10 unvaccinated control heifers were exposed at synchronized estrus by intravaginal instillation of 10(6) T foetus organisms. Cervicovaginal mucus samples were collected every other week for 10 weeks from controls and once (10 weeks after exposure) from vaccinated heifers. Samples were inoculated into both media and immediately incubated at 37 C (98.6 F). A duplicate inoculation from controls was made into commercial medium, and the pouch was shipped overnight to a diagnostic laboratory without prior incubation. Results-For 40 of 50 samples from control heifers, there was agreement on diagnoses between media. There was agreement on a positive diagnosis for 3 of 20 samples from vaccinated heifers and on a negative diagnosis for 15 of these 20 samples. For samples shipped overnight before incubation, there were 10% fewer positive diagnoses, compared with samples incubated immediately in commercial medium and 10% more positive diagnoses, compared with samples immediately incubated in TYM. Clinical implications - Use of the commercial medium is a mo re sensitive indicator of current infection in heifers than use of generic TYM medium. In herds where infection prevalence is high, this method is likely to identify more infected females, an important consideration when control programs include culling of infected cows." 58 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. KOLB, E.; SEEHAWER, J.; STEINBERG, W. "Significance, utilization and application of B-vitamins in ruminants. 2. Niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid and vitamin B-12" "Praktische Tierarzt","1999","80","3","207+","German Article" "Kolb E./Semmelweisstr 4/D-04103 Leipzig/GERMANY" "Under certain feeding conditions the amount of resorbed niacin is not optimal, so daily supplementation with 1 g nicotinic acid per head of growing cattle, 0,5 g per sheep and 6 g per lactating cow augments productivity. Nicotinic acid has an antilipolytic, antiketogenic and a gluconeogenesis stimulating effect. Under usual feeding conditions the resorption of pantothenic acid is sufficient. The synthesis of biotin in the forestomachs is small. The enteral synthetized biotin is resorbed only to a small degree. Supply with 20 mg biotin per cow and day augments the quality of claw horn. The supply with folic acid is under certain feeding conditions not optimal. There is a high synthesis of vitamin B-12 in the forestomachs. Preparations of B-vitamins are especially applied in cases of maldigestion and of a longer interruption of feed intake for the stimulation of cell regeneration and of the activity of the immune system.","","0032-681X","Schlutersche Verlag Druckerei/Georgswall 4/W-3000 Hanover 1/Germany" KYLE, B.L.; KENNEDY, A.D.; SMALL, J.A." "Measurement of vaginal temperature by radiotelemetry for the prediction of estrus in beef cows" "Theriogenology","JUN 1998","49","8","1437-1449" "B.L. Kyle/Univ Manitoba/Dept Anim Sci/Winnipeg/MB R3T 2N2, Canada" "Peaks in vaginal temperature were assessed as predictors of estrus in 22 suckled beef cows during 2 breeding seasons. A flexible plastic anchor was used to retain a temperature radiotransmitter within the cow va gina and vaginal temperature was monitored at C-min intervals. Blood was collected twice weekly for analysis of serum progesterone to confirm the occurrence of estrus and ovarian status was checked weekly using transrectal ultrasonography. Visual observations of estrous behavior were made for 20 min/h between 0400 and 0800 h and casually from 0800 to 1600 h (4 to 6 times). Values for vaginal temperature were available for 47 estrous periods. The prediction of estrus based on vaginal temperature was excellent when an estral peak in vaginal temperature was defined as an increase of at least 0.4 degrees C for 3 or more consecutive hours using the corresponding hourly means of a 2 or 3-d baseline. Combining the results of 2 separate years and using a 3-d baseline, a peak in vaginal temperature was found for 42 of 47 confirmed estrus periods (detection sensitivity of 89.4% and prediction power positive of 85.7%). Corresponding detection sensitivity and prediction power positive for visual observations of standing estrus were 53.2 and 96.2%, respectively. The mean maximal increase in vaginal temperature at estrus was 0.9 +/- 0.3 degrees C and the mean duration of the estrual peak in vaginal temperature was 6.5 +/- 2.7 h. In addition, vaginal temperature was found to be significantly depressed for 3 d prior to estrus and significantly elevated at mid-cycle. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc." MOLTENI, L.; MACCHI, A.D.; MEGGIOLARO, D.; SIRONI, G.;ENICE, F.; POPESCU, P. "New cases of XXY constitution in cattle" "Animal Reproduction Science","1999","55","2","107-113" "Molteni L./Fac Agr/Ist Zootecn Generale/Via Celoria 2/I-20133 Milan/ITALY" "The present paper describes two cases of an XXY condition in Chianina cattle. Both young bulls were routinely investigated cytogenetically before entering progeny test stations. 59 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. Every cell examined in the blood cell cultures showed an XXY constitution. The histological study of the gonads, performed on only one bull, showed degradation of the seminiferous tubules. Only Sertoli cells and hyperplastic interstitial cells were observed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.","","0378-4320","Elsevier Science Bv/PO Box 211/1000 AE Amsterdam/Netherlands" NAGY, P.; HUSZENICZA, G.; JUHASZ, J.; SOLTI, L.; KULCSAR, M. "Diagnostic problems associated with ovarian activity in barren and postpartum mares early in the breeding season" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","187-192" "P. Nagy/Univ Vet Sci Budapest/Dept Obstet & Reprod/Budapest, Hungary" "Three studies were carried out to monitor or induce ovarian activity and sexual behaviour in maiden, barren and postpartum mares during the anovulatory season. In the first study maiden and barren mares were followed up by regular blood sampling. In 39% of anoestrus mares the anovulatory season was started after December 1. Mares that stopped cycling before December 1 had significantly longer anovulatory period (P<0.001) and resumed cyclic ovarian activity one month later (P<0.01) than mares that stopped cycling after December 1. The first ovulation was not preceded by overt oestrus in most of the cases (64.7%). In the second study 38 mares, foaling in the first three month of the year, were monitored. Cyclic ovarian activity resumed more than 20 days after parturition in 11 mares (28.9%, between 22 and 111 days). Only 52.6% of the animals showed heat before the first postpartum ovulation. The follicular phase after the luteolysis of the first corpus luteum was longer than normal (>10days, between 22 and 64 days) in 10 mares (43.5%). In the third study 44 mares in spring transition were treated with Altrenogest for 10 days. In 8 treated mares a GnRH-challenge (40 mu g Buserelin iv.) was carried out before treatment. Despite the same inclusion criteria used for all mares, in case of II mares (25%) the treatment was not successful and the ovulation occurred more than 20 days after the end of treatment.(between 29 and 70 days). The result of the GnRH-stimulation gave an explanation for this difference. Mares that were treated successfully with Altrenogest had a higher maximum LH-response and area under the curve indicating higher LH-content of the pituitary before treatment." ODOHERTY, J.V.; CROSBY, T.F. "Blood metabolite concentrations in late pregnant ewes as indicators of nut ritional status" "Animal Science","JUN 1998","66"," Part 3","675-683" "J.V. Odoherty/Univ Coll Dublin/Dept Anim Sci & Prod/Lyons Res Farm/Newcastle/Dublin, Ireland" "In a feeding experiment beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, albumin, total protein, globulin and urea concentrations in the plasma of twin-bearing ewes were analysed. Mature Suffolk cross ewes were given either formic acid (FA)-treated grass silage or grass/molassed sugar-beet pulp (MSBP) silage in late pregnancy. The experiment commenced on day 91 of pregnancy and the dietary treatments were FA-treated silage (T1), FA-treated silage + soya-bean meal (SBM) (T2), MSBP silage (T3), MSBP silage + SBM (T4), FA-treated silage + MSBP (T5), FA-treated silage + MSBP + SBM (T6) or FA-treated silage + 150 g crude protein (CP) per kg concentrate (T7). SBM was given only in the last 21 days of pregnancy aiming for a total CP intake of 220 g per ewe per day. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture from each ewe 3 h following consumption of the morning dietary allowance on days 121, 128, 135 and 142 of pregnancy. Daily metabolizable energy (ME) intakes of 6.8, 11.4, 9.6, 12.8, 10.5, 13.7 and 14.7 (s.e. 0.58) MJ per ewe were recorded for T1 60 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. to T7 respectively over the last 3 weeks of pregnancy. Respective CP intakes of 72, 213, 110, 225, 109, 215 and 175 (s.e. 5.64) g per ewe were recorded for T1 to T7 respectively over the last 3 weeks of pregnancy. BHB concentrations (mmol/l) on day 121 of pregnancy of 1.18, 1.25, 0.52, 0.52, 0.56, 0.39 and 0.45 (s.e. 0.17), on day 128 of pregnancy of 1.17, 0.94, 0.52, 0.51, 0.72, 0.62 and 0.39 (s.e. 0.20), on day 135 of pregnancy of 1.53, 0.68, 0.68, 0.66, 0.71, 0.62 and 0.46 (s.e. 0.20) and on day 142 of pregnancy of 1.43, 0.60, 0.62, 0.56, 0.62, 0.56 and 0.63 (s.e. 0.20) were recorded for T1 to T7 respectively. There teas a quadratic relationship between plasma BHB concentration and ME intake on days 121 (R-2 = 0.538, P < 0.001), 128 (R-2 = 0.324, P < 0.001), 135 (R-2 = 0.429, P < 0.001) and 142 (R-2 = 0.344, P < 0.001) of pregnancy. There was a positive relationship between plasma glucose concentration and ME intake on day 121 (R-2 = 0.208, P < 0.001), 128 (R-2 = 0.103, P < 0.05), and 135 (R-2 = 0.160, P < 0.01) of pregnancy. Albumin concentrations (g/l) on day 128 of pregnancy of 21.8, 21.7, 23.6, 22.9, 22.5, 22.9 and 24.3 (s.e. 0.75), on day 135 of 20.9, 23.6, 24.2, 24.1, 22.4, 24.1 and 23.8 (s.e. 0.75), and on day 142 of 16.9, 22.9, 20.7, 22.1, 20.4, 22.7 and 21.1 (s.e. 1.05) were recorded for T1 to T7 respectively. Plasma albumin concentrations were significantly affected by SBM supplementation (P < 0.05). Despite the lower than generally recommended energy concentrations in T2 to T7, the concentrations of plasma BHB were within the normal range for healthy she ep." OPSOMER, G.; CORYN, M.; DELUYKER, H.; DEKRUIF, A. "An analysis of ovarian dysfunction in high yielding dairy cows after calving based on progesterone profiles" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","193-204" "G. Opsomer/State Univ Ghent/Fac Med Vet/Dept Reprod Obstet & Herd Hlth/Merelbeke, Belgium" "448 post partum progesterone profiles of 335 high- yielding dairy cows of 6 well managed dairy herds were analysed to monitor ovarian function and dysfunction in the immediate post partum period. Progesterone was measured in milkfat by RIA, and profiles were set up based on twice weekly milk sampling, starting from ten days after calving until confirmation of a new pregnancy by rectal palpation. Attention was focused on the immediate post partum period from 10 days after calving until first insemination (preservice period). First progesterone rise indicative for the presence of active luteal tissue, occurred at an average of 37 days (n=435; stdev=26) after calving, illustrating that the fir st ovulation after calving appears at approximately day 32. The 448 examined profiles could be classified as follows: I. Normal profile: 239 (53.5%); II. Delayed cyclicity: 91 (20.5%); III. Cessation of cyclicity: 15 (3%); IV. Prolonged luteal phase: 89 (20%); V. Short luteal phase: 3 (0.5%) and VI. Irregular profiles: 11 (2.5%).%Results show that almost half of the modern high- yielding dairy cows suffer from ovarian dysfunction in the preservice post partum period. Most important disorders are delayed cyclicity or anovulation and prolonged luteal phase, which together account for almost 90% of the abnormalities." PALMER, E.; GUILLAUME, D. "Some mechanisms involved in the response of mares to photoperiodic stimulation of reproductive activity" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","205-208" "E. Palmer/Haras Nat/Nouzilly, France" "The horse is a long-day breeder. In stallions, the annual variation of the reproductive ability is small and it is mainly expressed through changes in hormonal levels and consequently through sexual behaviour and accessory glands secretions. On the other hand, 61 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. the reproductive status of mares changes considerably around the year. An anovulatory period is systematically observed during autumn and winter in young mares 2 or 3 years old and in adult mares that have suckled a foal during the previous summer (Palmer and Driancourt 1983). Only half of non lactating adult mares, older than 3 years, however, exhibit winter inactivity. These differences indicate that the physiological mechanism that drives the initiation of winter inactivity differs between the three types of mares. Moreover, in adult mares, parturition and lactation play an important role in the initiation of inactivity, even though mares cycle normally during lactation. %The annual variation of the reproductive function is illustrated by plasma progesterone profiles in normal mares or by the variation of circulating LH in ovariectomised mares (fig 1). The annual variation of LH in ovariectomised mares clearly demonstrates the existence of an annual rhythm for the reproduction in mares. This rhythm parallels the changes in the daylength with a delay of approximately 2 months, which suggests that light may influence this reproductive rhythm." PETERS, A.R.; BENBOULAID, M. "Studies on the timing of ovulation after synchronisation treatments in cattle" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","313-315" "AR Peters/Royal Vet Coll/Dept Farm Anim & Equine Med & Surg/Boltons Pk Farm/Potters Bar EN6 Inb/Herts, England" "A series of studies was conducted to examine the effect of various GnRH - PG GnRH regimes on the timing of ovulation using ultrasound in cows. In Study 1 cows received GnRH on day 5 of the oestrous cycle followed 7 days later by PG. Six cows received a second GnRH 48 hours after PG. These cows ovulated between 72 and 96 hours after PG compared to 96 and 120 hours for those not receiving a second GNRH.%In Study 2, 32 cows received a first GNRH injection at a random stage of the cycle. When PG was injected 7 days later 29/32 were in the luteal phase. Eleven cows received a second GnRH at 56-60 hours after PG and 10 cows at 72 hours, the other 11 receiving no further treatment. Ovulation was most tightly synchronised in the group receiving GnRH at 56-60 hours, 10/11 ovulating between 72 and 96 hours after PG. %In Study 3 six cows received PG on day 12 of the cycle followed by GnRH 60 hours later. Five of the six cows ovulated between 84 and 96 hours after PG. %In Study 4, 6 cows received GnRH on day 17 of the cycle followed by PG 7 days later and GnRH 60 hours after PG. The first GnRH successfully prolonged the luteal phase in 5/6 cows. Although the remaining cow ovulated 48 hours after PG, the others ovulated between 84 and 96 hours after PG.%It is concluded from these studies that GnRH given 48-60 hours after PG is most critical in determining the time of ovulation, GnRH 72 hours after PG is clearly too late. The first GnRH treatment does not appear to influence the timing of ovulation but could be important in determining oocyte maturation through reprogramming follicular development several days before luteolysis is induced. The first GnRH also has the effect of delaying luteolysis if given late in the luteal phase." RODOLAKIS, A.; SALINAS, J.; PAPP, J "Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion" "Veterinary Research","MAY-AUG 1998","29","3 -4","275-288" "A. Rodolakis/Inra/Pathol Infect & Immunol Lab/Ctr Tours Nouzilly/F-37380 Nouzilly, France" "This paper reviews new findings on ovine chlamydial abortion. Concerning chlamydial taxonomy, with the recent advances due to the analysis of the ribosomal genes, nine genotypic groups were identified separated into two lineages. It also describes the transmission of the disease, the site of entry of the organism and chlamydial shedding by 62 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. underlying the role of latent infections. Recent results also concern the pathogenesis, with the kinetics of placental colonization and placental pathology leading to abortion in ruminants. Studies using experimental infection in a pregnant mouse model have allowed the identification of target placental cells and have shown the differential evolution of the infection according to the stage of pregnancy. Different diagnosis techniques are compared (ELISA, PCR and immunofluorescence for the direct diagnosis) but also the possibilities of distinction between antibodies against Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci (for serodiagnosis). The recent advances on prophylaxis are presented, as well as the research efforts needs for the next century. (C) Inra/Elsevier, Paris." RUKKWAMSUK, T.; KRUIP, T.A.M.; MEIJER, G.A.L.; WENSING, T. "Hepatic fatty acid composition in periparturient dairy cows with fatty liver induced by intake of a high energy diet in the dry period" "Journal of Dairy Science","1999","82","2","280-287" "Rukkwamsuk T./Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Grad Sch Anim Hlth/Dept Large Anim Med & Nutr/POB 80-152/NL-3508 TD Utrecht/NETHERLANDS" "The present study compared the hepatic fatty acid composition of cows that were fed a high energy diet during the dry period to induce fatty liver after parturition with that of control cows. Treated cows had higher concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids as a result of greater lipolysis after parturition than did control cows; consequently, the treated cows accumulated greater amounts of triacylglycerols in the liver. Before parturition, treated cows had lower percentages of oleic acid and higher percentages of linoleic acid than did control cows, but percentages of other fatty acids were similar for both groups. After parturition, percentages of each fatty acid were changed substantially, particularly the four major fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids). For treated cows, the percentages of palmitic and oleic acids were higher at 0.5 wk after parturition than at 1 wk before parturition; percentages of stearic and linoleic acids decreased. Unlike treated cows, the percentages of both oleic and linoleic acids in the control cows did not change during that time. Moreover, we found that when lipolysis decreased, as indicated by lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, the percentages of each fatty acid gradually rebounded toward the concentrations measured before parturition; this observation indicates that the shift in hepatic fatty acid composition is influenced by lipolysis. The increased lipolysis after parturition led to a vast increase in the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration and to a shift in hepatic fatty acid composition.","","0022-0302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA" SCHLERKA, G. "Selenium and iron concentrations in blood plasma, haemoglobin values and packed cell volume in clinically healthy newborn breeding calves" "Tierarztliche Umschau","MAY 1 1998", "53","5","239-242" "G. Schlerka/Univ Vienna/Med Klin Klauentiere 2/Vet Pl 21/A-1210 Vienna, Austria","At periodical intervals, the selenium and iron concentrations in blood plasma, haemoglobin values and packed cell volume were estimated in 42 calves from the day of birth until the 20th week of life. The lowest selenium concentration was observed in calves immediately after birth. The continuous increase in the selenium concentration up to the third day of life was due to the colostral intake. The low selenium content of milk resulted in a decrease in selenium concentration until the fifth week of life. Low iron concentrations were observed from birth until the eleventh week of life. In the subsequent weeks, the iron concentration increased due to the feed consumed." 