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CONTENTS
Cover photograph
Rural Issues - Are you suffering from farm workaholism? In some
6
cases this problem can affect your farm productivity and health.
Weed Watch - Pampas grass once used as an ornamental plant
now poses a serious threat to our bushland.
On The Farm - There are potentially hundreds of diseases that can
Hamish Paton, Mountain Creek,
NSW takes a break and
inspects his set of tandem
offset
discs.
Hamish
is
establishing a pasture of Clover
Rye and Phalaris mix.
Cover Photo supplied by Ben
Simpson (02) 6020 4255.
This Month’s Sections
Rural issues
News Briefs
Weed Watch
Farm Tasks
Pest & Disease Matters
Healthy Goats
Dog Basics
Establishing a Pasture
Investigating Options
Eucalypts
Lavender
Olives
Viticulture
Personal Profiles
Warm blood horses
Cattle Report
Hanging a gate
Raising a poddy calf
What’s New
Subscriptions
Product Review
Coming Events
Lifestyle
Stock Trader
Classifieds
affect goats. Proper management will produce a healthy animal.
Working Dog Basics - We talk to an experienced breeder of
what to look for in a working dog and a few tips on how to train.
On-farm interviews
6
9
11
12
14
16
18
20
24
27
29
31
32
35
36
55
62
64
67
68
69
71
73
74
76
Establishing a pasture
Your options for developing a pasture from scratch.
Investigating farm options
How to find out if there a market for your produce.
Eucalypts for foliage
A budding potential for exporting Eucalypt stems.
Alpaca Fiesta
A preview about this popular event on the calender.
British cattle
Includes breeder information and the types of cattle
Marron
Over the last 25 years a viable industry has emerged.
Squab pigeons
A meat bird with potential to have a strong future.
Hanging a farm gate
How to fit your farm gate and avoid any sagging problems.
Raising a poddy calf
Correct feeding is essential for your calf to thrive.
11
16
18
20
24
27
38
44
56
58
62
64
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April 2005
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Small FARMS 3
The Editor’s
DESK
Small FARMS
Incorporating: Australian Small Farmer
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Postal address: P.O. Box 225 Bowral, NSW, 2576
Ph: (02) 4861 7778 Fax: (02) 4861 7779
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Publishers - Mike & Vanessa Boyde, Eddie Gacka
Editor - Tim Byrne
Stud Stock - Julia Arthur
Advertising Manager - Eddie Gacka (02) 4576 5296
Editorial ContributorsDavid Mason-Jones
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All material appearing in Small Farms is protected
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statements or errors and omissions made on any
editorial or advertising material published in this
magazine or any loss of material forwarded to the
Small Farms Magazine office.
It was a real treat to go and spend some time with
Manildra dog breeder and trainer Robert Cox. Robert and
Jenny's dogs were a pleasure to watch as he worked them
around a small mob of Merino weaners in the paddock,
constantly in control while never raising his voice or showing anger. Robert
provides a few tips on selection and what to do once you’ve got the dog.
Still on animals, we feature 11 pages of British cattle breeds. Be it British
White, Galloways, Welsh Black, Devon or Dexter, there is something for anyone
wanting to find out about these great animals.
Alpacas are also featured this month with our annual preview on the ever
popular Alpaca Fiesta. This event has grown in popularity over the years and
draws those interested in Alpacas from across the country.
In our Rural Issues section we take a close look at workaholism on the farm.
This problem affects people from all walks of life and can lead, in some
instances, to not only unproductive work and a weak bottom line, but also to
poor health down the track. We show you some of the warning signs.
Establishing a pasture is featured in our ‘Farming Know How’ section this
month. This is great reading for those who are looking to either improve or start
a pasture from scratch.
People who have a love of Australia's native trees and plants will be interested
in how growing eucalypts for the cut flowers and foliage market could become
part of the farming enterprise and provide a new source of farm income.
From a ‘How To’ point of view, we take look at what is involved with hanging
a gate and the correct way to feed a poddy calf.
■ Tim Byrne
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April 2005
RURAL ISSUES - Workaholism on the farm
Creeping danger
on the farm
By David Mason-Jones
To begn this article I need
to start with a story about
my work as a journalist.
Some
time
ago
I
telephoned a successful
farmer and asked for an
appointment to visit, take
some pictures and write a
story. He agreed. Then we
started negotiating the
time and date for my call.
A long weekend was
approaching so I suggested
that I call out on the
Monday of the public
holiday. I had slipped into a
work habit of ignoring
public holidays and knew
that most farmers did the
same. To my surprise, his
response was short and
sharp, “That’s the weekend.
Monday’s a public holiday. I
will not do it then.” The
tone in his voice also
indicated he thought I was
crazy to ask for a business
appointment
on
the
weekend.
This man had a good
reputation as a profitable
and hard working farmer.
Despite this, he did not
work on a 24 hour a day,
seven day a week basis and
his determination to take
proper rest may be one of
the keys to his success. I
have since compared him
with other farmers who
look perpetually worn down
and tired and I have
concluded that overwork is
a danger to farming
efficiency.
The problem affects the
bottom line: Workaholism although it may be the
subject of much myrth and
humour - is no joke. This is
because it affects the
efficiency and productivity
of the farm and the farmers
who are affected by it.
Contrary
to
most
expectations,
true
6 Small FARMS
workaholics are not usually
productive workers - they
are often people who work
very hard for a poor
productivity
return.
Because the productivity of
the true workaholic falls
over time, the productivity
of the farm also slips. The
long term effect of
workaholism on the bottom
line of the farm is
disastrous.
Hard
work
and
workaholism distinguished:
The mere fact of a person
working hard or working
for long hours is not, in
itself, an example of
workaholism. Most of us
pride ourselves on our
ability to work hard.
What becomes the
problem is where the
process of work itself - not
the positive results of work becomes the stimulus and
reward for the worker.
Therefore,
when
the
workaholic
farmer’s
efficiency drops, he/she just
works harder for yet longer
hours and still feels good
about it. The worker is the
last to see the problem
because he/she is addicted
to work.
Awareness in other parts of
the world: Figures from
other parts of the world
indicate that longer and
longer working hours are
taking their toll in all
industries and in all
countries. The Japanese
karoshi involves working
yourself to death. We don’t
think that Australian
farmers work themselves to
death but they do.
Research shows that
Australians are working
longer
hours.
The
percentage of those working
only a 40-hour week
dropped by 10% between
1983-1998.
Farm workaholism is
The ability to work hard, such as when the
harvest demands, is highly valued in the farming
community.
unseen: In many city
workplaces it is possible for
a person’s workmates or
management to see the
signs of workaholism.
The problem on the farm
is that many small farmers
are self employed and work
in isolation. There is often
no-one there to be able to
see that the farmer is
slipping into workaholism.
Worse still, many small
farms are run by a husband
and wife team and it is not
uncommon for them both
to work hard and for long
hours.
Because
their
addiction to work is not
seen by others, there is a
danger that they both
slowly become addicted to
work - become workaholics
- and are unable to help
each other.
In these situations some
sort of tie breaker is needed
- and this may be as simple
as taking some time out to
do a self test. The tie
breaker may also involve
looking closely at how other
successful farmers work and
asking the question, “Are
these
people
more
successful than I because
they are working harder for
longer?
Workaholic farmers loose
sight of priorities: Setting
the correct order of
priorities is a key technique
behind
effective
and
productive work in any
industry, including farming.
A set of priorities means
that the farmer directs
his/her work effort to the
most important tasks first
and leaves the least
important tasks till later or, possibly, never actually
completing
the
least
important tasks at all.
Always assessing work
priorities so that the most
productive things are done
ahead
of
the
least
productive things increases
the probability of the farm
being productive. The
problem for the workaholic
farmer is that all work tasks
merge
into
one
insurmountable heap of
work that is never ending.
