Arlington SIOP Template for Planning Units and Lessons SAMPLE PLAN

Arlington SIOP Template for Planning Units and Lessons
Teachers are expected to plan meaningful lessons that promote concept development and integrate language and
content. In accordance with best practices, your lesson plans should incorporate the following components.
1) UNIT/LESSON TOPIC: Making Inferences: The Blind Men and the Elephant
Proficiency/Grade Level: Grades 3-5 Language Arts, also applicable for Secondary HILT A/B
Time Frame: 3 lessons
2) ENDURING UNDERSTANDING (What are the big ideas that students will understand about this topic?)
• We use clues and background knowledge to make inferences
3) ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS (What provocative questions will guide inquiry and learning?)
• What is an inference?
• When do you make inferences in your life?
• Why is making inferences important when you read?
4) STANDARDS (What English Language Proficiency standards and content standards will be addressed?)
• 3.5a, Draw conclusions about character and plot (fiction)
• 3.6d, Draw conclusions (nonfiction)
• 4.5d, Make simple inferences, using information from texts (nonfiction)
• 4.5e, Draw conclusions, using information from texts (nonfiction)
WIDA English Language Proficiency Standard 2: English language learners communicate information, ideas and
concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts
Content Objectives (How will students be able to demonstrate content knowledge?)
Students will be able to
• Make inferences using information from the text
• Recognize a situation requiring an inference
Language Objectives (How will students be able to demonstrate reading, writing, listening and speaking skills?)
Students will be able to
• Read: Read a Reader’s Theater script fluently; make inferences from poems
• Write: Write inferences about animals
• Listen: Make, confirm or revise predictions as they listen to a story; listen to a partner’s description and
make an inference
• Speak: Explain how they made an inference; speak fluently and with expression in a Reader’s Theater
6) LEARNING STRATEGIES (What learning strategies, such as Previewing, Predicting, using Graphic Organizers
or timelines will be incorporated?)
Make/revise predictions; read for clues; make inferences
inference; infer; blind; elephant; trunk; tusk; spear; fan; rope; wise
• Sentence strip “Make an Inference”
• Box or bag in which to put the following objects: paper plate, cup, napkin, knife, fork, spoon
• The Blind Men and the Elephant, retold by Karen Backstein, Scholastic, Inc.
• Readers Theater script, “The Blind Men and the Elephant”
• Poem “What in the World” by Eve Merriam
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 1
Poems such as “Good Morning”, “The School Bell” and “Gym” from The Bug in the Teacher’s Coffee and
Other School Poems, by Kalli Dakos
Graphic Organizer
Ia) What concrete experience will introduce the topic, activate background knowledge and help make a
meaningful connection to students’ lives and prior learning?
Prior to class, create a Book Box:
1. Place the following objects in a box or a gift bag:
a. Paper cup
b. Paper plate
c. Napkin
d. Knife, fork, and spoon
2. Tell students they will play a guessing game. Items will be pulled out of a box one by one, and they
will have to guess what the last item will be.
3. Ask a student to pull one item out of the bag. Ask student or class to name the object and how it is
4. Continue with each remaining item until there is only one left. Ask students to guess what that object
might be before pulling it out.
Ib) How will students analyze and reflect on this concrete experience?
Have students turn to a partner and talk about why they made their particular guess. Have students share with
class, and list some of the clues students used. Show the sentence strip “Make an inference”. Tell students that
they were making an inference when they made their predictions about what each new object was going to be.
IIa) How will you make the connection between the concrete experience and the new concept, while previewing
the topic and emphasizing the key vocabulary?
Explain that we make inferences all the time when we make a guess about something using clues and what we
know. Review the list of clues that students used to guess the last item above, and how students used their
background knowledge about eating utensils.
To give another example of inferencing, ask a student to lay his head on his arm on the desk. Ask the class why
a student might have his head down like that. What inference can we make? Show this sentence frame:
“I infer that (Antonio) is _________ because ____________.” We could say, for example, “I infer that Antonio is
tired because his eyes are closed. “ Ask students to think how else they could finish that sentence, then turn and
tell their idea to a partner.