63 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. SMITH, B.I.; DONOVAN, G.A.; RISCO, C.; LITTELL, R.; YOUNG, C.; STANKER, L.H.; ELLIOTT, J. "Comparison of various antibiotic treatments for cows diagnosed with toxic puerperal metritis" "Journal of Dairy Science","JUN 1998","81","6","1555-1562" "B.I. Smith/Aurora Dairy Corp/3830 SW 38TH St/Gainesville, FL 32608 USA" "Holstein cows (n = 51) that had been diagnosed with toxic puerperal metritis were used to determine the treatment efficacy of various antibiotics. On the day of diagnosis, cows affected with toxic puerperal metritis were assigned randomly to three treatment groups. Cows in groups 1 and 2 received 22,000 IU/kg of procaine penicillin G i.m, for 5 d. In addition, cows in group 2 received an intrauterine infusion of 6 g of oxytetracycline on d 1, 3, and 5. Cows in group 3 received 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur sodium i.m. for 5 d. Dependent variables used to determine antibiotic efficacy included milk yield on d 1 through 12, rectal temperature on d 1 through 5, and serum haptoglobin concentration on d 1, 3, and 5. No difference was observed among groups for milk yield on d 1 and 12 or for temperature on d 1 and 5. Serum haptoglobin was elevated to >10 mg/dl for cows in all groups; however, no difference was observed among groups on d 1 and 5. Because all groups showed a favorable response, this study suggests that there is no difference in treatment efficacy among antibiotics used to treat cows affected with toxic puerperal metritis." SOBIRAJ, A.; HERMULHEIM, A.; HERFEN, K.; SCHULZ, S. "The effects of different pharmaceutical products on the uterus and placenta following conservative and surgical methods " "Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","392" "A. Sobiraj/Univ Leipzig/Ambulator & Geburtshilflichen Tierklin/Margarete Blank Str 8/D-04103 Le ipzig, Germany" "Dystocia is one of the common reasons for the retention of the afterbirth in cows. In a study to prevent this primiparous and multiparous dairy cows which had either caesarean sections of conservative assistance at parturition were treated during the procedure, im mediately post surgery or post partum with pharmaceutical products affecting uterine tone. Group 1 was treated with a secale-alkaloid (2 mg i.m.), the second group received 50 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly together with 35 g calcium borogluconate in solution subcutaneously. The third group received oxytocin intra- myometrially (30 IU), the fourth group was treated with the beta(2)-adrenoreceptor blocking formulation carazolol at a nose of 5 mg intramuscularly the fifth group was injected intravenously with the prostaglandin F-2 alpha-analogue tiaprost and Group 6 received the long acting oxytoxin formulation carbetocine at a dose of 0.35 mg intramuscularly. In comparison with an untreated control group of heifers and cows which had caesarean sections, no reduction in the incidence of retained placenta was observed whatever the parity of the animal. Animals which only received conservative assistance at calving were formed into three treatment groups. The first group received the same dose of carazolol, the second group received tiaprost and the third group carbetocine. The results of these treatments compared with untreated primiparous and multiparous cows with dystokia and conservative finishing of parturition indicated no effect of treatment with carazolol. However; the incidence of release of placentae was increased in primiparous animals treated with tiaprost or carbetocine; no effects were observed in multiparous cows. These results are discussed." 64 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. THOMPSON, J.C.; THORNTON, R.N.; BRUERE, S.N.; ELLISON, R.S. "Selenium reference ranges in New Zealand cattle" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1998","46","2","65-67" "J.C. Thompson/Batchelar Anim Hlth Lab/POB 536/Palmerston North, New Zealand" "Aim. To compare serum selenium and liver selenium concentrations with whole blood concentrations in samples taken at the same time from unsupplemented cattle, and to use these comparisons to establish a reference range for use in diagnosing selenium deficiency.%Methods. Selenium was measured in concurrent whole blood, serum and liver samples obtained from cattle in unsupplemented herds in the Manawatu, Waikato and Wairarapa regions of New Zealand. The results were statistically analysed.%Results. The revised reference ranges are as follows.%[GRAPHICS]%Conclusion. The serum and liver selenium concentrations used as reference values prior to this study were inaccurate for the detection of selenium deficiency." VISSER, I.J.R.; TERLAAK, E.A.; JANSEN, H.B. "Failure of antibiotics gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin to eliminate Mycoplasma bovis in artificially infected frozen bovine semen" "Theriogenology","1999","51","4","689-697" "Visser I.J.R./Anim Hlth Serv/POB 361/NL-9200 AJ Drachten/NETHERLANDS" "To study the effect of antibiotics upon Mycoplasma bovis in fresh bovine semen just before freezing, specimens of bovine semen were artificially infected with 1 of 9 different strains of M.bovis, Inocula of each strain were prepared to contain 10(5) to 10(6)/mL colonyforming units of M. Bovis at 3 different stages of the growth phase. The infected semen was diluted with a Tris extender by a 3-step procedure using an antibiotic mixture of gentamicin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin (GTLS). This semen-antibiotic mixture was placed into French straws that were stored at -196 degrees C. The control semen specimens contained no antibiotics. Mycoplasmas were counted after 8 d of storage in 3 decimal dilutions of the frozen semen. No evident effect was noticed upon the 9 tested strains of mycoplasmas in the semen frozen with the antibiotics, compared with that of the untreated control samples. It was further shown that this lack of effect was irrespective of the stage of the growth phase of the mycoplasmas. It was concluded that the antibiotic mixture (GTLS) in semen specimens is not capable of total elimination of mycoplasmas in frozen bovine semen. (C) 1999 by Elsevier Science Inc.","","0093-691X","Elsevier Science Inc/655 Avenue of the Americas/New York/NY 10010/USA" WEBB, R.; GUTIERREZ, C.G.; GONG, J.G.; CAMPBELL, B.K. "Dynamics and aetiology of ovarian follicular cysts in post-partum dairy cattle" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","285-288" "R. Webb/Univ Nottingham/Fac Agr & Food Sci/Dept Agr & Hort/Sch Biol/Sutton Bonington Campus/Loughborough LE12 5RD/Leics, England" "Ovarian follicular cysts affect approximately 7-13% of dairy cattle during the post-partum period, prolonging the interval from calving to conception. This amounts to significant losses to the dairy industry. Cysts are commonly accompanied by the expression of behavioural oestrus, resulting in additional costs because of unsuccessful artificial insemination. Although follicular cysts have been the subject of extensive study, particularly in relation to their diagnosis and veterinary treatment, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying their development. Some reports have shown that cows with cysts are associated with higher milk production than non-cystic herdmates. A number of experimental approaches have been utilised to induce follicular cysts, including giving erogenous steroids 65 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. and gonadotrophins and/or altering endogenous gonadotrophin secretion. Utilising these approaches, coupled with rectal ultrasound, it has been observed that follicular cysts are dynamic structures. Follicular cysts can inhibit the growth of subordinate follicles, although the loss of this dominance is not necessarily accompanied by a decline in their diameter. However, their ability to increase in size is not always associated with dominance. It appears as though follicular cysts continue their growth because they are still responsive to the stimulatory effects of gonadotrophins. Evaluation of the success of treatment for cysts is complex because some cysts spontaneously regress and misdiagnosis of cysts occurs. Natural resolution occurs by luteinization of the cyst or by ovulation of the follicular cyst. Some treatments incorporate the induction of luteinization followed by luteolytic treatments. As the improved understanding of the reasons for cyst formation and the mechanisms involved should lead to the development of improved management and preventative strategies to reduce their occurrence." WESTWOOD, C.T.; LEAN, I.J.; KELLAWAY, R.C. "Indications and implications for testing of milk urea in dairy cattle: A quantitative review. Part 1. Dietary protein sources and metabolism" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","JUN 1998","46","3","87-96" "C.T. Westwood/Wrightson Res/POB 939/Christchurch, New Zealand" "Milk urea concentrations in dairy cattle. There has been increased use of milk urea concentration as an indicator of dietary protein intake and protein metabolism in dairy cattle over recent years. The value of milk urea content data in predicting dietary composition, particularly for pasture- fed cattle, has not been well described.%Protein metabolism and urea synthesis. Many factors influence the degradation of dietary proteins in the rumen, post-ruminal protein metabolism and urea synthesis in cattle. Strong positive correlations between nitrogenous fertiliser use and the crude protein content of pastures were identified by use of meta-analysis. Similar strong positive correlations were noted between dietary protein intake, rumen ammonia and plasma urea concentrations. The costs of urea synthesis include energy losses, and importantly, the loss of endogenous amino acids, which are deaminated in the synthesis of urea.%Milk urea as an indictor of protein metabolism. Urea concentrations in blood, plasma and milk are strongly correlated. Milk is an adequate indicator of blood and plasma urea content, but non-nutritional factors may significantly influence milk urea concentrations. Recommendations for dietary protein management based on milk urea concentrations must be undertaken with care." WICHTEL, J.J. "A review of selenium deficiency in grazing ruminants; part 1: New roles for selenium in ruminant metabolism" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1998","46","2","47-52" "J.J. Wichtel/Univ Prince Edward Isl/Atlantic Vet Coll/Charlottetown/PE C1A 4P3, Canada" "Selenium availability. Selenium deficiency has been an important source of loss to the pastoral industries of New Zealand. About 30% of farmed land in New Zealand is considered to be selenium-deficient and continued development of soils and pasture will tend to further decrease the concentration of selenium in pasture.%Biological functions. Formerly it was believed that all biological functions of selenium in animals could be attributed to the antioxidant activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. More recently, it has been shown that selenoproteins have roles in immune function and thyroid hormone metabolism.%Responses to supplementation. Following supplementation of ruminants grazing pastures deficient in selenium, milk production and growth responses are likely to 66 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. occur in cattle, while in sheep improvements in growth and fertility are most likely. Reproductive dysfunction may not be as important as previously thought in cattle grazing pasture moderately deficient in selenium. The relationship between selenium intake and disease resistance deserves further study. %Clinical Relevance. Management of selenium deficiency will continue to be important in grazing ruminants. Veterinarians should be aware that many selenoenzymes exist, some with functions quite, distinct from the antioxidant role of glutathione peroxidase." WICHTEL, J.J. "A review of selenium deficiency in grazing ruminants; part 2: Towards a more rational approach to diagnosis and prevention" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1998","46","2","54-58" "J.J. Wichtel/Univ Prince Edward Isl/Atlantic Vet Coll/Charlottetown/PE C1A 4P3, Canada" "Estimating selenium status. Although the importance of selenium in ruminants has been recognised for over 30 years, problems associated with selenium deficiency are still frequently identified in grazing livestock operations. There is a growing diversity of tools available for the management of selenium deficiency giving rise to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas fo r the veterinary practitioner. There is no single test for selenium adequacy which can be considered superior in all diagnostic situations because the method of choice depends on the objective of the testing procedure.%Reference ranges. Reviewing the available data, the current New Zealand reference ranges for selenium concentrations in ruminant tissue and feed appear valid.%Clinical Relevance. Management of selenium deficiency will continue to be important in grazing ruminants. Practising veterinarians sho uld be familiar with the appropriate use of tests for selenium deficiency. Advice should be based on micronutrient analysis of animal tissue, defensible reference ranges backed by production response data, and supplementation programmes which optimise the return on investment." WITTWER, F.G.; GALLARDO, P.; REYES, J.; OPITZ, H. "Bulk milk urea concentrations and their relationship with cow fertility in grazing dairy herds in Southern Chile" "Preventive Veterinary Medicine","1999","38","2 -3","159-166" "Wittwer F.G./Univ Austral Chile/POB 567/Valdivia/CHILE" "Milk urea determination is being used as a broad indicator of protein/energy imbalance in dairy herds. The main purpose of this study was to compare blood and bulk milk urea values in grazing herds, to evaluate their seasonal variation under South Chilean conditions, and to examine their potential relationships with herd fertility. The association between herd blood urea concentration (mean of seven lactating cows) and bulk milk urea concentration (tank containing milk from the previous 24 h) was determined in 21 dairy herds. Reference values, seasonal and herd variance, and the frequency of herds with values outside a range of 2.5 to 7.3 mmol/l were determined in bulk milk samples obtained monthly for a period of one year from 82 suppliers at two creameries located in southern Chile. Finally, bulk milk urea was measured every two weeks in samples from 24 herds, and the first service conception rate (FSCR) from 2153 dairy cows was determined. Mean bulk urea concentration was highly correlated with mean herd blood urea concentration (r=0.95; p<0.01). Mean urea concentration in the bulk milk samples obtained during one year from 82 herds was 4.9+/-1.2 mmol/l, with a range of 1.5 to 11.6 mmol/l. The highest values were found during spring and the lowest values during the summer. There was a high seasonal variation (CV=13-47%) and between- herd variation (CV=20-31%). Out of a total of 984 samples, 5.4% had urea values >7.3 mmol/l and 3.8% had values <2.5 mmol/l. Of the 82 herds, 27% had values outside the 67 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. reference interval (2.5-7.3 mmol/l) on two or more occasions. FSCR was lower in herds when the bulk milk urea was >7.3 mmol/l (50.7%) than in cows, where the urea concentration was <5.0 mmol/l (73.8%) at the time of insemination. The study concluded that bulk milk urea concentrations provided information similar to herd blood urea concentrations in local grazing dairy herds. There was a high frequency of herds with abnormal values, with large variations between herds and between seasons. Increased milk urea concentrations during spring were associated with lower conception rates. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.","","0167-5877","Elsevier Science Bv/PO Box 211/1000 AE Amsterdam/Netherlands" WOLF, C. "Selenium status of cows - Deficiency or Excess?: 2nd Communication - The development of glutathione peroxidase activity in dairy cows and extensively managed mother cows in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern from 1993 to 1995" "Praktische Tierarzt","AUG 1 1998","79","8","755" "C. Wolf/Landesvet &/Lebensmitteluntersuchgsamt Mecklenbur/Thierfelderstr 18/D-18059 Rostock, Germany" "From summer 1993 to autumn 1996 glutathione peroxidase activity in heparinised whole blood samples from nearly 2.000 dairy cows and 350 mother cows was examined. The results showed, that the selenium status of the extensively managed mother cows in 1993 was predominant marginal or deficient. Since 1994, in some mother cow herds there were signs of selenium substitution. The glutathione peroxidase activities of the mother cows were of 30 per cent of the dairy cow values and mostly reflected selenium deficiency. Glutathione peroxidase activities in dairy cows showed, in 1993, on average a sufficient selenium substitution. Since autumn 1994 rising values reflected an increasing selenium supply in dairy herds. The activities of glutathione peroxidase reached a plateau with progressive substitution and do not reflect the whole extent of the selenium excess, but they indicate a tendency towards selenium surplus in dairy cattle feeding without taking into account the real need of cows." XU, Z.Z.; BURTON, L.J. "Effects of oestrus synchronisation and fixed-time artificial insemination on the reproductive performance of dairy heifers" "New Zealand Veterinary Journal","1999","47","3","101-104" "Xu Z..Z./Livestock Improvement Corp Ltd/Private Bag 3016/Hamilton/NEW ZEALAND" "Aim. To compare the reproductive performance of heifers after oestrus synchronisation and fixed-time artificial insemination with non-synchronised heifers bred by herd sires. Methods. Heifers from 10 spring-calving herds were randomly divided into two groups by herd, breed and age. Heifers in one group (the synchronised group, n = 478) were synchronised with a combination of progesterone, oestradiol benzoate and PGF(2 alpha), and inseminated 50-54 hours after progesterone treatment. Returns to first service were resynchronised with progesterone treatment 16-21 days after the fixed-time artificial insemination. Heifers in the other group (the control group, n = 470) did not receive any treatment and were bred by herd sires, Results. The conception rate of synchronised heifers to the fixed-time artificial insemination was 51.2% and to the artificial insemination after resynchronisation 40.4%. The pregnancy rate at the end of the breeding season tvas lower (p < 0.001) for the synchronised (92.9%) than for the control (97.2%) group. The interval from start of breeding to calving was earlier for synchronised (295.9 +/- 22.5 days, mean +/- s.d.) than for control (298.5 +/- 17.3 days) heifers. Conclusion. Results from this study indicate that the oestrus synchronisation programme used in the present study can reduce reproductive 68 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. performance by increasing the empty rare compared with natural mating.","","00480169","New Zealand Veterinary Assoc Inc/PO Box 11-212 Manners St/Wellington/New Zealand" YAEGER, M.J.; NEIGER, R.D.; HOLLER, L.;FRASER, T.L.;HURLEY,D.J.; PALMER, I.S. "The effect of subclinical selenium toxicosis on pregnant beef cattle" "Journa l of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","JUL 1998","10","3","268-273" "M..J. Yaeger/S Dakota State Univ/Dept Vet Sci/Anim Dis Res & Diagnost Lab/Brookings, SD 57007 USA" "A field investigation conducted by the South Dakota Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory suggested that subclinical selenium toxicosis in pregnant cows may have contributed to an outbreak of aborted/stillborn calves in a high-selenium region of South Dakota. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between abortion and subclinical selenium toxicosis in the dam and to assess the effects of subclinical selenium toxicosis on the bovine immune system. Fifteen pregnant cows were fed diets containing 0.25 (control), 6.0, and 12.0 ppm selenium beginning at 80-110 days gestation. Although selenium toxicosis has been reported to cause abortion, this study failed to reproduce abortions. A single cow in the 12-ppm selenium treatment group gave birth to a weak calf, which subsequently died. This calf had myocardial lesions consistent with those described for selenium toxicosis and had hepatic selenium levels of 9.68 ppm (wet weight). Elevated dietary selenium resulted in the depression of several leukocyte function parameters in pregnant cows. A statistically significant depression in forced antibody response was identified in both selenium-supplemented groups. A significantly diminished mitogenic response to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen was also observed in the 12-ppm selenium group. Although a similar pattern of depression was also observed with phytohemagglutinin, differences were not significant. These findings indicate that even in the absence of clinical alkali disease, elevated selenium levels may adversely affect both pregnancy outcome and the bovine immune system." 69 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. ANEXO II "FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en EQUINOS" I.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en YEGUAS BENNETTWIMBUSH, K.; LOCH, W.E.; PLATAMADRID, H.; EVANS, T. "The effects of perphenazine and bromocriptine on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles in anestrous pony mares" "Theriogenology","MAR 1998","49","4","717-733" "K. Bennettwimbush/Ohio State Univ/Agr Tech Inst/Wooster, OH 44691 USA" "Nineteen anestrous pony mares were used in a project designed to determine the effects of altered prolactin concentrations on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles during spring transition. The dopamine antagonist, perphenazine, was administered daily to mares (0.375 mg/kg body weight) in Group A (n=6), while Group B mares (n=7) received 0.08 mg/kg metabolic weight (kg(75)) dopamine agonist, 2-bromo-ergocriptine, intramuscularly twice daily. Mares in Group C (n=6) received 0.08 mg/kg(75), im., saline twice daily. Treatment began January 20, 1994, and continued until ovulation occurred. Mares were teased 3 times weekly with an intact stallion. The ovaries of the ponies were palpated and imaged weekly using an ultrasonic B- mode unit with a 5 Mhz intrarectal transducer until they either exhibited estrual behavior and had at least a 20-mm follicle, or had at least a 25-mm follicle with no signs of estrus. At this time, ovaries were palpated and imaged 4 times weekly. Blood samples were obtained immediately prior to ultrasonic imaging for measurement of prolactin, FSH and estradiol-17 beta. Perphenazine treatment advanced the spring transitional period and subsequent ovulation by approximately 30d. Group A exhibited the onset of estrual behavior earlier (P < 0.01) than control mares. In addition, Group A mares developed large follicles (> 30 mm) earlier (P < 0.01) than Group B mares, with least square means for Groups A and B of 47.0 +/- 8.8 vs 88.1 +/- 8.2 d, respectively. Control mares developed 30- mm follicles intermediate to Groups A and B at 67.3 +/- 8.8 d. Bromocriptine decreased (P < 0.05) plasma prolactin levels throughout the study, while perphenazine had no significant overall effect. However, perphenazine treatment did increase (P < 0.05) mean plasma prolactin concentrations from Day 31 to 60 of treatment. There were no differences in mean plasma FSH or estradiol-17 beta between treatment groups. We concluded that daily perphenazine treatment hastened the growth of follicles and subsequent ovulation while bromocriptine treatment appeared to delay the growth of preovulatory size follicles without affecting the lime of ovulation. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc." BESOGNET, B.; HANSEN, B.S.; DAELS, P.F. "Induction of reproductive function in anestrous mares using a dopamine antagonist" "Theriogenology","JAN 15 1997","47","2","467-480" "B. Besognet/Cornell Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Clin Sci/Ithaca, NY 14853 USA" "We investigated the role of dopamine in the regulation of seasonal reproductive activity in mates. Nine seasonal anestrous mares, maintained under a natural photoperiod, were treated daily with a dopamine D2 antagonist, [-]-sulpiride (200 mg/mare, im), beginning February 5 (day of year = 36) until the first ovulation of the year or for a maximum of 58. Nine untreated anestrous mates were maintained under the same conditions. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography twice a week, and blood was collected three times a week for 70 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. progesterone, LH FSH and prolactin determinations. Mean day of first ovulation was significantly advanced for [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than control mares (mean day of year +/- SEM = 77.3 +/- 7.9 and 110.0 +/- 6.8, respectively; P<0.01). Eight mares ovulated during [-]-sulpiride treatment while one mare failed to ovulate. Ovulation occurred 91 d after the start of treatment or on Day 127. All mates continued to have normal estrous cycles after the first ovulation. First cycle length and luteal progesterone concentrations did not differ between [-]-sulpiride-treated and control mares. Plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly increased at 2 and 9 h after [-]-sulpiride administration (P<0.05), and had returned to basal Levels by 24 h. At the time of the LH surge associated with the first ovulation, mean LH and FSH secretion was significantly higher in [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than in control mates (P<0.05). These results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the control of reproductive seasonality in mares and exerts a tonic inhibition on reproductive activity during the anovulatory season. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc." BRACHER, V.; GERSTENBERG, C.; ALLEN, W.R. "The influence of endometriosis on fertility, placentation and fetal development in the horse" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","465" "V. Bracher/Univ Zurich/Klin Wiederkauer & Pferdemed/Winterthurerstr 260/CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland" "This paper presents a review over endometrosis in the horse. The following subjects are discussed: 1. Definition and aetiopathogenesis of the disease, influence of age and parity. 2. The correlation between endometrosis and chronic recurrent (infectious) endometritis. 3. The correlation between endometrosis and conception rate, placentation and embryonic or fetal losses. 4. The influence of endometrosis on later performance of the offspring." CARNEVALE, E.M.; HERMENET, M.J.; GINTHER, O.J. "Age and pasture effects on vernal transition in mares" "Theriogenology","APR 1 1997","47","5","1009-1018" "E.M. Carnevale/So Illinois Univ/Dept Anim Sci Food & Nutr/Carbondale, IL 62901 USA" "The objectives of the present study were to determine if follicular activity was less in old than in young mares during the spring transition and if green pasture would hasten onset of the ovulatory season. Experiments were conducted over 2 sequential years using young mares (3 to 7 yr) and old mares (greater than or equal to 14 yr). In Experiment 1, growth of the largest and second- largest follicles were compared for young mares (5 to 7 yr) and old mares (greater than or equal to 14 yr) for 21 d prior to the first ovulation of the year. More follicular activity was noted in young than in old mares. Main effect of age was significant for diameter of the largest follicle, and interaction of day-by-age was significant for diameter of the second- largest follicle. Prior to the beginning of the breeding season, the mares were randomly divided into dry-lot and pasture groups. The interval from May 2 to ovulation was shorter (P<0.005) for mares put on pasture on May 2 than for mares kept in dry lot (means +/- SEM, 14.5 +/- 2.7 and 21.3 +/- 3.2 d, respectively). In Experiment 2, follicular activity was compared among 3 age groups (3 to 7, 17 to 19, and greater than or equal to 20 yr). The total number of follicles greater than or equal to 10 mm was higher (P<0.05) for young mares and lower (P<0.05) for old mares than for mares of an intermediate age. Main effect of age and interaction of day-by-age were significant for diameter of largest and second- largest follicles, being smaller for mares greater than or equal to 20 yr than for younger mares. The interval from development of a follicle greater than or equal to 30 mm to ovulation was shorter (P<0.05) for mares placed on pasture when a greater than or equal to 30 mm follicle 71 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. developed than the interval for mares kept in dry lot (5.7 +/- 0.7 and 8.2 +/- 0.9 d, respectively). In summary, less follicular activity occurred in old than in young mares during the transitional period, and mares pastured on green grass ovulated sooner in the spring than mares housed on dry lot and fed hay. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc." EVANS, T.J.; MILLER, M.A.; GANJAM, V.K.; NISWENDER, K.D.; ELLERSIECK, M.R.; KRAUSE, W.J.; YOUNGQUIST, R.S. "Morphometric analysis of endometrial periglandular fibrosis in mares" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","10","1209-1214" "Evans T.J./Vet Med Diagnost Lab/POB 6023/Columbia,MO 65205 USA" "Objectives-To develop an objective, quantifiable assay for endometrial periglandular fibrosis (EPF) and correlate assay results with histologic and ultrastructural changes in equine endometrial biopsy specimens. Sample Population-Endometrial biopsy specimens from 70 mares from 3 to 27 years old in estrus. Procedure-In a double-blinded study design. Endometrial biopsy specimens were graded histologically (modified Kenney classification) for EPF and inflammation. Endometrial periglandular collagen volume fraction (%EPCVF) was determined by light microscopic image analysis of picrosirius red-stained sections. Specimens from selected mares were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Results%EPCVF values varied significantly among the 4 modified Kenney EPF categories (I. IIA, IIB, end III) and increased with increasing age of mares. Morphologically, EPF consisted of concentric layers of transformed fibroblasts with myofibroblastic features and deposition of fibrillar collagen around unaltered glandular basal laminae. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-%EPCVF correlates well with morphologic changes in endometrial biopsy specimens. Determination of %EPCVF could be useful in evaluation and clinical manage ment of subfertile mares and in investigations of the pathogenesis of EPF.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360" GEBERT, F.; FRERKING, H.; BOHM, K.H.; POZVARI, M.; SIESENOP, U.; BUSSE, M. "Occurence and importance of yeasts in genital swabs of mares" "Praktische Tierarzt","APR 1 1998","79","4","311" "H.Frerking/Landwirtschaftskammer,Hannover/Tiergesundheitsdienste/Heisterbergallee 12/D-30453 Hannover, Germany" "In a thesis all vaginal swabs of mares which were sent to the Animal Health Center of the Chamber of Agriculture of Hanover between February 1st 1993 and January 31st 1994 were examined for yeasts. Beside the normal bacteriological routine diagnostic all swabs were examined in special culture medium for yeasts. In total there were samples of 6 250 mares. With a special culture medium 393 cases (6.3%) with yeasts could be detected, in the routine diagnosis there were only 87 (1.4%). According to the anamnesis all possible causes and factors that would promote the growing of yeast in the genital tract of mares are discussed. With special laboratory methods a representative number (n = 200) of yeast were identified. Mostly there were Candida guilliermondii (31.5%) and Candida famata (25%)." GELLERMANN, G.; HOPPE, H.; AURICH, C. "Factors influencing fertility in the horse" "Praktische Tierarzt","APR 1 1996","77","4","320" "G. Gellermann/Tierarztl Klin Pferde/Kurzenmoor 13/D-25370 Seester, Germany" "In this study fertility on a large stud farm between 1945 and 1988 was evaluated and factors influencing fertility in the horse are discussed. During the period of investigation, a total of 2672 mares were bred, resulting in 2050 pregnancies (77 per cent) and 1893 foals 72 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. born (71 per cent). Under stud farm conditions, the anovulatory season in warmblood mares usually is restricted to only a few weeks and prolongation of the breeding season can contribute to improved annual fertility rates. No obvious decrease in fertility with increasing age of the mares was found, indicating that reduced fertility in old mares can be compensated to a certain degree by management and veterinary intervention. The incidence of foal losses due to infectious diseases could be markedly reduced, when new therapeutic approaches became available in the early sixties. In a total of 36 cases (1,8 percent of all foalings) twins were born, however only 9 twin foals survived the neonatal period. Fertility also differed markedly between stallions. For breeders it would therefore be helpful if information on the fertility of individual stallions would be available." GLASER,A.L.; DEVRIES, A.A.F.; ROTTIER, P.J.M.; HORZINEK, M.C.; COLENBRANDER, B. "Equine arteritis virus: A review of clinical features and management aspects" "Veterinary Quarterly"," 1996","18","3","95-99" "B. Colenbrander/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/Yalelaan 7/NL-3584 Cl Utrecht, Netherlands" "Sero-epidemiological surveys have revealed that equine arteritis virus (EAV) is prevalent in most European countries, The virus causes sporadic cases of respiratory disease and abortion in horses, the incidence of which has increased in recent years, Mares and geldings eliminate virus after acute infection, but 30% to 60% of stallions become persistently infected, In these animals, EAV is maintained within the reproductive tract and is shed continuously in the semen, Persistent infection with EAV in stallions has no negative consequences for fertility but mares inseminated with virus-contaminated semen can have an acute infection, These mares shed large amounts of virus in respiratory secretions and urine, leading to lateral spread of the virus to other susceptible horses, Acute infection at later stages of gestation can lead to abortion, Effective control of the spread of EAV infection depends on the identification of virus-shedding stallions. Persistently infected stallions should not be used for breeding or should be bred only to seropositive mares, Mares bred to shedding stallions should be isolated from other animals for a period of 3 weeks following insemination to prevent the lateral spread of EAV." ISHII, M.; JITSUKAWA, T.; SHIMAMURA, T.; UTSUMI, A.; ENDO, M.; YAMANOI, T. "Effect of placental retention time and associated treatments on reproductive performance in heavy draft horses" "Journal of Equine Veterinary Science","1999","19","2","117-121" "Ishii M/Kushiro Dist Agr Mutual Aid Assoc/Akan Kushiro Vet Clin Ctr/3-13-1 Chuo/Akan/Hokkaido 0850215/JAPAN" "The effect of placental retention time on reproductive performance was investigated in several heavy draft breeds of horses. The study was based on a total of 422 mares varying from four to 20 years in age, which had foaled during the period 1991 to 1993. The placental retention time for this group of mares ranged from a minimum of 119 minutes to a maximum of 183 minutes with a mean of 148 minutes. A decrease in pregnancy rate followed on breeding at the foaling heat in mares that had a placental retention time greater than one hour. Mares with a placental retention time of less than one hour or longer than four hours had pregnancy rates of 66% and 51.7%, respectively, when bred on their foaling heat. Manual removal of a retained placenta was subsequently associated with reduced reproductive performance in those mares. Mares with a placental retention time of less than four hours and which had received oxytocin treatment, had a pregnancy rate at foaling heat of greater than 70%. Where oxytocin treatment was delayed, on the other hand, the number of days from 73 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. parturition to last breeding date was correspondingly increased. Aerobic bacteria were cultured from the uterus in 47.2% and 100% of mares whose placental retention times were less than eight hours or greater than eight hours, respectively. The subsequent reproductive performance of ma res with a placental retention time of greater than four hours was improved if the uterus was irrigated. The findings of this study indicate that rapid administration of oxytocin administered at a dosage 50 IU is the best treatment for retained placenta and the application of intrauterine treatments such as uterine irrigation in prolonged cases of placental retention is likely to improve subsequent breeding efficiency.","","0737-0806","William E Jones Dvm/20225 Grand Ave/Wildomar/CA 92595/USA" KATILA, T. "Uterine defence mechanisms in the mare" "Animal Reproduction Science","APR 1996","42","1-4","197-204" "T. Katila/Helsinki Univ/Fac Vet Med/Hautjarvi 04840, Finland" "Breeding or insemination of mares is followed by a transient infection and inflammation. Normal mares eliminate bacteria and clear inflammatory by-products rapidly. Some mares are not capable of doing this. Studies on immunoglobulins, opsonins, chemotaxis and migration and phagocytosis of neutrophils have failed to show good grounds for susceptibility to uterine infections. The latest studies indicate that differences between these two kinds of mares are best explained by factors involved in uterine clearance: cervical dilation, myometrial activity and lymphatic drainage." MATTOS, R.C.; MALSCHITZKY, E.; MATTOS, R.; GREGORY, R.M. "Effects of different postbreeding treatments on fertility of thoroughbred mares" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","512-515" "R.C. Mattos/Univ Fed Rio Grande Sul/Fac Vet/Dept Anim Med/Reprolab/POB 15094/BR-91501970 Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil" "The purpose oi this study was to determine whether the postbreeding intrauterine treatments with homologous plasma, homologous plasma with leukocytes, or homologous plasma with antibiotics improve pregnancy rates per cycle. Control mares received no treatment. Mares (n=394) were assigned to different groups according to their reproductive status. All mares in each group were randomly allocated to one of the treatments. Intrauterine treatments were given 13 to 36 hours after mating. The early pregnancy rates in maiden and lactating mares were not significantly affected (p > 0,05). Barren mares treated with plasma plus leukocytes had higher early pregnancy rates per cycle (p=0,047) than those submitted to other treatments. Thus, an intrauterine infusion of plasma and leukocytes after breeding improves pregnancy rates per cycle in barren mares." MCCUE, P.M. "Neoplasia of the female reproductive tract" "Veterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice","1998","14","3","505+" "McCue P.M./Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci/Dept Clin Sci/300 W Drake Rd/Ft Collins,CO 80523 USA" "The most common neoplasms of the reproductive tract of the mare are tumors of the ovary and the external genitalia. In contrast, tumors of the oviduct, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary gland are rare. In general, the overall incidence of reproductive tract neoplasia in the mare increases with age. Tumors of the internal genitalia of mares may remain undetected if a mare is not routinely examined for breeding or pregnancy diagnosis.","","0749-0739","W 74 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. B Saunders Co/Independence Square West Curtis Center/ Ste 300/Philadelphia/PA 191063399/USA" NAGY, P.; HUSZENICZA, G.; JUHASZ, J.; SOLTI, L.; KULCSAR, M." "Diagnostic problems associated with ovarian activity in barren and postpartum mares early in the breeding season" "Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","187-192" "P. Nagy/Univ Vet Sci Budapest/Dept Obstet & Reprod/Budapest, Hungary" "Three studies were carried out to monitor or induce ovarian activity and sexual behaviour in maiden, barren and postpartum mares during the anovulatory season. In the first study maiden and barren mares were followed up by regular blood sampling. In 39% of anoestrus mares the anovulatory season was started after December 1. Mares that stopped cycling before December 1 had significantly longer anovulatory period (P<0.001) and resumed cyclic ovarian activity one month later (P<0.01) than mares that stopped cycling after December 1. The first ovulation was not preceded by overt oestrus in most of the cases (64.7%). In the second study 38 mares, foaling in the first three month of the year, were monitored. Cyclic ovarian activity resumed more than 20 days after parturition in 11 mares (28.9%, between 22 and 111 days). Only 52.6% of the animals showed heat before the first postpartum ovulation. The follicular phase after the luteolysis of the first corpus luteum was longer than normal (>10days, between 22 and 64 days) in 10 mares (43.5%). In the third study 44 mares in spring transition were treated with Altrenogest for 10 days. In 8 treated mares a GnRH-challenge (40 mu g Buserelin iv.) was carried out before treatment. Despite the same inclusion criteria used for all mares, in case of II mares (25%) the treatment was not successful and the ovulation occurred more than 20 days after the end of treatment.