April 2005
RURAL ISSUES - Workaholism on the farm
Workaholic farmers may
also choose to do the
hardest work first - because
they are addicted to it rather than doing the
highest priority which may
be less demanding.
Proper rest restores the
ability of the farmer to see
the work priorities more
clearly.
Binge working: Binge
working can be a trigger to
workaholism.
Binge
working is the type of
situation where there is a
need to put in a huge effort
and long work hours to
meet a special challenge.
This may happen at periods
of high demand on farms
such as seeding time or
harvest time.
In these situations it may
be common for the farmer
to work long hours for
several weeks straight. And
this huge burst of work is
usually necessary and
effective. But the danger is
that the farmer sees how
well he/she performed at
this time of stress and forms
the wrong belief that he/she
can do this all the time.
Periods of high intensity
work - such as occur on
farms - must be followed by
periods of rest. This is not
slacking, it is making sure
that the mind and body can
actually work at the longterm optimum level.
Setting boundaries: One of
the personal skills to avoid
workaholism
to
set
boundaries around our
work and our non-work
time. This may be harder
on a farm where your
personal residence is right at
your work.
The problem for the
workaholic farmer is the
inability to set the
boundaries clearly between
what is “life” and what is
“work”.
Many hard working
people can set the
boundary. They work hard
for the required time or task
but then set the boundary
and move to their private
April 2005
lives. For the workaholic
this becomes much harder
and “work” and “life” all
merge in to one.
If you think you may be
slipping into workaholism,
set some boundaries to
differentiate what is work
and what is life. At first
these
may
seem
inconvenient and silly - but
try them. These could
include; not allowing
yourself to the machinery
shed before a certain time
in the morning, a rule to
take an hour off for lunch at
a certain time each day, a
rule to take a definite day
off per week, a rule to
change into non-working
clothes when the work day
is over, and so on. Whatever
the rules, you are the one
who gets to make them.
You are in control. But,
whatever
they
are,
discipline yourself to obey
them as if you were your
own employee.
Role of self assessment: As
self-employed people most
farmers
have
the
responsibility to manage
themselves and identify the
problems
in
their
businesses. Workaholism is
one of these potential
problems.
The small farmer is in a
position to watch for the
danger sign of working very
hard but not really getting a
lot done. In this context the
small farmer should ask the
question, “Why am I
working so hard but
achieving so little?”
Many workaholics find it
impossible to identify their
problem by themselves.
They know something is
wrong with their work/life
balance, they know they are
suffering work related stress
- but they can’t see the
underlying problem.
The answer to why some
small farmers are working
so hard and achieving so
little may not necessarily be
that they are workaholics.
They may need skills
training or may need some
When the hard work is done, it is just as
important, to be able to take time off. This will
recharge the batteries. Continuous hard work can
reduce a persons productivity.
small farmers may need to
other management training
look at the concept of
but workaholism is one of
farming workaholism. They
the potential reasons and
may need to think about
farmers should be aware of
the idea that farmers have,
it.
theoretically, the best
Conclusion: With the
potential work/life balance
interest that is taking place
in society and that
in industry-at-large at the
workaholism is a sure way
moment with the concept
of ruining this. ■
of the work/life balance,
Signs that may indicate your
slipping into workaholism...
1. You get anxious if you
have to stop working.
2. You feel disconnected
and remote from your
children.
3. Work continually forces
objectionable family
compromises.
4. You get more excited
about your work than
anything else.
5. You take work with you
to bed, days off or
vacation.
6. You work more than 40
hours a week.
7. Your family or friends
have given up expecting
you on time.
8. You take on extra work
as you are the only reliable
person.
9. You think it’s is okay to
work long hours so long as
you love your work.
10. Your long hours have
hurt your family or other
relationships.
11. You get irritated when
people ask you to stop
doing your work.
12. You work or read
during meals.
13. You eat in front of the
computer.
14. You eat in the car, ute
or tractor.
Small FARMS 7
SMALL FARMS NEWS BRIEFS
El Nino predictions
for next few months
The US-based weather
forecaster, NOAA, says El
Nino like conditions in the
Pacific Ocean, are likely to
weaken in the next three
months.
NOAA says it’s monitoring
a very weak warm episode
in the Pacific Ocean.
But Dr Roger Stone from
Queensland’s Centre for
Climate
Applications
believes those statements are
premature, with some
ominous signs in the
Pacific.
“Two things that have
happened over the last
month or two is that we’ve
had very, very strong
westerly wind bursts along
the equator, and that can
often lead to some sort of El
Nino event developing two
or three months down the
track.
“But it’s still early in the
year, so these signs may be
just short-term spikes and
nothing more to worry
about or maybe it could be
something
far
more
sinister.”
Dr Stone agrees with the
National Climate Centre
that the chance of an El
Nino returning is still a
fifty per cent chance. ■
Farmer numbers are
still in a decline
A new National Australia
Bank report says Australia
will be left with just
100,000 farmers by 2020,
if the move to bigger farms
and large-scale production
continues.
Government estimates
have the current number of
farmers
at
194,000,
although Mike Carroll from
the NAB believes it’s more
like 130,000.
He says falling populations
will continue to put
pressure on small country
towns, but the farmers that
are left will be switched on,
April 2005
highly productive and very
professional.
“These farmers will be
looking for new ideas,
receptive to outside advice
and
embrace
new
technology.
“They don’t do things out
of habit and also really
understand
what
is
important in their business.
“They understand what it
is
that
drives
the
profitability of the business.
“I think they also take
risks, but they know pretty
well what the downside is,
and they normally have a
fallback strategy if things
doesn’t go according to
plan.” ■
‘George’ the wether
turns twenty one
It’s not every day you hear
of a sheep reaching the
grand old age of 21.
Meat quality and wool
clip usually limit a wether’s
lifespan to six years, but
that’s nothing for one
special member of the
Tolhurst family from Willie
Station, north of Warren in
New South Wales.
Myra Tolhurst said the
orphaned lamb they found
all those years ago is still
producing a wool clip.
“He’s a beautiful merino,
and has a lovely nature.
“Each year when we get
him shorn, the contractor
always remarks, ‘Oh, he’s
not still around is he?’
“He’s quite surprised that
he’s still with us, but he
personally shears George
and he’s very gentle with
him, and takes a lot of care
with him.” ■
The vineyard equipment is
placed in the shed, where
the temperature is raised to
45°C to kill any possible
insect infestation.
The tiny root-boring insect
has devastated vineyards
around the world, but is
present in just a few small
areas of Victoria and New
South Wales.
Peter Hackworth from the
Phylloxera and Grape
Industry Board says it’s a
vital part of keeping the
insect out of South
Australia.
“I think it’s part of a raft of
measures that you need to
have in place to keep our
vineyards
clean
from
phylloxera.
“One of the things that
makes our wines unique is
the age of our vines.
“Very few people realise
that we have the oldest
commercial vines in the
world because we’ve never
been subject to this
problem.” ■
Finding the problem
for sheep arthritis
Lamb producers scratching
their head over seasonal
arthritic lameness in lambs
may soon have their
questions answered.
Sarah Robson is looking
into ways to crack the
mystery behind arthritis in
lambs which in severe cases
can affect to to 100 percent
of sheep in a flock.
Prime lamb producers are
fed up with the problem
and
have
no
real
explanation for the cause.
According to Ms Robson,
trials
are
currently
underway on a number of
properties.
“Lambs become severely
lame and reluctant to move
with joints swelling up
which
can
lead
to
permanent damage.
The suspect cause is a
micro-organism
called
Chlamydia, but this has not
been proven. ■
A heat shed to beat
Phylloxera in SA
Efforts to contain the
vineyard insect phylloxera
have been stepped up, with
the opening of the
country’s first public heat
shed on South Australia’s
Limestone Coast.
Small FARMS 9
WEED WATCH - Pampas grass
Garden ornament
invades bushland
Pampas Grass, (Cortaderia
selloana) from the Poaceae
family, is a tall coarse grass
with an attractive flower
head that can grow into
large impenetrable clumps
measuring many metres in
diameter and more than
two metres high.