IIb) How will you teach the concept?
1. Explain that we also make inferences when we read, that we use clues from the text and what we already
know. Tell students you are going to read them a story about blind men who had to make some inferences.
Show them the cover of The Blind Men and the Elephant, and ask them to predict what will happen.
2. Introduce key vocabulary before reading the story: blind, elephant, trunk, tusk, spear, fan, rope, wise.
3. As you read the story, let students make and revise predictions. Ask them why they made their predictions.
4. Emphasize the prince’s words when he says, “So, you are all right. But you are all wrong, too. For each of
you touched only one part of the animal. To know what an elephant is really like, you must put all those
parts together.”
5. With the students, come to an understanding of what inference is: using clues and your own background
knowledge to come to a conclusion. In reading, it is when the reader uses clues in the story along with
his/her own knowledge to understand what the author is trying to say.
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
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IIIa) This is where you stop talking! How will students reinforce new knowledge and skill development using
reading/writing/listening/speaking, while interacting with each other?
Hand out copies of the Readers Theater script and have students read the story in groups. Have students highlight
the sentences that show when each man is making an inference.
IIIb) How will students add their own touch to the concept?
Give students the poem, “What In The World?” to read with a partner. Other poems may be selected for students
with less language proficiency. Each student will then fill in a graphic organizer about making inferences to
record the poem clues, what is already known, and the inference.
Students can compare their answers and tell how they were able to make their inferences.
IVa) What will students do to start applying—or doing something with—their new knowledge in an authentic
a) Have students write a description of an animal, keeping the name a secret. This can be done on a paper for
posting. Under a flap they can draw or glue a picture of the animal.
b) Students can also be instructed to monitor their thinking over the next week to notice when they make
inferences throughout the day. At the end of the week, students can share where else in their lives they made an
inference. To prepare, ask students for other situations in their every day lives in which they make inferences. If
they have trouble coming up with an idea, give some “everyday” examples. For example, if you smell food
cooking in the kitchen and your mother calls you to come downstairs, what can you infer? Perhaps that it’s time
to eat. Another example, if your toys are all over the floor and your mother is calling your name, what can you
infer? Perhaps that she is angry that you didn’t pick up your toys. What clues and background knowledge would
help you make those inferences? Students may be given students a tracking sheet to record their experiences
making inferences for the next week.
IVb) How will students share their final product?
a) Students can share their descriptions with partners through a “Conga Line” activity (students line up in two
facing rows. One side goes first to read their description. The other side says, “I infer that your animal is
_________because I know that _________”. Then they switch roles. After both sides have shared, one row
moves one person to the left and the process repeats. Animal inference posters can be displayed in the room
under the title, “Make an Inference”.
b) At the end of the week, each student shares an experience they had making an inference.
10) DIFFERENTIATION/ACCOMMODATIONS/ADAPTATIONS (How will you adapt the content, product or
process to meet the needs of all learners?)
Having students act out the Readers Theater allows for easier or more difficult parts to be assigned so that everyone can
participate in the reading. Likewise, having students read the poem with a partner allows students to help each other
with the decoding and comprehension of different language proficiency levels. Different poems may be chosen for
students to meet their language proficiency levels.
11) FORMATIVE/SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS (How will you know if students have mastered your objectives?)
1. Students will arrive at correct or logical inferences when reading the assigned poem.
2. Students will be able to discuss their use of inference during reading in guided reading groups.
12) HOME-SCHOOL CONNECTION (How will families have the opportunity to connect with the learning
experience of their child?)
Students can take home both their animal inferences and the poem, “What In The World?” to see if their parents or
siblings can guess the answers. Students can then tell them that they are making inferences. This is a good game to
play on car trips much like “20 Questions.”
Plan developed by Nancy Belcher, Elementary ESOL/HILT Specialist
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 3
What In The World
What in the world
goes whiskery friskery
meowling and prowling
napping and lapping
at silky milk?
What is it?
What in the world
goes leaping and beeping
onto a lily pad onto a log
onto a tree stump or down to the bog?