(between 29 and 70 days). The result of the GnRH-stimulation gave an explanation for this difference. Mares that were treated successfully with Altrenogest had a higher maximum LH-response and area under the curve indicating higher LH-content of the pituitary before treatment." NEWCOMBE, J.R. "Anoestrus in mares: Experiences using Ovuplant, a short-term implant of the GnRH analogue deslorelin, following implantation with CIDR-B, a progesterone releasing intravaginal device" "Irish Veterinary Journal","1998","51","11","582-585","English Article" "Newcombe J.R./Newcombe & E/Warren House Farm/Brownhills WS8 6LS/W Midlands/ENGLAND" "On a single farm in south-east Queensland, 25% of 350 Standardbred mares were anoestrous after October 15th. Over the period of examination, 87 mares (15 maiden, 49 barren and 23 lactating) failed to produce ovulatory follicles in the absence of a functional corpus Luteum and they were treated with intervaginal progesterone releasing devices (CIDRB) for various periods until a follicle of at Least 30 mm had developed. Fifty seven of 58 (98%) mares that had a follicle Larger than 30 mm at the end of the progesterone treatment ovulated after an injection of 2500 units hCG was given between zero and six days after withdrawal of the device; 37 (65%) of these were pregnant at 14-17 days. Twenty six mares failed to develop a follicle of at Least 30 mm even after prolonged periods of progesterone treatment. Seven of these ovulated and seven failed to ovulate following removal of CIDR-B and administration of hCG. The other 12 mares were given a short-term implant of deslorelin: nine ovulated, seven were inseminated and four (57%) became pregnant. This preliminary study indicates a possibly satisfactory method of treating persistently anoestrous mares.","","0368-0762","Irish Veterinary Assn/53 Lansdowne Rd/Dublin 4/Ireland" 75 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. NICKERSON, K.C.; MCCUE, P.M.; SQUIRES, E.L.; NETT, T.M. "Comparison of two dosage regimens of the GNRH agonist deslorelin acetate on inducing ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares" "Journal of Equine Veterinary Science","FEB 1998","18","2","121-124" "K.C. Nickerson/Colorado State Univ/Anim Reprod & Biotechnol Lab/FT Collins, CO 80523 USA" "This study investigated the efficacy of two dosage regimens of a potent GnRH analogue (GnRHa), deslorelin acetate, in inducing ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares. Forty-five seasonally anestrous mares were randomly assigned according to follicular size to one of three treatment groups: control, increasing GnRHa dose, and constant GnRHa dose. Treatment began on February 28 and continued until ovulation or for a maximum of seven treatments. Mares were palpated every other day until a 35 mm follicle was detected, then every day until ovulation or regression of the follicle occurred. Blood samples were taken from five randomly chosen mares in each treatment group and analyzed for LH levels. %Twenty percent of mares in both deslorelin treatment groups ovulated, while no control mares ovulated during the treatment period. There was no difference in the number of mares that ovulated between treatment groups. Four of the six mares that ovulated were in transitional anestrus at the initiation of treatment, while only two were in deep anestrus.%Concentrations of LH were greater (p=0.0008) in both GnRH-treated groups than in the control mares. Concentrations of LH did not differ between the two GnRH-treated groups until day 12 of treatment, when mares treated with a constant dosage had higher (p=0.0358) levels of LH than those treated with an increasing dosage. It is possible that administration of larger amounts of the GnRH agonist lowered the sensitivity of the pituitary to stimulation by GnRH.%Deslorelin acetate did stimulate follicular growth and ovulation in a limited number of anestrous mares. Further investigation into the potential of this short-term implant to shorten the onset of the breeding season is recommended. " ORSINI, J.A.; PARK, M.I.; SPENCER, P.A. "Tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin after intramuscular and intrauterine administration to mares in estrus" "Canadian Veterinary Journal Revue Veterinaire Canadienne","MAR 1996","37","3","157-160" "J.A. Orsini/Univ Penn/Sch Vet Med/New Bolton Ctr/382 W St Rd/Kennett Sq, PA 19348 USA" "Concentrations of amikacin in endometrial tissue and plasma were studied in mares in estrus after intrauterine infusion of 1.0 or 2.0 g once a day for 3 consecutive d, and after 9.7 or 14.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) had been injected intramuscularly once a day for 3 consecutive d to determine concentrations of amikacin sulfate in plasma and endometrial tissues, and whether parenteral administration provides any advantages dyer intramuscular infusion, No amikacin was detected in serum at the 1.0 g dose, At the infusion dose of 2.0 g once a day, very low levels of serum amikacin were detected at 1 and 4 h postinfusion on the Ist treatment day, Amikacin was found to penetrate the endometrium after intramuscular injection; however, the levels attained were not as high as those achieved following intrauterine infusion, Based on the tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin, an intrauterine infusion at a dose of 4.4 mg/kg BW/d would appear to be an appropriate therapeutic regimen for the treatment of gram- negative endometritis." 76 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. PARLEVLIET, J.M.; BLEUMINKPLUYM, N.M.C.; HOUWERS, D.J.; REMMEN, J.L.A.M.; SLUIJTER, F.J.H.; COLENBRANDER, B. "Epidemiologic aspects of Taylorella equigenitalis" "Theriogenology","APR 15 1997","47","6","1169-1177" "J. M. Parlevliet/Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/POB 80165/Yalelaan 7/Utrecht, Netherlands" "Contagious equine metritis (CEM) is a sexually transmissible disease in mares. Although the disease is commonly diagnosed by culturing the causative bacterium Taylorella equigenitalis (T. equigenitalis), false negative results do occur. A recently developed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay, however, appeared to be much more sensitive, with initial results indicating an unexpected high incidence of the agent in selected horses. In this study, samples from 107 randomly selected mares with no clinical signs of CEM submitted for conventional culture were all negative for T. equigenitalis, but in the PCR-assay 54 (49%) were positive for Taylorella-DNA. Positives in the PCR-assay were found in all breeds tested, even in horses imported from the isolated population in Iceland. These findings suggest that T. equigenitalis was present long before it was first isolated in 1977. The high incidence of Taylorella in horse populations without apparent clinical signs of CEM, the occurrence of incidental clinical case and the known variability between strains, all indicate that Taylorella is endemic in the horse population.%In order to explore whether the organism is present in species other than the horse, we also used the PCR-assay on clinically health donkeys (n=14), zebras (n=15), Przewalski horses (n=2) and cows (n=21). All the animals showed negative results except one of the Przewalski horses, and one cow that was repeatedly found to give positive reaction. We also found that the fertility of 7 stallions with cultures positive for Taylorella (6 used in an AI-program and 1 by natural breeding) was not affected, as shown by the normal range of foaling rates in mares inseminated or bred by these stallions. The overall results may be interpreted to mean that Taylorella is of limited significance in horse breeding. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc." PYCOCK, J.F.; PACCAMONTI, D.; JONKER, H.; NEWCOMBE, J.; VANDERWEIJDEN, G.; TAVERNE, M. "Can mares be classified as resistant or susceptible to recurrent endometritis?" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT1997","13","5","431" "J.F. Pycock/Howe Farm Cottage/Old Malton/N Yorkshire, England" "To evaluate the efficacy of oxytocin as a treatment for persistent post-breeding endometritis, a large clinical study was performed using 1,267 mares. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three different treatments on pregnancy rate in mares. All mares were bred and allocated, in strict rotation, to one of four treatment groups: 1) non-treated controls; 2) intrauterine infusion of broad-spectrum antibio ties; 3) intravenous oxytocin injection; 4) intravenous oxytocin injection followed by intrauterine antibiotics. Pregnanc y status of mares was determined at 13-15 days and 27-30 days post ovulation using ultrasonography. The pregnancy rate of Group 4 (72%) was higher than that of Group 2 (64%; P < 0.01) or Group 3 (63%; P < 0.01). The pregnancy rates of Groups 2 and 3 were similar (P > 0.80) and higher than that of Group 1 (56%; P < 0.01). Antibiotics and oxytocin appeared to have an additive beneficial effect which suggested two different modes of action of the combination treatment, namely antibacterial activity and fluid drainage. In non-treated mares more fluid accumulated in the uterine lumen after mating which was the most likely reason for the reduced pregnancy rates in this Group." 77 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. RICKETTS, S.W." "Treatment of equine endometritis with intrauterine irrigations of ceftiofur sodium: a comparison with mares treated in a similar manner with a mixture of sodium benzylpenicillin, neomycin sulphate, polymixin B sulphate and furaltadone hydrochloride" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","486-489" "S.W. Ricketts/Rossdale & Partners/Beaufort Cottage Stables/High St/Newmarket CB8 8JS/Suffolk, England" "1462 mares were treated for acute endometritis, of which 1207 were treated with intrauterine irrigations of 3 g sodium benzylpenicillin, 1 g neomycin sulphate, 40,000 iu polymixin B sulphate and 600 mg furaltadone hydrochloride dissolved in 100 ml sterile water for injection and 255 were treated with intrauterine irrigations of 1 g ceftiofur sodium (Excenel, Upjohn) dissolved in 100 ml sterile water for injection. 40 mares who were treated by once daily intrauterine irrigation with either penicillin, neomycin, polymixin and furaltadone mixture (24) or ceftiofur sodium (16), for three consecutive days, were selected for more detailed pre-and post-treatment endometrial cytological and bacteriological analysis; The results suggest that treatment with ceftiofur sodium is as safe and al least as efficacious in the treatment of acute endometritis as treatment with penicillin, neomycin, polymixin and furaltadone mixture." RICKETTS, S.W.; BARRELET, A. "A retrospective review of the histopathological features seen in a series of 4241 endometrial biopsy samples collected from UK Thoroughbred mares over a 25 year period" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","525" "S.W. Ricketts/Rossdale & Partners/Beaufort Cottage Stables/High St/Newmarket CB8 8JS/Suffolk, England" "A retrospective review of the histopathological features and the groups in which they are most frequently seen in combination, seen in 4214 endometrial biopsy samples collected from UK Thoroughbred mares over a 25 year period revealed data which supports widely held views on their pathogenesis and significance. Endometrial hypoplasia is most commonly seen in young mares with delayed endometrial maturity. Mononuclear cell infiltrations develop in the endometrial stroma as a reflection of local immune responses to challenge by seminal proteins, micro-organisms, environmental debris and the products of pregnancy, during a brood mare's life. Endometrial hyperplasia most commonly persists during delayed post parium or post-pregnancy failure of uterine involution, more commonly in younger mares. Glandular degenerative changes and stromal fibrosis develop as an inevitable consequence of ageing, eventually leading to endometrial atrophy, a reflection of gynaecological senility. These degenerative changes result in endometrial incompetence, progressively reducing mares' foaling potentials and increasing their potential for barren years, early pregnancy failures and abortions." RUIZ, A.; QUEZADA, M.; GOMEZVILLAMANDOS, J.; BERRIOS, P.; SIERRA, A. "Histopathological aspects of two cases of equine viral abortion in the VIII Region, Chile" "Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria"," 1998","30","1","161-168" "A. Ruiz/Concepcion Univ/Dept Pathol/Fac Med Vet/Casilla 537/Chillan, Chile" "Two cases of equine viral abortion are described: one foetus which was miscarried at the end of the pregnancy and the other which was born and died 24 hs later. Both cases came 78 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. from a farm that had had 6 mare miscarriages during the 1996 birth period. The following lesions were observed in the necropsy, icterus, oral and nasal haemorrhages, lymphoid haemorrhages, general congestion, serophibrinous pleuritis, lung oedema, catarrhs bronchopneumonia at the apical lobes, ascitis, enlarged spleen, liver necrosis and nephrosis. Histopathology and electron microscopy indicated the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies Cowdry type A in the epithelial cells of the lung, hepatocytes and macrophages of the spleen. All of the lesions are similar to those described in equine viral abortion or equine rhinopneumonitis." SCHOON, H.A.; SCHOON, D.; KLUG, E. "The endometrial biopsy in the mare with regard to clinical correlations" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","453" "H.A. Schoon/Univ Leipzig/Inst Vet Pathol/Margarete Blank Str 4/D-04103 Leipzig, Germany" "Based on own experiences completed by literature informations the possible endometrial biopsy findings in mares are reviewed. The signifi cance of this technique is explained taking clinical aspects into account. New results dealing with endometrosis, angiopathies and functional endometrial lesions are described. Built on the system established by Kenney and Doig (1986) new model for the assessment of biopsy findings is presented in this paper." SEDRISH, S.A.; MCCLURE, J.R.; PINTO, C.; OLIVER, J.; BURBA, D.J. "Ovarian torsion associated with granulosa-theca cell tumor in a mare" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","NOV 1 1997","211","9","1152-1154" "S.A. Sedrish/Battenkill Vet Equine/POB 2/Middle Falls, NY 12848 USA" "Ovarian torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mares with a known ovarian pathologic change such as neoplasia or abscess if signs of abdominal pain are evident." TROEDSSON, M.H.T. "Therapeutic considerations for mating-induced endometritis" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","516-520" "M.H.T. Troedsson/Univ Minnesota/Coll Vet Med/Dept Clin & Populat Sci/St Paul, MN 55108 USA" "A transient mating- induced endometritis is most likely physiological in the mare, serving to remove excess spermatozoa, seminal plasma, and contaminants from the uterus. However, the inflammatory reaction has to be resolved and inflammatory products cleared from the uterus prior to embryonal descent into the uterine lumen. Mares that fail to clear a semen- induced inflammation from the uterus develop a persistent mating- induced endometritis which may result in infertility. If susceptibility to persistent mating- induced endometritis is suspected,the mare should be monitored by transrectal ultrasonography for intrauterine fluid accumulation at 6-12 hours intervals after breeding. Treat ment should be aimed at assisting the uterus to physically clear contaminants and inflammatory products. Post-mating uterine lavage and/or the use of uterotonic drugs are recommended at 6-12 hours after breeding in mares susceptible to persistent endometritis." 79 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. WATSON, E.D.; THOMSON, R.M." "Lymphocyte subsets in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares susceptible to endometritis" "Equine Veterinary Journal","MAR 1996","28","2","106-110" "E.D. Watson/Royal Dick Sch Vet Studies/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Easter Bush/Roslin EH25 9RG/Midlothian, Scotland" "The density and distribution of MHC Class II positive cells and subpopulations of lymphocytes were studied in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares susceptible to endometritis. In genitally normal mares, more MHC Class II positive cells were present in the epithelium and stratum compactum during oestrus than dioestrus, Significantly more CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were present in the stratum compactum than in the stratum spongiosum, CD4+ lymphocytes were present in greater numbers than CD8+ lymphocytes in the stratum compactum but approximately equal numbers were present in the stratum spongiosum and in lymphoid aggregates, Occasional CD4+ and CD8+ cells were seen in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Infrequently, B cells were present in the endometrium and were not observed in the epithelium. Numbers of T and B cells did not appear to be affected by cycle stage, In mares with endometritis, the densities of CD4+, CD8+ and B cells were significantly increased, Large aggregates of lymphoid cells which containe approximately twice as many CD4+ cells as CD8+ cells were present in the endometrium of these mares and all 3 subclasses of lymphocyte were seen occasionally in luminal and glandular epithelium. WITTENBRINK, M.M.; HOLZLE, L.; BAUMEISTER, A.K. "Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis in equineendometritis" "Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","450-452" "M.M. Wittenbrink/Univ Munich/Inst Med Mikrobiol Infekt & Seuchenmed/Vet Str 13/D-80539 Munich, Germany" "Bacteria that are establishedas uterine pathogens in the mare are only partially characterized with respect to virulence factors (mechanism of pathogenesis) that may contribute to the development of endometritis. The study of these mechanisms will be useful in defining many as pects of the complex interactions that occur between bacterial pathogens and the equine endometrium. Bacterial adherence is the primary prerequisite for infection. The role of the host cell cannot be ignored, since it obviously influences the regulation of microbial virulence factore e.g. adhesins as well as provides the microenvironment in which the bacteria can replicate and produce toxins that cause damage to the host. Detailed knowledge about host-pathogen interactions will lead to a better etiological assessment of uterine bacterial infections and probably lead to innovative strategies for therapy and prevention." I I.