It is a native of South
America and two other
related species, pink pampas
(Cortaderia jubata) and
toetoe (Cortaderia richardii)
are found in New Zealand
and Tasmania. In the latter
they are important weeds.
The flower spike is clearly
visible in season and the
grass blades are very abrasive
to the touch. It is a
perennial grass and the
plants usually flower in their
second year.
The flowers are large, silky,
white to pink spikes and
flowering time depends on
species type. The plume
may vary in colour from
white to pink or violet.
Female plants have large,
fluffy plumes and are
preferred by gardeners to
the smaller, more compact
plumes of bisexual plants.
Pampas grass has been
grown as a garden
ornamental plant but has
sometimes escaped from
cultivation and invaded
disturbed areas of urban
bushland. It is a serious
weed of forests, parks and
bushland in parts of
Tasmania and New South
Wales.
As the leaf edges are finely
serrated, they can easily slice
the skin leaving irritating
welts and cuts.
It is mainly spread by
splitting
the
clump.
However there are two
sexual forms of the plant:
hermaphrodite (bisexual)
and female. The female
April 2005
plant does not usually form
viable seeds on its own, but
when fertilized by pollen
from a bisexual plant, it
produces 100,000 or more
viable seeds from each
flower head.
It is now spreading along
roadsides, into wastelands,
bushlands and forest areas
and is declared a secondary
and prohibited weed.
Where possible land
holders must eradicate these
plants.
Due
to
its
prohibition, it is illegal to
transport or propagate
pampas.
Pampas grass is extremely
invasive, rapidly colonising
areas such as drains,
firebreaks, road edges,
logged or burnt sites and
quarries.
It has already established
itself in both pine forests
and eucalypt regeneration
areas and in national parks.
Once established in the
under-story, Pampas Grass
is capable of completely
smothering all other plants,
creating dangerous fire
hazards.
Pampas Grass is capable of
producing up to 56 tons of
dry matter per hectare over
a three year period.
The control of pampas
grass requires continued
vigilance. Early removal of
plumes will prevent pollen
formation. If there is no
pollen to shed, no seeds will
form.
It is vital that the flowering
plumes are removed before
the pollen and seeds develop
and are dispersed by the
wind. Provided the plumes
are cut off well before seed
maturity, there is no risk of
seed dispersal, so plumes
can be kept as decoration or
disposed of in household
rubbish. If cutting is done
Once established, Pampas Grass has the ability
to smother all other plants.
positively effective. When
late in the season, the stems
doing this it is important to
should be handled very
wear heavy, long-cuffed
gently to prevent seed being
gloves, long sleeves and
shaken out.
trousers
for
personal
If there is a possibility of
protection. Plants must be
viable seed in the plumes,
left upside down with roots
place them in a large plastic
exposed to die.
garbage bag, secure tightly
Because pampas grass can
and leave to rot.
grow from old up-rooted
Repeat this each flowering
plants, do not dump live
season, although it can be
pampas grass root material
expected that picking will
as this may help it to spread.
become more difficult each
Larger clumps may best be
year as the size of the clump
destroyed by using the
increases.
chemical glyphosate, which
The permanent solution
is sold under various names.
for pampas grass is removal
Ask at your agricultural
and destruction.
chemical suppliers about
Grubbing out can be backproducts
containing
breaking, especially with
glyphosate. ■
larger clumps, but is
Small FARMS 11
FARM TASKS - Planning for your small farm
Avoid failure and
plan carefully
Farmers, be they managers
of plants or animals, are in
the
business
of
manipulating the resources
available to them in order
to produce end products
for sale or consumption.
The notion of a farmer as a
recipient of bad fortune
through weather, falling
markets and currency
fluctuations should be
tempered
with
an
appreciation of the skills
needed to juggle the
natural assets of the farm.
The reasons given by
people to justify their
purchase of a particular
small farm might include
the location (close to or far
enough away from relatives
and friends), a return to
family territory, favourable
climate, an agreeable price
as well as those related to
productivity
(soils,
irrigation
possibilities,
proximity to markets).
Some will purchase a farm
in a particular area and then
decide what to grow and
how to grow it, others will
have set in their mind what
they wish to produce and
then find a farm suited to
that
purpose.
Either
situation leads to the need
for the farmers to put the
assets available to them to
the optimum use for the
production
of
crops,
pastures, other plants and
animals.
History has recorded many
farm failures and mishaps,
some the responsibility of
individuals, while in some
cases governments have
sometimes settled farmers
into unsuitable areas. The
avoidance of failure in the
early years of farming can
be linked to careful
planning and the resistance
of a tendency to go “all out”
for success. A glance over
the fence and up the road
can be very helpful in the
formative stages of your
farming career.
The combination of soil
types, aspect, elevation, and
prevailing weather and
climate (wind, rain, hail,
snow, temperature) allow us
to grow different plants in
different areas. The range of
plants that will grow well in
your area will determine the
type and level of production
that may be carried out.
Newer varieties will be
released and trialed but a
conservative approach to
variety selection in your
early years is the safe option.
Newer varieties of seeds and
plants are covered by patent
rights and may be more
expensive to purchase in the
years following release.
Most areas where new
farmers are taking up
J O H N ' S
smaller blocks will still
include some long term
farmers who would have a
wealth of knowledge related
to plant management in
that
area.
A
great
investment could be time
spent
in
general
conversation with such
people to better understand
the farming issues from an
experienced campaigner.
Innovation in agriculture
in Australia has been a key
feature of the progress and
development up to the
point of an efficient and
rapidly-changing industry.
The uptake of new
technology by farmers is
often undertaken only after
the technology has been
field-trialed in a range of
locations.
Commercial operators can
sometimes see a clear
advantage in terms of cost
savings
in
labour,
machinery
and
time.
Owners of small farms
generally do not have the
room to move to make the
same scale of savings, nor
often do they have the
available capital to invest in
the latest technology.
If it seems that the small
farmer is unable to compete
with
the
commercial
operator, then this has
realistically always been the
case. Cost savings through
the increased scale of
production work in favour
of the larger farm in most
cases. Labour, machinery
and plant and equipment
require large investments,
and full-time use of
C L I P P E R
machinery can mean the
difference between efficient
operations and those that
are costly for the owner.
■ By Alan Woods, Dip.
App.Sci.Agr., Teacher of Ag,
Richmond TAFE, NSW.
Other farm tasks
In many areas cattle
owners are in the process
of weaning calves from
their mothers. This can be
a time of increased noise
levels for those in
neighbouring households.
It should only be a matter
of days until the peace is
restored. Fences may also
be put under some stress in
the process. A helpful hint
might be to place the
mothers on one side of a
fence that incorporates an
electric off-set wire and the
calves on the other side (it
may be better to have the
“hot” wire on both sides).
This allows sight contact
for both without allowing
the calves access to suckle.
Provision of some good
feed on both sides of the
fence will help smooth the
process.
As we approach the end
of autumn, the warm
season grasses are at the end
of their growing time.
Farmers in areas that do
not look forward to pasture
growth into the winter
months may be best
advised not to use the
slasher now, but retain the
carry over feed in winter. ■
C L I N I C
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12 Small FARMS
April 2005
PEST & DISEASE MATTERS - Protecting agriculture
Keep our country
clean and green
By Rebecca Yarrow
The range of crop species
comprising
Australian
agricultural production is
diverse. As well as the
major commodity crops we
commonly think of when
we think of “farming”,
farmers around the country
are successfully producing
innumerable niche market
and emerging crops as part
of commercial enterprises.
Many of the crop species
underpinning
our
agricultural systems aren’t
native species. Most have
been brought into Australia
from overseas at some time
in our history. Thankfully,
many of the pest and disease
species
that
limit
production in the crops’
country of origin haven’t
entered Australia.