Splash, blurp,
What in the world
goes gnawing and pawing
scratching and latching
sniffing and squiffing
nibbling for tidbits of left-over cheese?
What in the world
jumps with a hop and a bump
and a tail that can thump
has pink pointy ears and twitchy nose
looking for anything crunchy that grows?
A carroty lettucey cabbagey luncheon
To munch on?
What in the world
climbs chattering pattering swinging from trees
like a flying trapeze
with a tail that can curl
like the rope the cowboys twirl?
Here’s a banana for you!
What in the world
goes stalking and balking
running and sunning
thumping and dumping
lugging and hugging
swinging and singing
wriggling and giggling
sliding and hiding
throwing and knowing and growing and growing
much too big for last year’s clothes?
Who knows?
Eve Merriam
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 4
More poems for practicing the use of inference
From The Bug in Teacher’s Coffee and Other School Poems, by Kalli Dakos
Good Morning
My hallways are clean,
My classrooms are too,
Good morning,
Good morning,
I’m ready for you.
My head is aching,
Bong! Bong! Bong!
My windows are shining,
This day is brand new,
Good morning,
Good morning,
I’m waiting for you.
The balls are bouncing
All day long.
I’m trying so hard
To be strong.
My head is aching,
Bong! Bong! Bong!
The School Bell
At the end of the day,
I start to sing,
Five seconds,
Four seconds,
Three seconds,
Two seconds,
One second,
Then I
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 5
Reader’s Theater: The Blind Men and the Elephant
Blind Man 1
Blind Man 2
Blind Man 3
Blind Man 4
Blind Man 5
Blind Man 6
Long ago and far away, there lived six blind men. Although these men could not
see, they learned about the world in many ways.
They could hear the music of the flute with their ears.
They could feel the softness of silk with their fingers.
They could smell the scent of food cooking and taste its spicy flavor.
One day, the blind men heard some exciting news.
Man #1:
I heard that the prince has a new elephant at his palace.
Man #2:
I have never seen an elephant.
Man #3:
I wonder what an elephant is like.
Man #4:
Let’s go to the prince’s palace.
Man #5:
Then we can find out what the elephant is really like.
Man #6:
It’s a long walk to the palace, but I can’t wait to touch the elephant.
The blind men were met by the prince’s guard.
Hello, welcome to the prince’s palace. May I help you?
We would like to touch the prince’s new elephant.
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
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Of course you may touch the elephant. I am sure the prince will not mind.
Where is the elephant?
He is standing in the garden. You may each touch him, one at a time.
Man #1:
Oh, he is strong and wide!
Man #2:
Oh, he is long and round!
Man #3:
Oh, he is smooth and pointed!
Man #4:
He is round and firm!
Man #5:
Well, I think he is very big and he flaps in the breeze!
Man #6:
He is long and thin!
Now that you have met the elephant, would you like to rest in the shade of the
tree? I will bring you some water.
Man #1:
Well, no one told me that the elephant is like a wall.
Man #2:
A wall? Oh, no. It is like a snake.
Man #3:
No, an elephant is clearly like a spear.
Man #4:
What? An elephant is like a tree.
Man #5:
A wall? A snake? A spear? A tree? You are all wrong! An elephant is like a fan.
Man #6:
No! It is like a rope!
All men:
A wall! A snake! A spear! A tree! A fan! A rope!
Their noise woke up the prince.
Quiet! I am trying to sleep! What are you fighting about?
Man #1:
We are sorry. But we cannot agree on what an elephant is like.
Man #2:
We each touched the same animal.
Man #3:
But to each of us the animal is completely different.
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 7
Let me try to explain.
The elephant is a very large animal.
Its side is like a wall.
Its trunk is like a snake.
Its tusks are like spears.
Its legs are like trees.
Its ears are like fans.
And its tail is like a rope.
Man #4:
So we are all right.
Man #5:
But we are all wrong, too.
Man #6:
How can that be true?
Each of you touched only one part of the animal. To know what an elephant is
really like, you must put all those parts together.