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en PADRILLOS AURICH, C.; BADER, H.; TOPFERPETERSEN, E. "Diagnosis of reproductive disorders in the stallion" "Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995","76","10","905" "C. Aurich/Hannover Sch Vet Med/Inst Reprod Med/Bunteweg 15/D-30559 Hannover, Germany", "This article reviews possibilities for the diagnosis of reproductive disorders in the male horse. The procedure of reproductive evaluation (examination of genital organs and 80 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. sexual behaviour, analysis of semen parameters) is described. Possibilities for reproductive endocrine function testing in stallions and cryptorchids are given. Recent procedures in reproductive evaluation of the male (ultrasonography of testes and accessory sexual glands, endoscopic examination of the urethra, computerized analysis of sperm motility, assessment of membrane integrity by fluorescent stains) are shown. The physiology of sperm-egg- interactions and the use of zona-sperm binding assays for the assessment of equine sub- and infertility are described." BLANCHARD, T.L.; JORGENSEN, J.B.; VARNER, D.D.; FORREST, D.W.; EVANS, J.W. "Clinical observations on changes in concentrations of hormones in plasma of two stallions with thermally-induced testicular degeneration" "Journal of Equine Veterinary Science","MAY 1996","16","5","195-201" "T.L. Blanchard/Texas A&M Univ/College Stn, TX 77843 USA" "To investigate effects of thermally- induced testicular degeneration on hormonal and seminal parameters in stallions, the scrotum was insulated for 36 hours in two mature (5-year-old mixed breed and 11-year-old Thoroughbred) stallions. Semen was collected daily for 10 days (DSO) prior to, and at intervals after, scrotal insulation. When DSO determinations were not being made, semen was collected 3 times weekly. Jugular blood samples were collected at 15- minute intervals for 6 hours from each stallion prior to, and at intervals after, scrotal insulation. A mouse interstitial cell testosterone assay was modified to quantify biologic activity of equine luteinizing hormone (BLH) in plasma samples. Immunoactive luteinizing hormone (ILH) and testosterone(T) concentrations were determined in plasma samples by routine RIA procedures.%Percentages of progressively motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa began to decrease by 1 to 2 weeks postinsulation, reached nadir values at 3 to 3-1/2 weeks postinsulation, and returned to preinsulation valuesby 7 weeks postinsulation. Total number of spermatozoa and total number of progressively motile, morphologically normal spermatozoa in ejaculates at DSO returned to normal by 8 weeks postinsulation in stallion 2 and 12 weeks postinsulation in stallion 1. Concentrations of BLH and ILH increased, and whileT concentrations decreased, immediately postinsulation. The increase in ILH concentrations was greater than the increase in BLH concentrations, resulting in a decrease in the BLH:ILH (B:I) ratio. Following the peak in LH secretion immediately postinsulation, LH concentrations gradually decreased while T concentrations increased. The B:I ratio was elevated from 1 to 13 weeks postinsulation compared to immediately postinsulation. In addition to changes in spermatozoal quality in ejaculates, stallion response to scrotal insulation included increased secretion of luteinizing hormone and impaired Leydig cell function (as determined by reduced testosterone concentration in circulating plasma). The proportion of biologically active LH secreted in response to thermal testicular injury increased during the recovery phase." BRINSKO, S.P. "GnRH therapy for subfertile stallions" "Veterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice","APR 1996","12","1","149" "S.P. Brinsko/Colorado State Univ/Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci/Dept Clin Sci/FT Collins, CO 80523 USA" "Idiopathic infertility degeneration has been associated with altered endocrine function in stallions. Therapy with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) has been used in an attempt to correct these endocrine imbalances and thereby improve fertility. This article describes the physiologic basis of GnRH therapy and emphasizes the importance of endocrine testing of those stallions for which GnRH therapy is being contemplated." 81 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. BRINSKO, S.P. "Neoplasia of the male reproductive tract" "Veterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice","1998","14","3","517+" "Brinsko S.P./Colorado State Univ/Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci/Dept Clin Sci/Ft Collins,CO 80523 USA" "Neoplastic conditions of the male horse's genitalia are generally considered uncommon but when they occur they can be devastating, especially in breeding stallions. This article describes the clinical manifestations as well as techniques for diagnosing and treating the common neoplastic conditions affecting the reproductive organs of the male horse.","","0749-0739","W B Saunders Co/Independence Square West Curtis Center/ Ste 300/Philadelphia/PA 19106-3399/USA" NIE, G.J.; POPE, K.C. "Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate administration in a horse" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","SEP 1 1997","211","5","587" "G.J. Nie/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849 USA" "Prolonged penile prolapse in horses has been reported in association with administration of phenothiazine tranquilizers, trauma, neuropathies, severe general debilitation or exhaustion, starvation, rabies, herpes myeloencephalitis, equine infectious anemia, and purpura hemorrhagica. A 5-year-old gelding was admitted for treatment of prolonged penile prolapse of 12 days' duration that developed after acepromazine maleate was administered to allow examination of a laceration that had resulted in severe blood loss. The horse was sedated, and the penis was replaced in the preputial cavity by use of a combination of massage and bandaging. Treatment was successful, and recovery was complete." PALME, R.; SCHERZER, S.; STOLLAR, K.; NAGY, P.; SZENCI, O.; MOSTL, E. "Hormonal diagnosis of equine cryptorchidism" "Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift"," 1998","85","6","188-191" "R. Palme/Veterinarpl 1/A-1210 Vienna, Austria" "For the hormonal diagnosis of cryptorchidism in horses measurements of testosterone and oestrogens are used. For this purpose the determination in blood and, for oestrogens, also in faeces is suited. The aim of this study was to determine the decrease of steroid hormone levels in blood and faeces of stallions after castration to evaluate the time lag until levels of geldings are reached. In addition, the usefulness of measuring urinary oestrogens for diagnosis of cryptorchids was evaluated. Mature stallions (n = 38) and cryptorchids (n = 5) of various breeds were castrated. Blood samples were taken prior to castration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after removing the second testis. Daily faecal samples were collected for 14 days and on day 21 after castration. Large individual differences were found concerning both maximal concentrations of steroids and the time course of their decrease. Threshold levels for differentiating geldings from horses with testicular tissue were reached in the blood within 0.5 - 24 h (median: 4 h) and 4 - 48 h (median: 12 h) for testosterone and conjugated oestrogens, respectively. For faecal oestrogens this level was reached 1 - 21 days (median: 5 days) after castration. These withdrawal times must be taken into account if steroid measurements are used as a tool to diagnose remaining testicular tissue after castration.%As in the urine of stallions or cryptorchids approximately 1,000 times higher (as compared with geldings) concentrations of conjugated oestrogens were found, it will be possible to 82 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. discriminate geldings from horses with testicular tissue by measuring urinary oestrogens. The avoidance of a stimulation test and the need of only a single urinary sample is advantageous." PARKER, J.E.; RAKESTRAW, P.C. "Intra-abdominal testicular torsion in a horse without signs of colic" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","FEB 1 1997","210","3","375" "J.E. Parker/Oregon State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Clin Sci/Corvallis, OR 97331 USA" "A 5- year-old Quarter Horse stallion was admitted for cryptorchidectomy. Abnormalities were not found on physical examination, except for an undescended left testis. Cryptorchidectomy was performed, using an inguinal approach. The tail of the epididymis was in the inguinal canal, and the testis was adjacent to the internal inguinal ring. The testis was dark reddish purple to black, resulting from torsion at the level of the body of the epididymis. On histologic examination, the left testis was necrotic, except for the tunica albuginea and tunica vaginalis visceralis covering the testis. Intra-abdominal testicular torsion developed without signs of abdominal pain and resulted in necrosis of the affected testis. If cryptorchidectomy had not been performed, it is likely that the horse would have been found to be monorchid. Unrecognized intra-abdominal testicular torsion may be the cause of monorchidism in some horses." PARLEVLIET, J.M. "Clinical aspects of stallion fertility" "Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde","MAR 15 1998","123","6","184-186" "J.M. Parlevliet/Fac Diergeneeskunde Utrecht/Vakgrp Bedrijfsdiergeneeskunde/& Voortplanting/Yalelaan 7/NL-3584 Cl Utrecht, Netherlands" "The studies described in this thesis investigated the factors that can affect the fertility of stallions. The introduction describes the male gamete and the processes that occur during maturation of sperm and fertilization. Methods to evaluate the quality of sperm and ova are then discussed. Fertility can be expressed in various ways and is also affected by many factors such as the stallion, the mare and management factors. The fertility of stallions is usually assessed a good year after they have served mares, because then the number of foals is known. However, it would be preferable to be able to predict a stallion's fertility before he is put to stud. To this end, it was investigated whether there is a relationship between a number of sperm parameters and the percentage of non-return after the first cycle. The endocrine control of reproduction is briefly described because hormonal factors can also influence the reproductive potential of stallions. The venereal diseases that are important for regulations concerning the international deserves further investigation. The minimum requirement for a stud stallion is that the stallion should produce sperm of adequate quality and should be able to fertilize mares." ROELS, S.; DUCATELLE, R.; VANDEVIJVER, B.; DEKRUIF, A. "Successful treatment of an equine preputial fibrosarcoma using 5fluorouracil/evaluation of the treatment using quantitative PCNA and KI67 (MIB 1) immunostaining (Case report)" "Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine","1998","45","10","591-598" "Roels S./Vet & Agrochem Res Ctr/Dept Biontrol/Sect Pathol/Groeselenberg 99/B-1180 Brussels/BELGIUM" 83 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. "An 18- month-old cross-bred Fjord pony colt presenting a fibrosarcoma of the prepuce with severe infiltrative growth, was treated by topical application of 5-fluorouracil. Biopsies were taken before and after a treatment period of 2 months. As a control, preputial tissue from a healthy horse was biopsied. Tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and Proliferation related factor - Ki67 (MIB1). Using computerized quantitative image analysis of these sections, Mitotic index (PCNA), Growth Fraction (Ki67) and total nuclear area percentage of the dermis were calculated. The Mitotic index, growth fraction and total nuclear area percentage were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced at the end of the treatment period compared to the initial biopsy tissue, bur they still were significantly higher than the control values, due to a remnant inflammatory reaction to the cytostatic drug. After treatment of the lesion, the pony fully recovered with no visible residual lesions on the prepuce. On follow- up 6 months after treatment, the horse showed no signs of recurrence. The success of the present treatment should encourage further clinical trials in cases of malignant fibrous rumours of skin in horses. The quantitative analysis of cell proliferation in biopsies can be used to evaluate treatment follow- up.","","0931184X","Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag Gmbh/Kurfurstendamm 57/D-10707 Berlin/Germany" SCHUMACHER, J.; VARNER, .D.D; SCHMITZ, D.G.; BLANCHARD, T.L. "Urethral defects in geldings with hematuria and stallions with hemospermia" "Veterinary Surgery 24: 3 (MAY-JUN 1995) Page(s) 250-254" "J. Schumacher, Texas Vet Med Ctr, Coll Vet Med, Dept Large Anim Med & Surg, College Stn, TX USA" "A urethral defect, presumed to communicate with the corpus spongiosum penis, caused hematuria in seven geldings and hemospermia in three stallions. Hematuria in geldings occurred at the end of urination. Hematuria was not observed in stallions with hemospermia. A linear urethral defect was identified, by endoscopic examination, on the convex surface the urethra at the level of the ischial arch of each horse. Cause of the defect was not determined. Two stallions were successfully treated for hemospermia, one by temporary subischial urethrostomy combined with sexual rest for 10 weeks, and the other by sexual rest alone for 6 months. The third stallion had hemospermia 6 weeks after urethrostomy. The geldings were successfully treated for hematuria, six by temporary subischial urethrostomy, and one by a subischial incision that extended into the corpus spongiosum penis but did not enter the lumen of the urethra. Efficacy of subischial urethrostomy for treatment of hemospermia was difficult to assess because of the small number of surgically treated stallions. In geldings, surgery eliminated hematuria, presumably by reducing vascular pressure in the corpus spongiosum penis during urination, thus allowing the urethral defect to heal. (C)Copyright 1995 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons." SCHUMACHER, J.; VARNER, D.D.; CRABILL, M.R.; BLANCHARD, T.L. "The effect of a surgically created shunt between the corpus cavernosum penis and corpus spongiosum penis of stallions on erectile and ejaculatory function" "Veterinary Surgery","1999","28","1","21-24" "Schumacher J./Texas A&M Univ/Dept Large Anim Med & Surg/College Stn,TX 77843 USA" "Objective-To evaluate the effect of a shunt created between the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) and corpus spongiosum penis (CSP) on erectile and ejaculatory function of normal stallions and to verify persistence of the shunt. Study Design- The capability of stallions to develop an erection and to ejaculate was evaluated before and after creation of a 84 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. corporeal shunt. Persistence of the shunt was determined by dye injection into the CCP at necropsy. Animals-Six stallions. Methods-A CCP-CSP shunt was created in five stallions. Semen was collected before and 4 to 14 weeks after surgery, before the horses were euthanatized. Dye was injected into the CCP to determine persistence of the shunt. Dye was also injected into the CCP of a control stallion. Results-All stallions had normal erectile and ejaculatory function before and after surgery. Dye, injected into the CCP, entered the CSP in three of five treated stallions, demonstrating persistence of the shunt, whereas in two stallions, dye was found only in the CCP, indicating closure of the shunt. No dye was detected in the CSP of the control stallion. Conclusions-Creation of a corporeal shunt does not interfere with normal erection and ejaculation of stallions. Shunt closure is not necessary for stallions to retain normal erectile and ejaculatory function. Clinical Relevance-Failure of a stallion affected by priapism to achieve normal erection or to ejaculate after creation of a corporeal shunt would likely be because of damage to corporeal tissue than from an effect of the shunt. (C)Copyright 1999 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.","","0161-3499","W B Saunders Co/Independence". TOTH, J.; SCHEIDEMANN, W. "Rarely observed alterations of testes in horses" "Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja"," 1998","120","1","24-26" "J. Toth/Aote/Sebeszeti & Szemeszeti Tanszek & Klin/Istvan U2/H-1078 Budapest, Hungary" "Testicular tumours were observed in three horses. In a seven years old Lippizan horse, the left testis was enlarged with a compact touching (Fig. 1). The supposed diagnosis was melanosarcoma which was confirmed by the histological investigation. The right testis of a cold-blooded stallion was swollen like a child's head, had a loose touch without pain. The mass of the removed testis (Fig. 2) was 1460 g, the histological investigatino revealed Leydig's cell tumour. The right testis of a two and a half years old stallion was removed earlier. The rectal examination revealed a removable object hard to the touch under the spine in far front. This object could only be removed after post unbilical median laparotomy. The mass of the object was 1850 g and proved to be calcified teratoma (Figs 3 and 4).%Torsion of spermatic cord (testis) was observed in a single case. The two years old stallion was operated with the diagnosis of inguinal hernia. The testis was freed by an inguinal approach. The 360 degrees torsion (Fig. 5) was released and the testis removed (Figs 6 and 7). The animal recovered a without any complication." TOTH, J.; HOLLERRIDER, J.; SCHEIDEMANN, W.; KOVAC, M. "Masculine (testicular) pseudohermaphroditism and concurrent cryptorchidism in a horse" "Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","1998","120","10","579-581","Hungarian Article" "Toth J./Tierklin Hochmoor/Von Braumn Str 10/D-48172 Gescher Hochmoor/Nemetorszag/GERMANY" "The authors examined and operated on a two-year-old Friesian horse with pseudohermaphroditism in the Hochmoor Animal Clinic. Despite its stallion-like behaviour the horse had in its anogenital region a sexual organ resembling a vulva with an organ characteristic of a penis at the place of the clitoris. Hormone analysis showed a testosterone value of 0.47 ng/ml whereas genetic analysis revealed XX chromosomes. The inguinal cryptorchid testes were removed. Their histological examination showed hypoplastic, inactive testicular tissue. Three months following surgery, hormone analysis of the horse showed results typical of geldings. The authors point out the significance of hormone analysis and genetic examination in reliably discerning real hermaphroditism from 85 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. pseudohermaphroditism.","","0025-004X","Mezogazda Budapest/Hungary" Kiado Kft/PO Box 16/1631 WALDRIDGE, B.M.; GILLIS, J.P. "Surgical treatment of redundant preputial tissue in a gelding" "Equine Practice","APR 1996","18","4","12-14" "B.M. Waldridge/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849 USA" "This report describes a gelding with an apparent developmental anomaly of the prepuce. A partial posthioplasty was performed to remove redundant preputial tissue and restore the prepuce to its normal appearance. Penile and preputial abnormalities occur most commonly from congenital or acquired conditions." 