Occasionally, exotic plant
pests or diseases breach our
border quarantine systems.
To minimise the impact of
new pests and maximise the
chances for eradication,
early detection of these
pests and diseases is crucial.
State and territory
agriculture departments,
such as Department of
Primary Industries and
Fisheries Queensland, play
a key role in detecting and
responding to exotic plant
pests and diseases. Border
breaches are not common,
but when they happen in
Queensland, DPI&F has a
team of plant health officers
ready to respond.
Exotic plant pests and
diseases may enter or spread
through various pathways:
1. Illegal imports of plants
or plant products such as
fresh fruit (often in hand
luggage)
2. Natural movement of the
pest species, such as
through wind dispersal
14 Small FARMS
3. Failure to detect the pest
at the quarantine inspection
point.
Special risks affecting
north Queensland: The
northern-most point of the
Queensland mainland is
only about 150km away
from Papua New Guinea.
Between the tip of Cape
York Peninsula and PNG is
a stretch of water called the
Torres Strait. The Torres
Strait is dotted with islands,
the closest less than 5km
from the PNG coastline.
These islands can act as
stepping stones for pests
from PNG to reach the
northern tip of mainland
Australia and act as a
potential pathway for the
entry of exotic pests and
diseases.
Periodical
incursions
have
been
detected in the Torres Strait,
including certain exotic
fruit flies and the mosquitoborne disease of humans
and animals, Japanese
Encephalitis.
DPI&F plant health
surveillance
activities:
DPI&F employs plant
health
scientists
and
inspectors in far North
Queensland
who
are
dedicated to detecting and
responding to new plant
pests in the north. DPI&F
plant
health
officers
throughout the rest of
Queensland play a major
role
in
maintaining
Queensland’s biosecurity
and protecting agricultural
industries from exotic plant
pests and diseases.
Remote area surveillance:
Under its Northwatch
program, DPI&F conducts
regular surveys in Cape
York Peninsula to detect any
new exotic plant pests and
to monitor the spread of
those that have already
entered our northern
Entomologist Jane Royer talks to Lockhart River
farmer John Pritchard. John collects fruit flies
from DPI&F monitoring traps in Lockhart.
border, but can’t be
eradicated.
Urban
surveillance:
DPI&F conducts general
surveillance in the major
port towns of Queensland.
These towns are centres for
trade, tourism and for
movement of people and
are considered high-risk
areas for plant pest
incursions. The surveillance
team visits home gardens
with a wide range of host
plants (food plants) to
survey for the presence of
target exotic pests.
Response,
eradication,
control: If an exotic plant
pest or disease is detected
DPI&F is responsible for
the response, which may
involve initial containment
of the pest, and eventual
eradication. It may involve
implementing
ongoing
controls.
Public Awareness: Public
awareness of exotic plant
pests and diseases is
extremely important to
ensure people know about
the risks of exotic plant
pests and who to contact if
they
see
something
suspicious on their farms.
Farmers are particularly
well placed to detect new
plant pests. If farmers and
members of the public are
aware of what to look out
for, they can form a strong
network
of
educated
individuals who can help
protect agriculture. DPI&F
aims to build on this public
knowledge so we can all
work together to protect
Australian
agriculture’s
clean green image.
To help achieve greater
public awareness, Small
Farms Magazine will feature
a monthly article about a
plant pest or disease that
could have a significant
impact on agriculture.
These articles are designed
to provide an entertaining
but informative read to
equip you with the
knowledge you need to
effectively monitor your
crops and gardens for the
presence of exotic plant
pests and diseases. Just as
importantly, each article
will tell you how to report
suspicious plant pests to the
appropriate authorities. ■
April 2005
ON THE FARM - Producing healthy goats
Don’t overstock
your property
By Tim Byrne
There are potentially
hundreds of diseases that
can affect goats, and other
livestock for that matter,
but the reality is that only a
handful of diseases will
significantly
have
a
commercial impact on
goats.
More importantly, these
diseases can be easily
managed to ensure healthy
animals and achieve the best
production possible.
One of the first things to
realise is that goats cannot
survive on “stones and old
tin cans”. They need a
proper,
balanced,
nutritional diet to ensure
healthy living and good
production.
Bruce McGregor is a
Senior Research Scientist
with
the
Victorian
Department of Primary
Industry, based at Attwood.
He said one of the problems
is that many people believe
goats can be sustained on
poor diets and feed.
He also stressed the fact
that it is a myth that a goat
is the same as one dry sheep
equivalent (DSE) and can
survive on that stocking
ratio.
He said breeding goats in
good conditions that are
managed well can easily
produce twins, but this
should be done at a rate of
2.5 to 3.0 DSE.
“If you’ve got 40 ha (100
acres) don’t try and run 100
goats,” he said.
“You might only be able to
run 40 does, but they will
be in much better condition
and more productive and
there will be less disease
than running 100 does on
that same area”.
A common rule for
estimating a property’s
16 Small FARMS
potential carrying capacity
or DSE is to relate pasture
production to rainfall. This
method is obviously a
generalised approximation
but it can be a useful
starting point.
Potential stocking rate
(DSE/ha) = [(Annual
rainfall mm - 250) x 1.3] /
25.
Bruce advised that it was
best to obtain advice from
Government Department
or consultant, as DSEs
depend on many factors
including pasture type,
fertiliser application, etc.
“The best rule of thumb is
to consult your state
government department
dealing
with
land
management,” he said.
“Departments
of
Agriculture
conducted
many
stocking
rate
experiments during the
1950s to the 1980s and it is
quite possible that an
experiment was conducted
in a district close to your
property.
“Your local agricultural
consultants can also provide
advice on the appropriate
carrying capacity for your
pasture
and
farm
management system.”
Goats, like sheep and
cattle, are just as susceptible
to disease like pulpy kidney,
tetanus
and
internal
parasites.
With pulpy kidney and
tetanus, Bruce said goats
can be easily vaccinated,
however, unlike sheep that
are vaccinated annually,
goats need a six-monthly
booster to ensure these
diseases do not affect them.
However, he said critical to
good production from goats
was the control of the
parasites.
He said goats are
particularly susceptible to
parasite infestation on
grazing properties where the
stocking rate is too high.
“The first thing people
must do is get the stocking
rate aligned with the
carrying capacity of the
property,” he said.
From research he has
carried out, Bruce has found
that goats have similar feed
requirements to sheep.
He said each land holder
had to determine the
suitable carrying capacity of
their property based on a
number
of
factors,
including soil type and
fertility, pastures, rainfall
and the like.
Another important aspect
of
ensuring
healthier
animals is to have a mixed
grazing regime and not have
100 per cent goats. It is
good to run sheep, or cattle,
or both, when running
goats.
Bruce said this could help
reduce parasite problems by
50 to 100 per cent.
The third step goat
breeders should take is to
undertake
a
worm
monitoring program. This
includes faecal egg counts
which can be conducted by
a consultant that will then
April 2005
ON THE FARM - Producing healthy goats
Consultants can advise the best approach for
your goat drenching program.
Running sheep or cattle with goats can help to
reduce parasite problems.
advise on the best approach
for eradication, which can
include a program of
drenching.
It was very common in
Australia for soil to be
deficient in minerals. This
results in pastures and often
in animals showing mineral
deficiency diseases.
Bruce said farmers need to
take action to supplement
goats and undertake a
program of improving
pastures to ensure that goats
do not suffer from mineral
April 2005
deficiency.
The most useful method of
establishing the grazing
stock numbers of a property
is to first determine the area
of the property in hectares
(ha) then determine the
potential carrying capacity
of the property in DSE/ha,
multiply the property area
by the carrying capacity to
calculate total available
DSEs and then apportion
the total available DSEs to
the various grazing animal
species.
“For example, an owner
wishes to calculate how
many breeding does can be
grazed on a 240 ha
property,” Bruce said.