You see, the prince is a very wise man.
I will tell you something else about the elephant. It is very good to ride on. Now
you will ride on it all the way home.
And so the six blind men rode on the elephant all the way home. And they all
agreed that was the best part of all.
Readers Theater format by N. Belcher
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 8
Making Inferences
Name: ________________________
Title of Poem: ______________________________________
Directions: Use clues from the poem and what you already know to make inferences about
what the poem is talking about.
Poem Clues
What I Know
Adapted from Reading A-Z, ProQuestLearning,
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 9
The Arlington SIOP Template for Planning Units and Lessons incorporates elements from four research-based
instructional models; 1) Understanding by Design (UbD), 2) the 4MAT Cycle (4MAT), 3) the Cognitive Academic
Language Learning Approach (CALLA) and 4) the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP).
Understanding by Design (UbD)
The UbD framework was designed by educators Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (2005). UbD’s goal is to construct
students' deep understanding of content and concepts. It emphasizes “backward design,” whereby the lesson or unit
planner looks at the outcomes of learning in order to design instruction or assessment. The "six facets of understanding"
is an essential component of UbD and there is an expectation that students will be able to explain, interpret, apply, have
perspective, empathize, and have self-knowledge about a given topic or concept. The premise of “teaching for
understanding” permeates UbD classrooms where teachers and students clearly state big ideas, essential questions,
performance requirements and evaluative criteria at the beginning of a lesson or unit. Students describe and distinguish
between big ideas and essential questions and the classroom environment holds high expectations for all.
The 4Mat Cycle (4MAT)
The 4MAT Cycle (4MAT) was developed by Bernice and Dennis McCarthy (2006) and is premised on learning styles
theory and research. The 4MAT distinguishes four major styles of learning and holds that learners have a natural or
learned preference for one over the others. The four different types of learners are 1) Innovative Learners: primarily
concerned with personal meaning and how new experiences and information relate to the self, 2) Analytic Learners:
primarily interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen an understanding of new concepts and information, 3) Common
Sense Learners: primarily interested in how things work and learn best from concrete experiences, and 4) Dynamic
Learners: primarily interested in self-directed discovery, rely heavily on their own intuition and benefit from teaching
others. The 4-MAT learning cycle has four components, each of which addresses and accommodates the four primary
learning styles so that everyone can learn in a way best suited to them while also learning to adapt and learn via other
styles. Movement around the 4Mat system begins and ends with "self", representing the "natural learning process."
The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
CALLA was developed by Anna Uhl Chamot and J. Michael O'Malley (1994) as an instructional model for English and
foreign language learners based on cognitive theory and research. Instruction in CALLA focuses on three components;
academic content, academic language, and learning strategies. The goals of CALLA are for students to learn essential
academic content and language and to become independent and self-regulated learners through an increasing command
over a variety of learning strategies for learning language in school. As such, learning strategies in CALLA are taught in
a direct rather than embedded fashion. CALLA lesson plans include five recursive components to include preparation,
presentation, practice, evaluation and expansion.
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
The SIOP model, developed by Jana Echevarria, MaryEllen Vogt, and Deborah Short (2008) in collaboration with ESOL
teachers, organizes research, theory, and practice in the field of language learning into a coherent framework consisting of
thirty features which are divided into eight components. The focus of the SIOP framework is to make academic content
comprehensible while developing students' academic English language skills through content instruction. While the
model incorporates many features of effective teaching for all students (i.e., cooperative learning, the integration of the
four language modalities), it includes features specifically designed to promote the academic success of ELLs in particular
(i.e., the inclusion of language objectives in content lessons, development of background knowledge). The SIOP
framework serves as an "umbrella" by which districts, schools, and teachers can fit their existing instructional programs.
Chamot, A. U. & O'Malley, J.M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language
Learning Approach. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English language learners: The SIOP
model. Boston, MA: Pearson.
McCarthy, B. & McCarthy, D. (2006). Teaching around the 4MAT cycle. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Arlington Public Schools, ESOL/HILT Office, 9-15-09
p. 10