86 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. ANEXO III "FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en CANINOS y FELINOS" I – HEMBRA ARBEITER, K. "Some aspects in the theriogenology of the dog", "Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995","76","10","927-930", "K. Arbeiter/Linke Bahngasse 11/A-1030 Vienna, Austria", "The first part of this paper discusses gynaecological disorders in the bitch, Prolonged oestrus in pubertal bitches is considered as a developmental disturbance, Because it is a transient disorders, it should not be treated by ovariohysterectomy, Oestrus without ovulations exists in the dog and was observed in 1,8 percent of bitches presented for gynaecological examination, The timing of breeding or insemination can be a problem in bitches, Strong interindividual and day-to-day variations in the clinical symptoms of oestrus as well as in plasma progesterone concentrations have to be taken into account, when the optimal time for breeding has to be predicted. In the second part of this article malformations of the genital organs in male and female dogs, associated clinical symptoms and possible treatments are presented." BASARABA, R.J.; KRAFT, S.L.; ANDREWS, G.A.; LEIPOLD, H.W.; SMALL, D. "An ovarian teratoma in a cat" "Veterinary Pathology","1998","35","2","141-144" "Basaraba R.J./Kansas State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Diagnost Med Pathobiol/1800 Denison Ave/Manhattan,KS 66506 USA" "A 5- month-old, intact female, domestic short-haired cat was presented for evaluation of abdominal distension. Abdominal radiographs revealed a midabdominal mass that contained multiple, irregular, mineralized opacities. The mass was surgically removed, and an ovariohysterectomy performed. The mass was located at the tip of the left uterine horn and was covered partially by haired skin. Histologically, the mass was diagnosed as a mature ovarian teratoma based on the presence of well-differentiated somatic structures derived from three primary embryonal germ-cell layers. Germ-cell tumor classification and feline ovarian teratomas are reviewed.","","0300-9858","Amer Coll Vet Pathologist/810 East 10Th Street/Lawrence/KS 66044/USA" BELLENGER, C.R. "Inguinal and scrotal herniation in 61 dogs" "Australian Veterinary Practitioner","JUN 1996","26","2","58-59" "C.R. Bellenger/Natl Univ Ireland Univ Coll Dublin/Dept Vet Surg/Dublin, Ireland" "Inguinal and/or scrotal herniation was diagnosed in 45 female and 16 male dogs at the Sydney University Veterinary Teaching Hospital over the period 1974-1993. The Chihuahua, Dachshund, Pekingese, Terrier, Cocker Spaniel, Pomeranian, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Maltese and Poodle breeds were all over-represented when compared with the general hospital population. The mean bodyweight of females was significantly lighter than males. The mean age of both sexes was greater than seven years. The left side was more commonly affected than the right in females. The principal clinical sign was an inguinal mass or 87 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. swelling, although gastrointestinal signs were also present in six dogs. Surgical repair was attempted in 36 female and 13 male dogs, and all recovered except one female." DHALIWAL, G.K.; WRAY, C.; NOAKES, D.E. "Uterine bacterial flora and uterine lesions in bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (Pyometra)" "Veterinary Record","1998","143","24","659-661" "Dhaliwal G.K./Univ London Royal Vet Coll/Dept Farm Anim & Equine Med & Surg/Hatfield AL9 7TA/Herts/ENGLAND" "Thirty-eight complete genital tracts mere obtained fresh from local veterinary practices after bitches had been ovario-hysterectomised for the treatment of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (pyometra), The aerobic and anaerobic culture of swabs obtained aseptically from the uterine lumen demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli in 28 of the 29 cases from which bacteria were isolated and, from 25, a pure culture was obtained. Sixteen different serotypes were identified from 24 genital tracts; 032K(+) CNF+ was isolated from four of 16 cases and 04K(-); from three of 16 cases. Cytotoxin necrotising factors (CNFs) mere identified in seven of the 16 serotypes; they included 02, 04, 06, 022, 025, 045 and 075, which except for 06 and 045 were haemolytic, Strains 04K(-) and 07K(+) completely destroyed the integrity of the endometrial epithelium whereas 088K(+) and 088K(-) had the least effect, The scores for the reduction in the integrity of the endometrial epithelium and the degree of infiltration of inflammatory cells mere greater in the presence of CNF 1.","","00424900","British Veterinary Assoc/7 Mansfield St/London/England W1M 0at" FRANSSON, B.; LAGERSTEDT, A.S.; HELLMEN, E.; JONSSON, P. "Bacteriological findings, blood chemistry profile and plasma endotoxin levels in bitches with pyometra or other uterine diseases" "Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe A Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine","SEP 1997","44","7","417-426" "B. Fransson/Swedish Univ Agr Sci/Dept Small Anim Clin Sci/S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden" "Uteri from 60 bitches with a clinical diagnosis of pyometra, or with an enlarged uterus as revealed radiographically or ultrasonographically, underwent histopathological examination, at which a diagnosis of pyometra was established in 48 of the 60 (80%) cases. Escherichia coli was isolated from 43 (90%) of the 48 uteri with pyometra. In 8 of the 60 cases, other pathological uterine conditions, such as endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, mucometra or hydrometra, were diagnosed histopathologically. No bacterial growth was observed in the uteri of these 8 cases. Four of the 60 bitches (6%) showed no pathological changes in the uterus, and in 3 of these no bacteriological growth was seen in the uterus, while in one case a sparse growth of mixed culture was found. Blood samples from bitches with uterine infection caused by gram- negative bacteria showed marked hematological changes. These included higher total WBC counts and a more masked left shift in the differential WBC count than among the other bitches. Toxic degeneration of neutrophils was present among the bitches with gram- negative uterine infection and the serum ALP level was slightly higher than in the other groups of bitches. The plasma endotoxin concentration was determined in 53 bitches before surgery, in 28 bitches after surgery and in 11 control dogs. Only in 7 of the samples was endotoxin detected. 88 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. GABOR, G.; SIVER, L.; SZENCI, O. "Intravaginal prostaglandin F2 alpha for the treatment of metritis and pyometra in the bitch" "Acta Veterinaria Hungarica","1999","47","1","103-108" "Gabor G./Res Inst Anim Breeding & Nutr/H-2053 Herceghalom/HUNGARY" "The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravaginal prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) would be effective for the treatment of metritis or pyometra in the bitch. Seventeen bitches with metritis or pyometra were treated with PGF(2 alpha). Prostaglandin F2 alpha (150 mu g/kg body weight) was administered once or twice daily by infusing 0.3 ml per 10 kg body wt into the vaginal lumen. Bitches were also treated with amoxicillin (15 mg/kg body wt/48 h) and/or gentamicin (4 mg/kg body wt/day) administered as intramuscular (i.m.) injections. Fifteen bitches were treated successfully with intravaginally administered PGF(2 alpha) for 3 to 12 days and with intramuscularly administered antibiotics for 4 to 12 days. Success of treatment was judged by cessation of vaginal discharge, the absence of fluid in the uterus as determined by ultrasonography, and the overall health status of the animal. As two bitches with pyometra showed clinical deterioration in spite of medical treatment, ovariohysterectomy was performed after the first and the second treatment, respectively. No side effects (salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperpnoea, ataxia, urination, anxiety, pupillary dilatation followed by contraction) were observed after PGF(2 alpha) treatment. The disease did not recur during the subsequent oestrous cycles within 12 months after the initial treatment. The results demonstrate that intravaginal administration of PGF(2 alpha) was effective in 13 dogs (86.6%) with metritis or pyometra, and caused no side effects. Although the study was based on a relatively small number of cases, it is concluded that prostaglandin F-2 alpha can be a useful means of treating bitches with metritis or pyometra. However, in severe cases of pyometra ovariohysterectomy is needed.","","0236-6290","Akademiai Kiado/PO Box 245/H-1519 Budapest/Hungary" INABA, T.; TANI, H.; GONDA, M.; NAKAGAWA, A.; OHMURA, M.; MORI, J.; TORII, R.; TAMADA, H.; SAWADA, T. "Induction of fertile estrus in bitches using a sustained-release formulation of a GnRH agonist (leuprolide acetate)" "Theriogenology","APR 1 1998","49","5","975-982" "T. Inaba/Univ Osaka Prefecture/Coll Agr/Dept Anim Reprod/Sakai/Osaka 5998531, Japan" "A single subcutaneous injection of a sustained-release formulation of a potent GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA; [D-Leu(6), Pro(9)NEt]-GnRH), was evaluated as a method of inducing fertile estrus in 12 mature anestrous and 6 prepubertal beagle bitches. The bitches were treated with microencapsulated LA (100 mu g/kg, sc) at 120 or 150 d post partum, or at 1 yr of age, followed by a GnRH-analogue (fertirelin; [Pro(9)NEt]-GnRH, 3 mu g/kg, im) on the first day of induced estrus. Signs of estrus were seen within 10.3 +/- 0.9 d after LA administration in all bitches. The interestrous interval in 120- and 150-d postpartum bitches was shortened (P<0.05) to 191 +/- 3 and 222 +/- 3 d, respectively, compared with 264 +/- 11 d in control bitches. All LA treated dogs demonstrated behavioral estrus and mated. Three of 6 (50%) at 120 d post partum, 6 of 6 (100%) at 150 d post partum and 5 of 6 (83%) of prepubertal (1-yr old) bitches then became pregnant and produced a mean litter size of 4.1 +/0.8 pups. A normal circulating estrogen and progesterone response pattern was observed in mature anestrous bitches. A prepubertal bitch that failed to become pregnant had a similar estrogen response pattern but an insufficient progesterone profile. The results suggest that microencapsulated LA can be useful in inducing fertile estrus in the domestic dogs. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc." 89 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. LASCELLES, B.D.X.; CRIPPS, P.J.; JONES, A.; WATERMANPEARSON, A.E. "Efficacy and kinetics of carprofen, administered preoperately or postoperatively, for the prevention of pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy" "Veterinary Surgery", "1998", 27, 6, 568-582" "Lascelles B.D.X./Univ Cambridge/Queens Vet Sch Hosp/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Madingley Rd/Cambridge CB3 OES/ENGLAND" "Objective-To determine what effect the timing of carprofen administration has on the severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy and to investigate the pharmacokinetics of carprofen under these conditions. Study Design- A prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Animals-Sixty-two adult bitche s weighing between 10 and 25 kgs, undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Methods- Examinations were performed for 20 hours postoperatively using subjective visual assessment scoring systems (DIVAS) and objective mechanical nociceptive threshold measurements. Forty dogs were assigned to one of three groups: (1) preoperative carprofen; (2) postoperative carprofen; and (3) no analgesics (saline injections). The dose of carprofen was 4.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. In another 22 bitches, the pharmacokinetics of carprofen given preoperatively or postoperatively at the same dose were examined. Results-The dogs given carprofen preoperatively had lower pain scores than the other groups, significantly so at 2 hours postextubation (P < .01 and P < .05, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's). Mechanical pain thresholds measured at the distal tibia showed the development of hyperalgesia at 12 and 20 hours postextubation; this was prevented by both the preoperative (P < .05 at 12 and 20 hours, Kruskal-Wallis) and postoperative (P < .05 at 20 hours, Kruskal-Wallis) administration of carprofen. Mechanical pain threshold testing at the wound showed a significant analgesic effect of carprofen. Plasma concentrations of carprofen were not directly related to analgesia; maximum plasma concentration, the area under the curve to the last data point, and area under the first moment curve up to the last data point were all significantly higher in the dogs given carprofen postoperatively (P (.05, Mann-Whitney). Conclusion-Preoperative administration of carprofen has a greater analgesic effect than postoperative administration in the early postoperative period in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Plasma levels of carprofen are not related to the degree of analgesia achieved. Clinical Relevance-Carprofen provides effective analgesia after canine ovariohysterectomy. The timing of analgesic administration is important to optimize the control of postoperative pain. (C) Copyright 1998 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.","","0161-3499","W B Saunders Co/Independence Square West/Curtis Center, Ste 300/Philadelphia/PA 19106-3399" NISKANEN, M.; THRUSFIELD, M.V. "Associations between age, parity, hormonal therapy and breed, and pyometra in Finnish dogs" "Veterinary Record","1998","143","18","493-498" "Thrusfield M.V./Univ Edinburgh/Royal Dick Sch Vet Studies/Easter Bush Vet Ctr/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Roslin EH25 9RG/Midlothian/SCOTLAND" "A case-control study of 953 dogs with pyometra and 10,660 unmatched control dogs was used to investigate the relationships between age, parity, hormonal therapy and breed, and pyometra in Finnish dogs. Cases were reported in animals between nine months and 18 years of age, with a median age at diagnosis of nine years. Nulliparous bitches had a moderately higher risk of developing pyometra than primiparous and multiparous animals (adjusted odds ratio point estimate, 6.63). The administration of oestrogen increased the risk of pyometra in bitches up to four years of age (odds ratio point estimate >6), No significant risk-enhancing effect of progestin treatment was detected and it is unlikely that such a risk, if 90 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. present, is high (likelihood of the odds ratio exceeding 2 <0.18). Seventeen breeds had an increased risk, and the wire-haired dachshund and mongrels had a decreased risk of developing the condition.","","0042-4900","British Veterinary Assoc/7 Mansfield St/London W1M 0AT/England" OKANO, S.; TAGAWA, M.; TAKASE, K. "Relationship of the blood endotoxin concentration and prognosis in dogs with pyometra" "Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","1998","60","11","1265-1267" "Okano S./Kitasato Univ/Sch Vet Med & Anim Sci/Dept Small Anim Med/Aomori 0348628/JAPAN" "The blood concentrations of endotoxin in dogs with pyometra (n=45) were compared with those in healthy dogs (n=17). The blood endotoxin concentrations in the healthy dogs (n=17), in those with good prognosis (n=41) and those with poor prognosis (n=4) were 3.4 +/2.8 pg/ml, 9.5 +/- 11.3 pg/ml and 74.2 +/- 18.3 pg/ml, respectively. The concentrations in the dogs with good prognosis and poor prognosis were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those in the healthy dogs. The dogs with poor prognosis had significantly (p<0.01) higher endotoxin concentrations than those with good prognosis. Blood endotoxin concentratio ns were measured in 9 dogs after surgery, and were found to be decreased. These results suggest the possible involvement of endotoxin in the pathophysiological changes due to pyometra in dogs, and also that the blood endotoxin concentration could be used as a marker to determine prognosis.","","0916-7250","Japan Soc Vet Sci/Univ Tokyo 1-1-1 Yayoi/ BunkyoKu/Tokyo/103, Japan" PIENS, K.; DESCHEPPER, J.; DEPELSMAECKER, K. "Bilirubinuria without hyperbilirubinaemia in bitches with pyometra" "Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift","JAN-FEB 1996","65","1","31-33" "K. Piens/State Univ Ghent/Fac Diergeneeskunde/Vakgrp Geneeskunde & Klin/Biol Klein Huisdieren/B-9000 Ghent, Belgium" "In a group of 54 bitches with pyometra, 31 per cent showed bilirubinuria. Bilirubinuria was associated with higher values of white blood cells and serum haptoglobin, higher serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol and a higher serum aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, but not with a higher degree of anaemia (similar PCV values). Bilirubinuria in bitches with pyometra is attributed to a higher degree of cholestasis associated with a greater inflammatory reaction." PIERSON, P.; MORAILLON, A.; REMOND, M. "Herpesvirus infection in the dog: diagnosis and clinical aspects" "Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","87-94" "P. Pierson/Ecole Natl Vet Alfort/Unite Med Elevage & Sport/7 Ave GL de Gaulle/F-94704 Maisons Alfort, France" "At the clinical level, canine herpesvirus infection is most often the cause in breeding kennels of a period of infertility or very precious neonatal mortality which normally affects a single breed and disappears before the nest reproductive cycle. The difficulties encountered in diagnosis, treatment, prevent ion and detection are linked to the potential for latency and reactivation of all the herpesviruses, as well as their poor immunogenic activity. These factors make a lot of breeders accept with resignation that in the dog, as with numerous species, they must learn to ''live with herpesvirus infection'' and that in dog breeding ''it is better to have the herpesvirus infection behind them than in front of them''. 91 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. PRIGENT, S. "A diagnostic method for female dog which regular cycles but suffers from infecundity" "Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","61-69" "S. Prigent/Clin Vet/F-95290 Lisle Adam, France" "The author describes the method of diagnosis to be used by the veterinary surgeon when faced with an infecund female dog which has normal cycles. He goes on to present all the possible causes of this infecundity: unsuccesful mating and unsuccesful mating after a normal, or a shorter or a longer cycle. In all cases a study of the case history and a careful and complete clinical examination, will allow the choice, if necessary, of the complementary examinations needed. This logical method is the only one which, in nearly all cases, results in a diagnosis and a prognosis concerning the reproductive future of the female and in provides advice on the action to take when faced with dog infertility. " RUNGSIPIPAT, A.; TATEYAMA, S.; YAMAGUCHI, R.; UCHIDA, K.; MIYOSHI, N.; HAYASHI, T. "Immunohistochemical analysis of c-yes and c-erbB-2 oncogene products and p53 tumor suppressor protein in canine mammary tumors " "Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","1999","61","1","27-32" "Rungsipipat A./Miyazaki Univ/Fac Agr/Dept Vet Pathol/Nishi 1-1/Miyazaki 8892192/JAPAN" "In order to evaluate the involvement of c- yes and c-erbB-2 oncogene products, and p53 tumor suppressor protein in canine mammary neoplastic lesions, sections of archived paraffin-embedded samples of 79 mammary tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically using antibodies against human c-yes p62 and c-erbB-2 products and p53. These 79 tumors were divided into 2 groups: 32 benign (2 adenosis, 7 simple adenomas, 14 complex adenomas, and 9 benign mixed mammary tumors) and 47 malignant tumors (26 simple adenocarcinomas, 7 complex adenocarcinomas, 5 solid carcinomas, 2 sclerosing carcinomas, 6 malignant mixed mammary tumors, and 1 malignant myoepithelioma). As a result of immunostaining, 40.6% (13/32) of the benign tumors and 21.3% (10/47) of the malignant tumors expressed the c-Yes oncogene product, ErbB-2 expression was detected in 50% (16/32) of the benign tumors and in 19.1% (9/47) of the malignant tumors. P53 expression was detected in 16% (4/25) of the benign tumors and in 30.6% (11/36) of the malignant tumors. Go-expression of c-Yes and ErbB-2, ErbB-2 and p53, and all 3 products was detected in 6, 1 and 7 tumors, respectively.","","0916-7250","Japan Soc Vet Sci/Univ Tokyo 1-1-1 Yayoi/ Bunkyo-Ku/Tokyo/103, Japan" SCHAFER, K.A.; KELLY, G.; SCHRADER, R.; GRIFFITH, W.C.; MUGGENBURG, B.A.; TIERNEY, L.A.; LECHNER, J.E.; JANOVITZ, E.B.; HAHN, F.F. "A canine model of familial mammary gland neoplasia" "Veterinary Pathology","1998","35","3","168-177" "Hahn F.F./Lovelace Resp Res Inst/Inhalat Toxicol Lab/POB 5890/Albuquerque,NM 87185 USA" "Intact female Beagles from life-span studies in the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute colony were examined for mammary tumor incidence. The breeding colony, founded in 1963, produced five generations from 28 founder females. After proportional hazards analysis, two maternal families were shown to have markedly different phenotypes, one susceptible and one resistant to mammary neoplasia, as compared with the entire colony. When tumors were subdivided into benign and malignant based on local invasiveness, familial differences in tumor incidence were preserved for each tumor type. Fifty-seven 92 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. females in the susceptible family developed 