“The average carrying
capacity of the farm is eight
DSE/ha. The breeding does
and their kids have a DSE
rating of 3.
The total available DSEs is
240 ha multiplied by 8
DSE/ha giving 1920 DSE.
The total number of does
(with their kids) which can
be grazed is 1920 divided by
3 giving a carrying capacity
of 640 does.”
Bruce said detailed studies
on the effects of stocking
rate of goats grazing annual
pastures
have
been
completed in Victoria.
“These studies also
examined the effects of
grazing goats with Merino
sheep and measurements
were made of body weight
changes, fibre production
and quality, carcass growth,
animal health, internal
parasites
and
pasture
availability
and
composition,” he said.
“As stocking rate increased
the availability of pasture
decreased,
pasture
composition changed and
pasture structure was
altered.
“The intake and diet
selection of the goats was
different to that of Merino
sheep grazing the same
pasture and the intake of
parasitic larvae was also
different. ■
■ For more information
contact your local livestock
officer with the department
of agriculture or primary
industry,
or
visit
www.dpi.vic.gov.au/notes
and follow the links to
goats.
Small FARMS 17
WORKING DOG BASICS
Selecting a good
working dog
By Tim Byrne
Selecting the right working
dog for an on-farm job is
not just a case of going and
picking a cute looking
puppy.
In fact, picking the puppy
because it is the cute one in
the litter could be the start
of a very disastrous
relationship.
Knowing what work the
dog is going to be used for
and how much livestock the
dog is required to control
are very important aspects
when going out to buy a
working dog.
Breeder and trainer Robert
Cox,
“Valley
View”,
Manildra, said dogs were
bred differently for the
various work to be done on
farm.
A quieter, or “softer” dog,
as Robert explains will react
very differently to the stock
than a “hard” dog. Also,
their training requirements
will be different.
Then there’s the work; one
dog might be great in the
paddock but not so good in
the stock yards, while
another will work hard in
the yards but be a handful
when mustering the stock
in the paddock.
Robert recommends that
people with smaller land
holdings look for a softer
dog.
“You must buy a dog that
fits your needs,” Robert
said.
“You don’t want an over
exuberant dog if it is only
going to work once a
fortnight.
“Do you want a dog to
work the paddock, a dog to
work yards, or a dog to do
both?
“And don’t buy a pup that
is pushed onto you if you
18 Small FARMS
don’t like it.”
When looking at a puppy
that is going to work on a
smaller farm, buyers should
look for a calmer puppy, but
one that will look you in the
eye.
“Don’t buy the boisterous
one because it will be more
work,” he said.
“It you are not 100 per
cent happy, be prepared to
say no.”
If possible, look at the
dog’s parents working sheep
or cattle.
“This gives a good
indication of what the dog
might turn out like,” he
said.
Once the puppy has been
bought and comes back to
the farm, Robert said it has
to be treated differently to a
house dog.
“It can be part of the
family, but it must be
treated differently than the
house dog and it must be
taught some rules,” he said.
“You don’t have to bully
the pup, but there must be
some rules, the pup must
know who’s the boss and
you must be consistent.”
These are what Robert calls
his life rules for the puppy.
For example, if Robert was
walking from one area in his
shed to another and the dog
was lying on the ground in
the pathway, he would
make the dog move out of
the way, rather than walking
around the dog. This
reinforces the relationship
between the dog and the
owner.
Robert said when the dog
is still young there is no
need for a lot of commands,
but some are needed.
The most important is the
come call and the dog must
come when called.
“If the dog has respect for
the owner’s personal space
and you have a good come
call, this will get a dog out
of trouble,” Robert said.
“But never chastise a dog
for coming,” he said.
According to Robert some
dog owners come unstuck
because
of
being
inconsistent so if the dog is
doing something wrong, go
to the dog and discipline it.
If it is doing something
wrong and the owner calls it
to come, the dog comes and
then is reprimanded, it will
be confused because it
thinks
it
is
being
reprimanded for coming
when called.
“It’s just common sense to
get manners into a dog,”
Robert said.
Another important aspect
is constraining the puppy.
Work dogs like Kelpies and
Border Collies are natural
hunters, which is what
makes them ideal for
working with livestock.
This also means that if left
alone, unrestrained and not
busy, they will wander and
look for something to do,
which would usually result
in them finding livestock.
According to Robert, in
extreme cases this can lead
to a dog killing livestock.
“It is important to know
where the pup is, so it won’t
get into trouble,” Robert
said.
“Constraining a dog later
in life only confuses it when
it starts getting older.
“You have to have rules for
the puppies from six weeks
old.”
Robert said a smaller scale
farmer who might run
about 100 sheep and have
never owned a working dog
before would be better
April 2005
WORKING DOG BASICS
Robert Cox pictured here working his dogs in the
paddock.
dog training schools, with
the assistance of Pedigree,
for both working and nonworking dogs, including
schools in Sydney for
people who own working
dogs as pets. ■
■ Contact Robert and
Jenny on (02) 6264 5164.
Robert Cox, “Valley View”, Manildra, with sixweek old Butch and nine-year-old Gin who is the
current NSW Yard Dog Champion.
getting a soft dog.
He said this type of dog,
when trained, will hold the
perimeter of the flock
together, but will not push
the sheep along, which the
owner would have to do.
That is compared with a
harder dog that will bring
the flock together and then
push it to where the owner
wants the stock.
These dogs that will push
the stock, however, require
much more work than the
style of dog that will just
hold the perimeter together.
Robert said the basic
principle is that the dog
should stay outside the
stock,
working
the
perimeter and not going
into the middle of the
April 2005
stock.
“The dog’s job is to keep
the stock together,” he said.
Robert breeds Kelpies
while his wife Jenny breeds
Border Collies.
Robert’s nine-year-old
bitch Gin is the current
NSW Yard Dog Champion
and he is preparing now for
the
2005
NSW
Championships that are
being held in Walcha this
month.
Robert has been training
dogs for 15 years and
during that time has also
had
two
Australian
champions, dog and bitch
of the year and represented
Australia in Trans-Tasman
competitions four times.
Robert and Jenny also run
Small FARMS 19
FARMING KNOW HOW - Establishing a pasture
Options starting
a new pasture
By David Mason-Jones
The first practical step in
developing a pasture from
scratch is to decide which
pasture
options
the
topography of your land
will allow and which it will
not.
The hilly country option: If
your land is away from the
river or creeks and consists
mainly of rolling, hilly,
grazing country, it may not
be an option to develop the
classic ‘bowling green’
pasture seen on properties
where tillage and irrigation
are available.
In hilly country the
shallow depth and rock
nature of the land may
make it impractical to work
up the fine seed bed
required by many of the
more intensively developed
pastures.
Attempting to plough
shallow soil on hilly country
also creates environmental
risks that could be
catastrophic to the future
profitability of your farming
enterprise.
Firstly, where the slope of
the land is high, the process
of ploughing can make the
soil loose so that it is
vulnerable to erosion next
time it rains.
Your little remaining soil
on the hilly country could
be washed into the creek
and the land’s grazing
potential could take a
further slump.
Ploughing on hilly ground
also breaks up the plant and
root structure which holds
the soil together and this
can lead to reduction in
biodiversity and further
erosion.
Supplementing existing
species: The only option for
pasture development on
20 Small FARMS
most of the hilly grazing
territory of Australia is to
use the existing species on
the land - be they native
species or introduced - to
hold the land together and
to form the base for pasture
improvement.
The existing species can
then be supplemented with
additional
introduced
pasture species and fertiliser
to improve the pasture value
of the land and the
nutrition of the plants.
This strategy usually relies
on natural rainfall as the
means of stimulating plant
growth.
Usually, this strategy also
involves the process of
applying a mix of seeds to
create a diverse pasture with
some species active in
winter conditions and some
active
in
summer
conditions.
The arable country option:
A farm on flatter ground
and with a deeper deposit of
arable land is the more
suitable location for the
establishment of a fully
developed ‘bowling green’
pasture - one that is
developed from scratch.
The risk of causing erosion
by ploughing is reduced
where the terrain is flatter
and the soil is deeper and of
alluvial nature.
Due to the fact that the
ploughed soil is flat in this
situation,
a
higher
percentage of the rain is
likely to be absorbed in a
storm than on the hilly
country.
The reduced slope means
that excess rainfall generally
‘pools’ and cannot flow with
a velocity to wash the soil
away.
The option of working up
a seed bed to develop a
pasture is a much more
Preparing a suitable seed bed is an essential
phase in establishing a new pasture. Planting
conditions must include the correct soil
temperature and correct soil moisture levels.
Irrigation can assist with attaining the necessary
moisture levels.
An example of a multi species pasture suitable
for grazing. Note the clover in the left foreground.
April 2005
FARMING KNOW HOW - Establishing a pasture
viable choice in flatter
terrain.
Another necessity in
developing a pasture from
scratch in flat country is the
availability of some form of
irrigation to either support
the entire growth of the
pasture or to supplement
the natural rainfall.
Replacing existing species:
With arable country and
the availability of irrigation
the strategy for developing a
pasture can become one
involving the complete
replacement of existing
species with a single species
pasture or with a mixed
species pasture.
Assessing your pasture
needs: There is no point in
developing a pasture just
because it looks good or
because you see other
farmers doing it. Your
reason for developing the
pasture must be carefully
assessed in association with
your farm plan.
Some of the factors to be
taken into account at this
point include:1. What type of animals do
you want to graze on the
pasture?
2. Is the aim to graze the
stock or to harvest the
fodder?
3. Do you want to fatten
animals on the pasture or
use it to support a stud
operation or a dairy herd?
4. What is the total capital
cost of all the ground work
to develop the pasture?
5. What is the return on
investment of the new
pasture and how long will it
be before the cut even point
when the return becomes
greater
than
the
investment?
6. What is the availability
and ongoing cost of
irrigation?
7. What diseases and insects
can damage the pasture?
8. What is the likely cost of
controlling the diseases and
insects?
Importance
of
local
knowledge: Access to
April 2005
professional
local
knowledge is essential in the
pasture
development
process.
The two main sources of
local knowledge for this
purpose are a local
agronomist who has tertiary
agriculture qualifications as
well as practical experience
in your area and a seed
merchant who is active in
your area.
The seed merchant’s input
can be invaluable because
he/she has a long track
record of knowing which
species work well the area,
on which terrain it is
required and under which
conditions.
A seed merchant in
Gippsland, Victoria, will
not be well placed to advise
on a species selection in
Bundaberg, Queensland.
Find a reputable local
agronomist and a seed
merchant in your local area
and seek their advice.
Working up the seed bed:
In arable country the
process of working up the
seed bed may commence
with
a
herbicide
knockdown preparation to
ensure that pre-existing
species and weeds are
eliminated before the
introduction
of
your
selected pasture species.
Alternatively, it may
consist of a process of deep
ploughing and turning the
soil over to eliminate preexisting
weeds
and
competing species.
The decision on which
way to go is your decision
and responsibility but it
should be made after
considering the advice and
recommendations of your
agronomist, and weighing
up the environmental
factors.
Where the country is deep
ploughed, it should then be
worked back over with a
further series of finer
ploughings to break down
the large sods and to create
a finer seed bed for the new
An example of a single species pasture - in this
case lucerne. This can be used for controlled
stock grazing or for fodder production.
A seed mix for a multi species pasture mix. There
are a total of five different plant species in this
handful. Seed selections such as this are
available from local seed merchants to suit local
pasture development conditions.
Small FARMS 21
FARMING KNOW HOW - Establishing a pasture
pasture.
Soil
humidity
and
temperature:
Correct
germination of seeds will
depend on correct levels of
soil
humidity
and
temperature.
Although a mixed pasture
planting will contain some
seeds which will lie dormant
until another season, it is
vital to create the humidity
conditions for at least some
of the species to germinate
immediately so ground
cover is re-established
quickly.
If you are lucky, natural
rainfall will create moist soil
at the season in the year
when soil temperature is
right for your seeding
operation. If not, the seed
bed needs to be irrigated to
create the correct humidity
conditions.
Sow the new pasture
species into the prepared
seed bed when moisture is
22 Small FARMS
at the optimal level.
Follow up irrigation: As the
pasture germinates and
begins growing, monitor
soil humidity to ensure
adequate
moisture
is
available to sustain growth
at the optimum rate. This
may be achieved by a
combination of the natural
rainfall and irrigation.
Where irrigation is used,
make sure that you have
calculated the effective
water application through
rain and apply only the
amount of irrigated water to
supplement the pasture’s
full needs.
Too much irrigation after
rain can cause the pasture to
die back if roots become
waterlogged.
The aim is to supply the
plant’s exact needs for best
growth. Your own research
and the advice of your
agronomist is important in
this. ■
Seeds of a single species - in this case a clover
species. Seeds such as this can be used to
establish a single species pasture or can be used
in pasture rejuvenation.
April 2005
GETTING STARTED - Investigating opportunities
Finding a market
for your product
By Cindy Benjamin
The recent downturn in
the sugar industry has
prompted many growers,
like Dennis and Annette
Werner and their son John,
to look into other
enterprises. Camels, coffee,
cattle, hemp, kenaf and
sugarcane now combine to
form an interesting mix on
‘Wellington Park’, the
Werner family’s property at
Septimus, west of Mackay.
Market research has played
an important part in their
selection of enterprises to
trial. “We are taking
diversification seriously,”
Dennis said.
“We are looking for a mix
of crop and livestock
enterprises
that
complement each other and
provide a diverse income
stream.”
About three years ago the
Werners decided that they
needed to look into greater
diversification on their
property. At that time they
had 115 hectares of cane
and 300 head of cattle.
“Our plan is to choose a
range of possible crop and
livestock activities and to
trial them so we know what
does and does not work for
us,” Dennis said.
“Getting into anything
new takes an amount of trial
and error.”
In their search the Werners
were looking for enterprises
that were compatible with
cane production and that
enabled the grower to
remain a part of the
processing chain. “We want
to have the option of value
adding and being part of the
processing and marketing of
the primary product,”
Annette explained.
The idea of market
24 Small FARMS
research worries many
people because it can be
hard to know where to start.
If you take it down to nuts
and bolts though it all
comes back to three
questions
that
need
answering:
* Is there demand for my
product or service?
* If the demand exists, what
do customers expect of the
product or service?
* Can I supply the product
or service at a competitive
price?
To answer these questions
you will need to go to a
variety of sources and be
prepared to deal with the
conflicting evidence and
advice you are likely to
receive. It will help if you
are convinced that you have
the financial resources and
the production know-how
to trial, develop and perfect
your product or service.
To start with, write a list of
all the players and sources of
information associated with
your product or service.
This list will include
government sources such as
the Australian Bureau of
Statistics and the various
State
Government
Departments of Primary
Industries, Business and
Trade. Also list any relevant
industry
bodies
and
research and development
organisations.
The Kondinin Group and
the
Rural
Industries
Research and Development
Corporation
(RIRDC)
conduct research into many
new
and
established
industries and then publish
their findings. The other
major source of information
will be the marketplace.
Agents, auction houses,
and trading markets can
provide
extensive
Denis and Annette Werner saw potential in coffee
and have negotiated a co-operative arrangement
with a local processor.
and gave them trial areas
information
about
around the farm to learn
throughput and prices of
about growing coffee.
the traded commodities.
Fibre crops were the next
Is there a demand?
enterprises to be trialled on
Depending
on
your
‘Wellington Park’. Two
product, you will be able to
years ago the Mackay Fibre
access differing types of
Producers interest group
information. Ask about
was formed and John is the
seasonal
demand
deputy chairman. He and
fluctuations, domestic and
chairman Joe Muscat each
export throughput, price
have a licence to grow
trends over several years and
industrial hemp.
so on.