149 benign and 39 malignant tumors, and 95 females in the resistant family developed 70 benign and 20 malignant tumors. The ratio of benign to malignant tumors of about 4:1 for both families was higher than expected. Using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses, the susceptible family had a 50% malignant tumor incidence by age 13.6 years, whereas the resistant family did not have a 50% incidence until 17.0 years (P = 0.0065). Because of marked censoring, Kaplan-Meier analyses could not provide an estimate of the 50% benign turner incidence; mean incidence age was calculated instead. These estimates for benign tumors for susceptible and resistant families were 10.8 and 13.8 years (P = 0.0001), respectively. Using chi(2) tests, families had no differences in the occurrence of the types of benign (P = 0.098) or malignant (P = 0.194) tumors or in the ratio of benign to malignant tumors (P = 0.778). Immunohistochemical analysis of malignant tumors from both families did not demonstrate differences in p53 mutation rate or p185(erbB2) expression. These results suggest that 1) genetic factors produce familial differences in the age of onset of both benign and malignant mammary tumors; histologic types do not segregate by family; 2) the ratio of benign to malignant tumors is greater than formerly reported; and 3) neither p53 nor p185(erbB-2) alterations are the basis for the familial predisposition.","","0300-9858","Amer Coll Vet Pathologist/810 Ea st 10Th Street/Lawrence/KS 66044/USA" SCHANEN, H.; FEHR, M. "Vaginal disorders in the dog - Differential diagnosis of vaginal discharge" "Praktische Tierarzt","1998","79","10","924" "Schanen H./Tierarztlichen Hsch Hannover/Klin Kleine Haustiere/Bischofsho ler Damm 15/D-30173 Hannover/GERMANY" "Diseases of the vagina are very common in the dog and have a great importance for its fertility. The main symptom is vaginal discharge. The etiology, the symptoms and the therapy of the most common diseases of the vagina are presented.","","0032681X","Schlutersche Verlag Druckerei/Georgswall 4/W-3000 Hanover 1/Germany" SCHULMAN, M.L.; BOLTON, L.A. "Uterine horn aplasia with complications in two mixed-breed bitches" "Journal of the South African Veterinary Association - Tydskrif Van Die Suid - Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging","DEC 1997","68","4","150-153" "M.L. Schulman/Med Univ S Africa/Fac Vet Sci/Dept Companion Anim Med & Surg/Box 160/ZA-0204 Medunsa, South Africa" "Unilateral segmental uterine horn aplasia was found in 2 mixed-breed bitches. The Ist bitch was presented with clinical signs of acute abdominal pain, and pyometra was suspected. Pyometra was confirmed surgically with rupture of a blind-ending cranial portion of the anomalous right uterine horn, which had resulted in peritonitis. The 2nd bitch was presented for routine ovariohysterectomy. The right uterine horn was affected by segmental aplasia, with mucometra of the cranial portion of the affected horn. Histopathology demonstrated both uteri to have diffuse cystic endometrial hyperplasia. II is postulated that cystic endometrial hyperplasia, together with the congenital anomaly, resulted in pyometra in one case and in mucometra in the other case. This is believed to be the Ist report of uterine horn aplasia in the bitch in association with clinical signs and lesions other than infertility." 93 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. TAINTURIER, D.; SILIART, B.; FIENI, F.; BRUYAS, J.F.; BATTUT, I." "Study of anoestrus in the female dog" "Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","71-76" "D. Tainturier/Ecole Natl Vet Nantes/Lab Dosages Hormonaux/Atlanpole/La Chantrerie/BP 40706/F-44307 Nantes 03, France" "The absence of puberty when not caused by a genetic disease which provokes genital infantilism or hermaphrodism, can be the result of under-nutrition, parasitism or various primary (hypothyroidism, hypocorticism or hyposomatotropism) or iatrogenic endocrine disorders (the administration of steroids to a pregnant animal can provoke pseudo- hermaphrodism in the offspring; stereoids can also, when administered during growth, cause disorders of gonadal stereoidogenesis. Some antifungal agents can cause the same effect). The absence of oestrus in old female dogs is eventually due to a luteal production, during primary affection of the ovary. However it is more often the result of anoestrus associated with an endocrine disorder (Cushing syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyposomatotropism or acromegaly) which causes an adipo-genital syndrome. However, in old female dogs, under-nutrition, parasitism, behavioural problems, poor maintenance or breeding conditions can equally be responsible for ovarian dysfunction." VALOCZKY, I.; CSICSAI, G.; MARACEK, I. "Use of anamnesis and clinical signs in decision-making regarding treatment of bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex" "Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","1998","120","8","474-478""Hungarian Article" "Valoczky I./Univ Vet Med/Dept Gynaecol Obstet & Androl/Komenskeho 73/Kosice 04181/SLOVAKIA" "The aim of the study was to investigate selected anamnestic and gynecological parameters in bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex (CEHPC) and to select markers that could facilitate decision- making in the treatment of this condition. The results are based on monitoring two groups of bitches: one group which was successfully treated medically while bitches in the other were subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty medium sized bitches with various stages of CEHPC were monitored. The age of the surgically treated bitches ranged between 4 and 14 years with an average of 8.4 years, while age range of the medically treated bitches was 1.5-4 years with an average of 2.6 years. Seventy-nine percent of the surgically treated bitches showed clinical symptoms for longer than 14 days, which indicated a more chronic process. Sixty-seven percent of the medically created bitches had clinical symptoms shorter than 14 days. Polydipsia and polyuria were observed in both groups with CEHPC. Inappetence was present mainly in bitches which had to be treated surgically. Limping and pain in long bones were more frequent in the surgically treated group. Emesis was found in 28.5% of the surgically treated bitches. Both groups had vaginal discharge and prolonged estrus cycle noted in their ana mnesis. Fifty-seven percent of the surgically treated and half of the medically treated bitches had received hormone therapy previously. Palpation findings were more varied in the surgically treated animals.","","0025004X","Mezogazda Kiado Kft/PO Box 16/1631 Budapest/Hungary" 94 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. VERSTEGEN, J.P.; ONCLIN, K.; SILVA, L.D.M.; CONCANNON, P.W." "Effect of stage of anestrus on the induction of estrus by the dopamine agonist cabergoline in dogs " "Theriogenology","1999","51","3","597-611" "Verstegen J.P./Univ Liege/Coll Vet Med/Dept Small Reprod/B-4000 Liege/BELGIUM" "Beagle bitches were administered the dopamine D-2 receptor agonist cabergoline in 3 groups of 5 animals each, starting on known days of the estrous cycle. Cabergoline treatment was started in either early anestrus (Days 93 to 108), mid-anestrus (Days 123 to 156), or late anestrus (Days 161 to 192) at doses of 5 ug/kg/d, per os, and was continued until the confirmation of induced proestrus or for 40 d. Reproductive parameters were compared with those in 5 control anestrous bitches (Days 90 to 150). In control bitches, the mean (+/- SEM) interval to the next proestrus (73 +/- 11 d) resulted in an interestrus interval (192 +/- 9 d) similar to that of the previous cycles (196 +/- 11 d). In 14 of the 15 cabergoline-treated bitches, the next: proestrus occurred within 4 to 30 d, was premature in early and midanestrous bitches and developed with low variability within groups. The resulting intervals to proestrus in bitches treated with cabergoline in early anestrus (20 +/- 2 d), mid-anestrus (14 +/- 3 d) and late anestrus (6 +/- 1 d) resulted in interestrus intervals in those groups of 131 +/5, 166 +/- 7 and 196 +/- 2 d, respectively. In response to treatment, interestrus intervals were reduced (P less than 0.05) and more synchronous (P less than 0.05) in early and mid-anestrus bitches, and were more synchronous (P less than 0.05) in late-anestrous bitches compared with those of control bitches or those of the previous cycle. Periovulatory estradiol and progesterone profiles of induced cycles in treated bitches were similar to those of spontaneous cycles in control bitches. Four of 5 control bitches and 12 of the 14 responding cabergolinetreated bitches became pregnant and produced normal litters. Plasma prolactin concentrations at Days 2 and 5 of treatment (0.3 +/- 0.1 ng/mL) and at the onset of proestrus shortly before the end of treatment (0.4 +/- 0.1 ng/mL) were lower (P less than 0.05) than those present in anestrus prior to treatment (1.7 +/- 0.6 ng/mL) or in control bitches. Prolactin was also low at the onset of proestrus in control bitches (0.5 +/- 0.2 ng/mL). The results demonstrate that prolactin- lowering doses of the dopamine agonist cabergoline can terminate the normal obligate anestrus in dogs, and that the effect occurs more slowly in early anestrus than in mid or late anestrus. (C) 1999 by Elsevier Science Inc.","","0093-691X","Elsevier Science Inc/655 Avenue of the Americas/New York/NY 10010/USA" WATTS, J.R.; WRIGHT, P.J.; LEE, C.S. "Endometrial cytology of the normal bitch throughout the reproductive cycle" "Journal of Small Animal Practice","JAN 1998","39","1","2-9" "J.R. Watts/Univ Melbourne/Dept Vet Sci/Princes Highway/Werribee/Vic 3030, Australia" "Samples for endometrial cytology were collected both from live bitches using transcervical uterine cannulation (n=48) and postmortem (n=10), The cells identified were endometrial epithelial cells, leucocytes, erythrocytes, spermatozoa, bacteria and cervical or vaginal cells, The endometrial epithelial cells varied morphologically throughout the reproductive cycle and had signs of degeneration during late dioestrus and during early and mid-anoestrus following dioestrus and postpartum. Neutrophils were the most common leucocytes observed during pro-oestrus, oestrus, dioestrus and early pregnancy, and lymphocytes during anoestrus, Macrophages were frequently seen during anoestrus, Erythrocytes were found in variable numbers at all stages of the reproductive cycle, Spermatozoa were detected in samples collected during oestrus and early pregnancy in bitches which had their last mating one to three days previously, Bacteria were commonly observed during pro-oestrus and oestrus, Cornified cervical or vaginal cells were present during 95 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. pro-oestrus and oestrus, This study demonstrated that the numbers, types, proportions and morphology of cells in endometrial cytological samples from normal bitches varied throughout the reproductive cycle." I I – MACHO BELL, F.W.; KLAUSNER, J.S.; HAYDEN, D.W.; LUND E.M.; LIEBENSTEIN, B.B.; FEENEY, D.A.; JOHNSTON, S.D.; SHIVERS, J.L.; EWING, C.M.; ISAACS, W.B. "Evaluation of serum and seminal plasma markers in the diagnosis of canine Prostatic Disorders" "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 9: 3 (MAY-JUN 1995) Page(s) 149-153" "F.W. Bell, Univ Minnesota, Coll Vet Med, Dept Small Anim Clin Sci, 1350 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 USA" "Serum and seminal plasma concentrations or activities of acid phosphatase (AP), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and canine prostate specific esterase (CPSE) were measured in normal dogs, dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), dogs with bacterial prostatitis, and dogs with prostatic carcinoma to determine if these assays would be of value in differentiating dogs with prostatic carcinoma from normal dogs, and dogs with other prostatic disorders. In addition, tissue sections of prostatic adenocarcinomas were stained with antiprostatic AP, anti-CPSE, and anti-PSA antibodies to determine if these would be suitable immunohistochemical markers of prostatic carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen was not detected in canine serum or seminal plasma, Serum and seminal AP activities did not differ significantly between normal dogs and those with prostatic diseases, or among dogs with different prostatic disorders, Serum CPSE activities were significantly higher in dogs with BPH than in normal dogs. Mean serum CPSE activities in dogs with BPH, bacterial prostatitis, and prostatic carcinoma were not significantly different from each other. Slight to moderate immunohistochemical staining of canine prostatic adenocarcinomas was noted for prostatic AP and PSA; most tumors did not stain for CPSE. These results show that proteins of prostatic origin appear in the serum of dogs as a result of prostatic pathology, especially BPH. Canine prostatic adenocarcinoma does not appear to be associated with significant increases in CPSE or AP activities, possibly because of down-regulation of these enzymes by prostatic carcinoma cells. It is also possible that failure to detect significant differences resulted from limited statistical power for some groups and pairwise analyses because of the small number of dogs evaluated. Copyright (C) 1995 by the American College of Veterinary Internal medicine." BILKEI, G.; BIRO, O.; TAKACS, T.; KOTAI, I.; SZENCI, O.; GOOS, T. "Observations on the therapy of the ''prostate syndrome'' of older dogs" "Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","JUN 1997","110","6","220-222" "G. Bilkei/Kurzbericht Praxis/CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland" "The treatment of the ''prostate syndrome'' is a great challenge for the practicing veterinarian In the present paper the therapeutic approach of this syndrome will be evaluated. 58 older dogs showing this syndrome Here castrated and received thereafter oral antibiotic therapy. For further additional treatment the dogs were assigned to two groups. The groups were treated as follows:%Group one: 41 dogs were treated with retard Gestagen and Flumethason infiltrated into the prostate gland tissue. Group two: 17 dogs were treated with a single subcutaneously applied Gestagen injection.%The success of the therapy was judged by 96 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. decrease the size of the prostate gland to normal size. The first evaluation took place after 2 weeks and the second one after a year fo llowing castration and treatment.%At the time of the first judgement 95.1% of the dogs in the group one and 70.6% in the group two showed normal prostate gland size. At the time of the second examination, a year after the treatment still 82.8% of the dogs in the group one and only 52.8% in the group two showed normal prostate gland size.%These results suggest that the infiltration of the enlarged prostate gland with retard acting Gestagen and Flumethason results in long lasting diminishing of size of the diseased gland." BILLER, B.J.; KITCHELL, B.E.; CADILE, C.D. "Evaluation of an assay for detecting telomerase activity in neoplastic tissues of dogs" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","12","1526-1529" "Biller B.J./Denver Vet Specialists/250 W Lehow/Englewood,CO 80110 USA" "Objective-To determine feasibility of using the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay to detect telomerase activity in tumors of dogs. Sample Population-Samples of tumor or normal tissue were obtained from client-owned dogs that underwent surgical biopsy during the period of January 1996 through December 1997. Procedure-The TRAP assay was used to detect telomerase activity in malignant or benign tumors of dogs. Telomerase status (positive or negative) was compared with results of histologic examination for each sample to estimate specificity and sensitivity of this assay for the diagnosis of malignancy. Results-Of 26 malignant tumors, 24 were telomerase positive on TRAP assay, whereas 3 of 4 benign tumors and 3 of 3 normal tissues were telomerase negative. Analysis of these results indicated an estimated sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 86% for tumor analysis, using the TRAP assay. Conclusion-The TRAP assay can be used to measure telomerase activity in malignant tumors of dogs. Clinical Relevance-Because telomerase activation may be required for indefinite longevity of cells, it may also serve as a tumor marker and therapeutic target. The TRAP assay can be used to detect telomerase in samples of fluid as well as tissues obtained from solid tumors. Therefore, it may have considerable clinical value in rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of neoplasia in dogs. Additional studies must be completed to more accurately determine sensitivity and specificity of the assay.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360/USA" BRAY, J.P.; WHITE, R.A.S.; WILLIAMS, J.M. "Partial resection and omentalization: A new technique for management of prostatic retention cysts in dogs" "Veterinary Surgery","MAY-JUN 1997","26","3","202-209" "J.P. Bray/Univ Cambridge/Dept Clin Vet Med/Madingley Rd/Cambridge CB3 0ES, England" "Objective- The purpose of this study was to determine the results of a new technique for management of prostatic retention cysts in dogs.%Study Design- A retrospective clinical study.%Animals- Eighteen client-owned dogs.%Methods- Dogs with prostatic retention cysts were treated by celiotomy and drainage of the cysts. The majority of the cyst wall was resected and residual cyst cavities were packed with omentum. All dogs were castrated.%Results- Long-term resolution of clinical signs was achieved in all dogs, with follow-up periods ranging from 6 to 42 months. Five dogs developed urinary incontinence postoperatively. This persisted in two dogs, but was well controlled with phenylpropanolamine. In the remaining dogs, the incontinence was transient and resolved within 2 months of surgery.