The Werners recently
The first new crop that
harvested their one hectare
caught the Werner’s interest
trail plot and were
was coffee. The Australian
impressed with the biomass
coffee industry is still small
production. They also grew
and most of our coffee is
a one hectare trial plot of
exported due to its high
kenaf, another fibre crop
quality.
with applications as diverse
The vast majority of coffee
as paper, textiles, car body
consumed in Australia is
components,
animal
imported so there is great
bedding, brewery filters and
potential for expansion.
carpet underlay.
The Werners decided to
There is a world-wide push
take all the small blocks
for manufacturers to make
with short rows out of cane
products
from
production and planted
biodegradable materials,
coffee. This had the effect of
using organic fibres to
making
their
cane
provide bulk and strength
harvesting more efficient
April 2005
GETTING STARTED - Investigating opportunities
in bioplastics.
The
most
recent
diversification
on
‘Wellington Park’ is the
arrival of seven camels. Like
the fibre crops, camels are
proving to have greater
potential
than
first
considered. The demand for
camel meat is increasing
both here and overseas, with
10 camels per month going
into the Sydney, Brisbane
and Melbourne market.
Customer requirements If
your product or service is
likely to be sold direct to the
consumer, then talk directly
to your target consumers. If
you will be selling your
product to a processor,
wholesaler or retailer, then
talk to them about their
expectations
and
requirements. Coffee has
the advantage of a six
month harvest period, for
the Werners’ access to a cooperatively
owned
mechanical harvester and a
local coffee processor who
will buy all their coffee, they
can sell their produce.
Can I compete? This is a
good time to put thought
into the four P’s of
marketing - product, price,
place, and promotion.
Having a good idea of your
production costs will help
you determine whether you
will be able to compete. If
your costs are going to be
higher
than
your
competitors then you will
need to find something to
give you a competitive edge.
Customers may pay more if
you
can
demonstrate
superior quality, better
service or nutritional or
environmental benefits.
Having more control over
the market chain can have
long term benefits provided
you are confident that you
can repay the expenses
involved in setting up.
The Werners do not expect
big profits from either their
hemp or kenaf crops but
with steady demand and a
April 2005
surplus of around $700 per
hectare after growing costs,
these crops seem to have
their place in rotation with
cane.
As with all light, but bulky
products, freight plays an
important
part
in
determining the viability of
the emerging plant fibre
industries.
“The future of fibre crops
in our region depends
almost
entirely
on
negotiations to use existing
infrastructure and the
building of a processing
plant in the local area,”
John said.
“We have proven that we
can grow big, good quality
crops but without the
processing facility the
industry can not take off.”
Industrial hemp and kenaf
have
similar
growing
requirements and fit well
within the summer fallow
in rotation with sugarcane,
with a growing season of
between 100 and 150 days.
In addition to the fibre
uses of kenaf, the Werners
are interested in other
characteristics of the crop,
like its high protein content
and its value as silage.
“We had some kenaf leaves
tested for protein and the
results showed the leaves
have a higher protein level
than lucerne,” says Dennis.
“A local feedlot operator
has shown considerable
interest in the crop, giving
us another market option.”
Investigating a variety of
enterprise and market
options helped the Werners
to identify crops and
livestock that have longterm benefits for their
farming system, where each
enterprise has multiple uses
and income potential. ■
■ Some good contacts:
Ausmarket Consultants 073379 4576
RIRDC 02-6272 4539
Kondinin Group
1800 677 761
Demand for coffee is strong world-wide and
Australian producers have a choice of domestic
and export markets.
The value of camels for weed control was the
initial attraction for the Werners, but they have
become impressed with the potential market
opportunities for camel meat.
Small FARMS 25
NICHE INDUSTRIES - Eucalypts for foliage
A potential for our
budding Eucalypts
It may be that a potential
enterprise for some land
holders is just budding
down in the paddock.
Buds, open flowers, foliage
and gumnuts from a variety
of eucalypts are finding a
developing market, and
Australian growers have an
opportunity to cash in on
this trend.
The foliage from eucalypts
has been cultivated for
many years in southern
France, Italy and the US,
with this market based on
the juvenile growth of
plants with round or oval
waxy leaves that have a
silvery sheen. However,
once the tree reaches adult
status, the foliage becomes
green
and
the
leaf
elongated, resulting in a
reduced value for the
foliage. That was until
recently when a market
emerged for adult material
which has reached the
flowering stage.
Buds, open flowers and
gumnuts of a number of
eucalypt species
have
become the basis of a cut
floral stem trade.
With more than 500
species available, eucalypts
have a wide adaptation to
temperate, sub-tropical and
tropical climates and are
tolerant of most soil types.
According to the Rural
Industries Research and
Development Corporation
(RIRDC), the export of
fresh cut flowers and foliage
is the area with most
potential for expansion.
The market for eucalypt
stems includes both the
domestic and export sector.
High quality and long stem
length are important for the
lucrative export market.
Stems are packed into
florist size boxes for direct
sales and through the
auction system and niche
April 2005
markets for Australian
product
have
been
identified in Asia, Europe,
the US and Canada.
According to RIRDC, the
best time to send product to
Japan is from October to
April when supply from the
northern
hemisphere
countries is in short supply.
Most of the current
production is in Australia’s
coastal areas and of the 500
plus species available, there
are some that have adapted
to all climates.
This means production is
potentially
possible
throughout Australia.
Frost tolerance varies
widely and while most
species require a minimum
of 200mm rainfall a year,
many growers use drip
irrigation to ensure reliable
production levels.
Regular watering is
especially important during
spring and summer.
Soil type, salinity and pH
tolerance vary widely across
the rage of eucalypts
although species have
adapted to most areas across
Australia.
Plantings
can
be
established using seedling
material,
although
propagation using rooted
cuttings and grafting is
possible for some species.
Seedlings are planted out
when they are 30cm high
and these planting are done
in spring or autumn.
The land should have been
deep ripped 30 to 50 cm a
few months before planting
when the soil is moist and
friable.
Spacing the plantings
varies from 1.5 to 3 m and
this will be affected by the
plant size and end use.
From a soil management
aspect, dolomite or lime
will improve establishment
in acid soils, and sulphur
The stunning bright red bud emerges from the
Eucalypt gumnut.
will assist with more
alkaline soils.
Fertiliser is often applied
through the irrigation
system if one is in place and
top dressing is advisable on
sandy soils to avoid
leaching.
In frost-prone areas,
nitrogen should be avoided
after mid summer, as the
new growth may burn
before it hardens off.
Eucalypts benefit from
regular applications of
complete
fertiliser,
including trace elements,
and this can be applied
using organic or inorganic
material.
Nutrient deficiencies can
become a common problem
if harvesting is regular and
fertiliser application is
inadequate.
Common
symptoms of this include
chlorosis, leaf spot and
purpling.
Pruning is an essential
management tool for
optimum production, but it
will differ depending on the
end use of the crop.
For foliage production, the
tree must be heavily pruned
to maintain juvenile leaves
and encourage long stem
length.
At 18 months old age, the
main stem is pruned to one
metre and major lateral
branches removed flush
with the trunk.
Stems for harvest come
from the buds under the
bark of the trunk or from
the basal swelling or
lignotuber.
The main species grown
for foliage production are E.
gunnii, E. pulverulenta and
E. cinerea.
Many others have potential
for foliage production,
including E. albida, E.
bridgesiana, E. cordata, E.
crenulata, E. crucis, E. gillii,
E. globulus, E. kruseana, E.
perriniana and E. tetragona.
Species for bud and flower
production include E.
caesia, E. crucis, E.
erythrocorys, E. forrestiana,
E. leptophylla, E. lesouefii, E.
pyriformis, E. stoatei, E.
tetragona, E. uncinata, E.
yalatensis and E. youngiana.