%Conclusions- Partial cyst resection combined with omentalization and castration was a simple and effective means of managing prostatic 97 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. retention cysts. The incidence of serious complications, including postoperative urinary incontinence, was low. (C) Copyright 1997 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons." FOLEY, R.H.; COLLINS, K.S." "Hypospadius in two male cats" "Feline Practice","1999","27","1","18-19","English Article" "Foley R.H./Upper Keys Vet Clin/87108 Overseas Highway/Islamorada,FL 33036 USA" "Congenital defects of the external genitalia of two unrelated male cats manifested as penile hypospadius, bifid scrotum and abnormal urorectal sepum covering. These anomalies created in the more extremely affected cat an appearance resembling an avian cloaca. This rarely reported defect of companion animals has been associated with,true hermaphroditism, in utero exposure to androgen inhibitors or estrogenic compounds, and inadequate production of androgens by fetal testes. These two cases with other possible etiologies are discussed.","","1057-6614","Veterinary Practice Publ Co/3 Burroughsdr/Irvine/CA 926182804/USA" FONTBONNE, A.; BUFF, S.; GUERIN, P. "Clinical approach of infertility in the male dog" "Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","39-60" "A. Fontbonne/Ecole Natl Vet Lyon/Ctr Etud & Rech Reprod & Elevage Canins/BP 83/F-69280 Marcy Letoile, France" "There have been few scientific publications concerning male fertility and infertility in the dog, due to the fact that this area has been mainly explored in the past few years. The collection of sperm has to take place in a quiet place, making the dog confident. It is often achieved by manual masturbation, using a latex semen collection cone. The spermogramm has the purpose of defining if sperm quality is good enough to insure normal fertility. A normal dog sperm mill contain more than 100 to 150 x 106 normal sperm. It must not contain over 20 to 30% abnormal sperm. Initial motility must be higher than 50 to 70%. Therefore, the veterinarian has to check the volume, general aspect, motility, pH, counting and vitality. He mill also check the percentage of normal sperm in the whole ejaculate. New ways of performing these different steps coming from human medicine and new laboratory tests (computer analysed motility, HOS test...) will probably improve the prediction of the fertility that can be obtained by the spermogramm The quality of sperm may vary very much from one collection to another, especially in sub-infertile males. Therefore, it is important to collect the same dog 2 or 3 times before stating that the quality of sperm is low. The infertility of the male dog can be due to several factors. Hormonal, genital, urinary or psychological factors seem to be the most common ones, considering our own experience. In order to diagnose the cause of infertility, the veterinarian mill have to perform a complete survey of the medical background of the dog. He will complete an examination of the general state and the reproductive tract. He will also be helped by complementary clinical exams, such as spermoculture, echography, urinalysis and testicular biopsy." KYLES, A.E.; STONE, E.A.; GOOKIN, J.; SPAULDING, K.; CLARY, E.M.; WYLIE, K.; SPODNICK, G." "Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","1998","213","8","1150-1156" 98 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. "Stone EA/N Carolina State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Compan Anim & Special Species Med/Raleigh,NC 27606 USA" "Objective-To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. DesignRetrospective case series. Animals-11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Procedure-Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Results-Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery and 1 car had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths, One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. Clinical Implications-A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction.","","00031488","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360" LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; RUBY, A.L.; JOHNSON, D.L.; THURMOND, M. "Urolithiasis in dogs I: Mineral prevalence and interrelations of mineral composition, age, and sex" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","5 9","5","624-629" "Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Davis,CA 95616 USA" "Objective-To compile and statistically analyze selected data from a large number of canine urinary calculi. Sample Population-11,000 specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure-Records were used to compile information from all canine calculi analyzed between July 1981 and January 1994. Interrelations of mineral composition, location of specimens within the urinary tract, age and sex of affected dogs, and number of previous episodes of urolithiasis were determined. Results-Approximately 70% of the specimens were from a first episode of urolithiasis. Calculi were located in the urinary bladder of 93.1% of females and 79.0% of males, and in the upper urinary tract of 4% of females and 2% of males. Calculi were found in multiple sites in 23.1% of males and 5.2% of females. Significantly higher proportions of struvite, apatite, and urate were found in uroliths from females; oxalate, cystine, silica, and brushite were significantly more prevalent in males. Sixty-one percent of specimens from males and 29% from females were composed of a single mineral substance. The most common mineral combination of 2 or more minerals included struvite and apatite. An additional 67 specimens from male dogs and 49 from female dogs contained other mineral combinations. In 48% of specimens from males and nearly 62% of specimens from females, the minerals formed several distinct layers of differing composition. Conclusions-Male and female dogs form urinary calculi composed of 1 or more of several distinct minerals. Prevalence of canine uroliths differs between ages and between the sexes. Many specimens contain complex 99 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. layering of minerals; most specimens were found in the urinary bladder. Clinical RelevanceSex and age of dogs, mineral types of likely calculi in males versus females, and their anatomic location are important considerations for clinicians when evaluating risk in dogs with urolithiasis.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360" LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; RUBY, A.L.; JOHNSON, D.L. "Urolithiasis in dogs II: Breed prevalence, and interrelations of breed, sex, age , and mineral composition" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","5","630-642" "Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Dept Med & Epidemiol/Davis,CA 95616 USA" "Objective-To analyze selected breed-related data for canine urinary calculi. Sample Population-11,000 specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from males, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure- information was compiled for all canine urinary calculi submitted between July 1981 and January 1994. Results fo r a mixed-breed group and 26 of the most common breeds of stone- forming dogs were analyzed. Interrelations of breed, sex, and age of affected dogs and mineral composition of the specimens were determined. Results-Prevalence of 5 specific mineral types was significantly correlated between the sexes of 27 common breed groups: struvite, calcium phosphate (apatite), calcium oxalate, brushite, and urate. Struvite-containing calculi were seen in high proportions in both sexes of 7 breeds, and in low proportions in both sexes of 7 other breeds. Male and female Lhasa Apsos, Cairn Terriers, and 5 other breeds had high proportions of oxalate-containing calculi; values in males were substantially higher. Low numbers of oxalate-containing calculi were seen in both sexes of 7 breeds; Dalmatians had the lowest numbers. Males and females of 6 breeds had high numbers of urate-containing calculi, Dalmatians and English Bulldogs had the highest numbers. Low amounts of urate were found in calculi from males and females of 6 breeds, Samoyeds had the lowest numbers. Highest proportions of cystine-containing calculi were seen in male Dachshund, English Bulldogs, and Chihuahuas. Males of 8 breeds had no specimens that contained cystine; only 2 such specimens were obtained from females. ConclusionsPrevalence of uroliths differs among breed, age, and sex of affected dogs. Clinical RelevanceBreed, sex, and age of dogs; mineral types of calculi in males versus females; and their anatomic location within the tract are important considerations for clinicians when evaluating risk in dogs with urolithiasis and in identifying areas that need further in-depth applied or clinical investigation, or both.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360" LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; JOHNSON, D.L.; RUBY, A.L. "Urolithiasis in dogs III: Prevalence of urinary tract infection and interrelations of infection, age, sex, and mineral composition" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","5","643-649" "Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Dept Med & Epidemiol/Davis,CA 95616 USA" "Objective-To compile and statistically analyze selected data from a large number of canine urinary calculus specimens that were subjected to quantitative, layer-by- layer mineral analysis. Sample Population-11,000 canine urinary calculus specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure-Records of the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California were used to compile information regarding all canine urinary calculus specimens submitted 100 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. for analysis between July 1981 and January 1994. Interrelations of sex and age of the affected dogs, mineral compositio n of the specimens, and associated urinary tract infections were analyzed statistically. Results-Urolithiasis was associated with growth of bacteria isolated from urine or calculi, or both, in 65% of females and nearly 44% of males. Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated most often from either sex (54% for females, 30% for males). In addition to staphylococci, 22 other bacterial species were isolated from specimens from females, and 17 other bacterial species and 1 species of yeast were isolated from males. A single bacterial species was isolated from 87.6% of cultures from females and from nearly 90% of cultures from males. Among females, nearly 98% of pure cultures of staphylococci were associated with calculi that contained struvite; this was true for 80% of pure cultures of staphylococci from males. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-There are wide sex differences in prevalence of urolithiasis- and specific mineral-associated bacterial infections. In several instances, bacterial infections were significantly related to urinary calculus location. These variables should be considered in any evaluation of canine patients that have uroliths.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360" LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; JOHNSON, D.L.; RUBY, A.L. "Urolithiasis in dogs IV: Survey of interrelations among breed, mineral composition, and anatomic location of calculi, and presence of urinary tract infection" "American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","5","650-660" "Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Dept Med & Epidemiol/Davis,CA 95616 USA" "Objective-To compile and analyze selected data from a large number of canine urinary calculus specimens that were subjected to quantitative, layer-by-layer mineral analysis. Sample Population-11,000 canine urinary calculus specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure-Records of the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California were used to compile information regarding urinary calculus specimens from dogs. Records surveyed were of all canine calculi submitted for analysis between July 1981 and January 1994. Results analyzed included those of a mixed-breed group and 26 common breeds of stone-forming dogs. Interrelations of breed, sex, and age of the affected dogs, mineral composition of the specimens, and associated urinary tract infections were analyzed statistically. Results-Proportions of culture-positive specimens were significantly correlated between the sexes (r = 0.494, P = 0.008). Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated most often from either sex, ranging from 36.1% (Basset Hounds) to 67.9% (Pekingese) of cultured specimens from females and 8.7% (Chihuahuas) to 71.4% (Scottish Terriers) of specimens from males. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species, Escherichia coli, ranged from 0% in males of 2 breeds and females of 4 breeds to 25% in Cairn Terrier males and 19.4% in Basset Hound females. Streptococcus spp were the third most frequently isolated bacterial species. Significant correlations between the sexes were found for percentages of calculi located in the urinary bladder (r = 0.490, P = 0.008), and for calculi voided in the urine (r = 0.503, P = 0.006). Conclusions-Breed and sex differences in prevalence of urolithiasisand mineral-associated bacterial infections are numerous. Staphylococcus intermedius was the most common isolate from specimens from all but 3 of 54 breed/sex groupings. For either sex, streptococcal infections were significantly related to proportions of calculi passed in the urine.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360" 101 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. METCALFE, S.S.; OSBORNE, D. A.; MACFARLANE, R.A. "Canine transmissible venereal tumour" "Australian Veterinary Practitioner","DEC 1997","27","4","186" "S.S. Metcalfe/Monash Med Ctr/Inst Reprod & Dev/Level 5/246 Clayton Rd/Clayton/Vic 3168, Australia" "Six cases of canine transmissible venereal tumour were diagnosed by cytology or histopathology. These cases were in a range of dog breeds, gender and age. Euthanasia was performed in one case. The remaining five cases were successfully treated with vincristine chemotherapy with or without surgery." ONCLIN, K.; LDM SILVA, J VERSTEGEN "Physiology and pathology of prostate gland in domestic carnivores .1." "Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 138: 8 (DEC 1994) Page(s) 529-535" "K. Onclin, Fac Med Vet, Ulg Serv Obstet & Troubles Reprod, B44, Bld Colonster, B-4000 Liege, Belgium" "The prostate is the only major accessory sex gland in the dog. it accounts for numerous disorders in old intact male dogs. Diagnosis is often difficult because of the variety of clinical signs. However, the development of investigation techniques allows a better approach of the different pathologies. This article reviews the methods available for diagnosing the various disorders of the canine prostate gland. The prostate pathologies and their therapy are reviewed and discussed. ONCLIN, K.; LDM SILVA, J VERSTEGEN "Physiology and pathology of prostate gland in domestic carnivores .2." "Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 138: 8 (DEC 1994) Page(s) 537-549" "K. Onclin, Fac Med Vet, Serv Obstet & Troubles Reprod, B44, Bld Colonster, B-4000 Liege, Belgium" "In this second part, the prostate pathologies will be reviewed. These include benign or hystic hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, acute and chronic prostatitis, abscessation, cysts and neoplasia. The different treatments fo r each pathology are discussed, with their advantages and disadvantages. indeed, because of the rapid evolution in medicine, new therapeutic alternatives are proposed acid our therapeutic choice becomes larger and larger. RAWLINGS, C.A.; MAHAFFEY, M.B.; BARSANTI, J.A.; QUANDT, J.E.; OLIVER, J.E.; CROWELL, W.A.; DOWNS, M.O.; STAMPLEY, A.R.; ALLEN, S.W. "Use of partial prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs" "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","OCT 1 1997","211","7","868" "C.A. Rawlings/Univ Georgia/Coll Vet Med/Dept Small Anim Med/Athens, GA 30602 USA" "Objective - To determine whether dogs had prostatic disease, urinary incontinence, or urinary tract infection 1 year after partial prostatectomy to treat prostatic abscesses and cysts.%Design - Prospective study.%Animals - 20 male dogs with prostatic abscesses or cysts. Fifteen dogs had evidence of urinary tract infection. Only 8 dogs urinated normally; the remainder dribbled, had obstructions, or required medical treatment.%Procedure - Partial prostatectomy was performed on each dog. Sexually intact dogs (n = 12) also were castrated.%Results - None of the dogs had return of prostatic cystic enlargement or clinical signs of prostatic disease during the first year after surgery. Two dogs were euthanatized within 1 year after surgery, with 1 dog having prostatic enlargement and adenocarcinoma and 1 dog having unrelated lymphosarcoma. Fifteen dogs were continent. The remaining 5 dogs urinated normally but had intermittent and minor incontinence. Eleven dogs had no signs of 102 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. infection 1 year after surgery, 5 had pyuria or positive urine bacteriologic culture results, 2 did not have urinalysis performed, and 2 were euthanatized.%Clinical Implications - Dogs with severe prostatic abscesses or cysts and infections can be successfully treated by partial prostatectomy with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator and castration, resulting in long-term disease resolution. Although most dogs with severe prostatic disease do not urinate normally before surgery, nearly all dogs resume normal micturition after partial prostatectomy. Postoperative results of partial prostatectomy appear to be better than those of previous drainage techniques for treatment of prostatic cavitary disease." RINCK, J.; RINCK, R.; RINCK, M.; SABOCANEC, R.; CULJAK, K.; NJARI, B.; HADIOSMANOVIC, A.; VUCEMILO, M. "Prostate diseases in the dog" "Acta Veterinaria Brno","MAR 1998","67","1","59" "J. Rinck/Ludwigsbrunnen 26/D-61184 Karben, Germany" "A retrospective study is presented of prostatic diseases diagnosed in 32 dogs over a period of 26 years in a private veterinary practice. Of the 32 diseased dogs, 19 patients were aged 6-10 years, 11 dogs were 11-15 years of age, and 2 animals were younger than 5 years. An unusual case of prostate carcinoma in a 2-year-old Dobermann is documented.%Based on clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic examination completed by bacteriological and laboratory tests, prostatitis was diagnosed in 6 animals. In 26 dogs prostatic hyperplasia was found by rectal examination, and elevated serum acid phosphatase concentration indicated neoplasms. Hormone therapy (Cyproteronacetate, Diethylstilbestrol) was used in 21 dogs with hyperplastic prostate for 4 weeks. However, four months later all dogs were castrated as hyperplasia reoccurred. Castration resulted in a permanent improvement in ca 40 % of patients. Hyperplasia tended to diminish after castration, and in material collected 6 months later by fine- needle transurethral biopsy, carcinoma was still diagnosed in 3 dogs.%Our findings confirm more frequent prostastic diseased in aged dogs. Occurrence and frequency of prostatic rumours in dogs can be ascribed to hormonal dysbalance. Hormone therapy cannot cure the malignancies but may bring relief. Castration is the method of choice." ROGERS, K.S.; WALKER, M.A.; DILLON, H.B. "Transmissible venereal tumor: A retrospective study of 29 cases" "Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association","1998","34","6","463-470" "Rogers K.S./Texas A&M Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Small Anim Med & Surg/College Stn,TX 77843 USA" "Twenty- nine cases of naturally occurring, transmissible venereal tumor were studied retrospectively. The external genitalia was the primary site of tumor involvement in 27 dogs, with the remaining two dogs having primary intranasal involvement. Extragenital tumor involvement was identified in six cases, including five cases with metastatic disease. Fifteen cases were treated effectively with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy also was effective in four cases that were resistant to chemotherapy. Four of five cases treated with at least four doses of vincristine as a solitary agent also achieved complete remissions. Transmissible venereal tumor remains a unique canine tumor that often is curable despite the development of extragenital primary lesions or metastasis.","","0587-2871","Amer Animal Hospital Assoc/PO Box 150899/Lakewood/CO 80215-0899" 103 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. SASSNAU, R. "Hypospadia penis and other malformations in a tomcat" "Praktische Tierarzt","1999","80","4","276+","German Article" "Sassnau R./Sudstern 2/D-10961 Berlin/GERMANY" "The lower disjunction of the ureter, hypospadia is an uncommon malformation in animals. This paper describes hypospadia in a tomcat. Besides hypospadia other malformations are seen in this patient. Embryology, pathogenesis as well as etiology of hypospadia are described and compared with the incidence in other species and man.","","0032-681X","Schlutersche Verlag Druckerei/Georgswall 4/W-3000 Hanover 1/Germany" 104 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A. INDICE Páginas PARTE I CAPÍTULO I INFERTILIDAD - INFECUNDIDAD - ESTERILIDAD 02-45 02-05 CAPÍTULO I I 05-11 TRASTORNOS FUNCIONALES de INFERTILIDAD o de ESTERILIDAD en la HEMBRA CAPÍTULO I I I AFECCIONES de las VIAS GENITALES de la HEMBRA 11-16 CAPÍTULO I V FACTORES GENÉTICOS de ESTERILIDAD o de INFERTILIDAD 16-18 CAPÍTULO V ENFERMEDADES QUE AFECTAN LA REPRODUCCIÓN 18-39 CAPITULO V I NUTRICIÓN e INFERTILIDAD 39-42 CAPITULO V I I INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD del MACHO 42-44 CAPITULO V I I I 44-45 ENFOQUE CLÍNICO de la INFERTILIDAD y de la ESTERILIDAD del MACHO PARTE I I 46-104 ANEXO I ACTUALIZACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA COMPLEMENTARIA 46-69 ANEXO I I FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en EQUINOS I.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en YEGUAS II.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en PADRILLOS 70-86 ANEXO I I I FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en CANINOS y FELINOS I.- HEMBRA I I.- MACHO 87-104 70-80 80-86 87-96 96-104 105 Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
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