■ Source: RIRDC New
Crop Industries Handbook.
www.rirdc.gov.au
Small FARMS 27
CROPPING - Lavender production
A chance meeting
leads to lavender
Parkes ●
By Tim Byrne
From a suggestion made by
a friend visiting his
property, Colin Cooper has
now
developed
his
Oakleigh Rock Lavender
enterprise into a viable
business.
Colin grows and produces
his lavender products from
his
10ha
property,
“Oakleigh” at Parkes in
central-west NSW.
He has 1800 lavender
plants on some 0.8ha of his
property. Most of the plants
are
Lavendula
cross
intermedia although he has
one row of Lavendula
angustifolia.
His first plants went into
the ground in 1999,
although Colin had owned
the block since moving
from Glossodia, west of
Sydney, in 1981.
Prior to growing and
producing
lavender
products,
Colin
was
involved in the insurance
industry.
It was during the late
1990s, after some friends
had visited the farm, that
Colin considered lavender.
When the people were
visiting, Colin had all the
paddocks bar one ploughed
and one of the visitors asked
what he was planning to do
with the cultivated area. At
the time he did not know.
The women then contacted
Colin a few days later,
suggesting lavender, so he
April 2005
attended a workshop at
near-by Eugowra, which
then became the start of his
operations.
Since then Colin has
acquired his own still and
now produces his own oils.
He has also distilled oil for a
smaller, local producer for
the past two years.
Having distilled his own
oils from the plants, Colin
then adds it to base
products he has bought to
produce his range of
Oakleigh Rock Lavender
products, which include
soaps, creams and other
products.
He then packages and
labels the products, which
he describes as a very timeconsuming job, before
marketing the range.
Some are available through
selected retailers, however,
Colin sells most of his
products at market days,
country
fairs
and
agricultural shows in the
region.
These have included
Richmond markets in the
Hawkesbury Valley as well
as the Tullamore Irish
Festival and the Boorowa
Wool Festival.
He decided early in the
piece not to pursue a
tourism business and retail
outlet from his farm. As a
one-man operation, it is too
difficult to be in the
paddock and operating a
“shop front” on the
property at the same time.
The other constraint is
that many tourists would
want to visit the lavender
farm at the weekends, when
Colin is attending the
various markets, fairs and
shows.
As well as growing
Lavender, Colin had been
running sheep on his
property, grazing 75 Merino
Colin Cooper pictured in his field of Lavender at
Parles, NSW.
Colin inspecting the oil produced by his lavender
still.
wethers and ewes before
becoming involved in
lavender.
The sheep were used in the
early stages to assist with
weed control in the
lavender. However, he has
reduced the flock and now
only has two cross-breds
left.
When he first planted the
lavender, Colin sprayed
with Round-up and hand
weeded. Now he uses a
200mm deep bed of mulch
to assist with the weed
program. ■
■ For more information
about Oakleigh Rock
Lavender, contact Colin on
(02) 6862 6680.
Small FARMS 29
CROPPING - Aim to market olives internationally
Olive producers
looking to export
By Tim Byrne
A trip to Mudgee resulted
in Pam and Robert
Colquhoun venturing into
an olive producing and
marketing venture.
After purchasing a 100
acre sheep property, they
planted their first 1500
olive trees in 1999 and they
now have 4000 growing.
They named their property
Rossdhu,
after
the
Colquhoun Castle in
Scotland.
Their first harvest in 2003
resulted in 1.5 tonne of
olives, while the 2004
harvest yielded five tonnes
and Pam said the 2005 crop
was “looking good” before a
hail storm passed through
the region.
They start to harvest their
olives the week before
Anzac Day and Pam
explained they like to pick
the fruit green to achieve
the nice peppery, Tuscan
flavours in the oil.
“If you pick ripe, black
olives, you get a more
delicate oil, which is good
for cooking if you don’t
want the olive flavour to
overtake,” Pam said.
As part of their operation,
Pam and Robert have
joined forces with two other
Mudgee-district
olive
growers, forming The Olive
Nest. The partners, Sue and
Neil Clubb of Ridgeback
Park and Tony and Sue
Robertson of Ridgegrove,
each sell their own brands,
as well as an Olive Nest
“Italian Blend”, and a limeand lemon-infused range.
They also make tapenades,
produced from pickled
olives and their own olives
which are pickled in brine
with rainwater and rock
salt.
“We have strict guidelines
April 2005
for best practice in
production. All the olives
that are processed through
The Olive Nest are hand
harvested so the fruit is not
bruised, aiming to achieve
the best quality in the oil it
produces,” Pam said.
“They are picked into bins
of no greater capacity than
22kg. The harvest is then
pressed that day or the next
morning.”
Chemical testing is then
carried out to ensure it is
extra virgin olive oil. “We
are after really good quality.
It takes one man hour to
produce the equivalent of a
litre of oil,” Pam said.
Their label Rossdhu won
Best in Show, 2 gold medals
and 1 silver medal at the
2004 Mudgee Olive Oil
Awards.
While the operations are
not
recognised
as
organically certified, no
chemicals are used in the
production of the crop with
the exception of Round-Up,
used to control weeds in the
plantations of young trees.
As well as The Olive Nest
in Mudgee, the products
under their Rossdhu label
are marketed at specialty
outlets in Sydney and
directly
to
selected
restaurants. Robert and
Pam are also looking at
exporting their oil to
Sweden, while the Clubb’s
olive oil is available in
Harvey Nichols in London.
Robert and Pam first
became interested in olives
after Robert’s brother, a
Brisbane-based cardiologist,
researched the health
benefits of olive oil. Since
establishing their grove,
they have undertaken olive
tasting courses and are now
olive oil judges for the
NSW Royal Agricultural
Society and Pam said they
Some of the range of olive oils available from The
Olive Nest
were also actively involved
with
establishing
an
industry
accreditation
system in Mudgee.
Pam said there was no
standard national system for
industry accreditation. ■
■ For further information
about The Olive Nest visit
the
website
at
www.olivenest.com.au or
phone 02 6373 3719, or
send an Email to the group:
[email protected]
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Small FARMS 31
CROPPING - Growing grapes in cool country
Frost protection
is a main priority
By Tim Byrne
Highland Heritage Estate,
close to the edge of Orange
on the Central Tablelands
of NSW, is located in a site
that is ideal for producing
cold country wines.
The first vines were
planted in 1983 by Sydney
man Roy Toby, who also
planted berry bushes at the
same time. The vineyard
has
developed
with
continual plantings and
some of the younger vines
just three years old.
The business is now owned
by the D’Aquino family
with
winemaker
Rex
D’Aquino overseeing the
operations.
Presently it has 6.5ha of
Sauvignon Blanc, one
hectare of Chardonnay, two
hectares of Pinot Noir, one
hectare of Merlot and 3.5ha
of Shiraz.
Vineyard manager, Ian
Pearce, said the Sauvignon
Blanc and Pinot Noir
varieties were particularly
suited to colder areas.
An aspect of the vineyard,
which sees it operating a
little differently to other
vineyards in the area, is the
lateness of the season.
Because of the nature of
the site, the vineyard can be
susceptible to late season
frosts and while it is not the
highest in altitude in the
Orange district, Mr Pearce
said it would be one of the
coldest micro-climates in
the area.
For that reason, the vines
are pruned later to delay the
bud burst and lower the risk
400 educational and commercial
exhibitors for “Farming Solutions
and a Fun day out”
at 2005 Tocal Fieldays
Friday 29th April to Sunday 1st May 2005
Special features include:
✔ Small scale winemaking
workshops
✔ A farm safety “One
Stop Shop”
✔ Fish friendly farms
Open 9am to 5pm daily
Only 15 minutes from
Maitland & 2 hours
north of Sydney
Ph:(02) 4939 8820
or www.tocal.com
32 Small FARMS
Canopy management involves any extra vine
growth trimmed to maintain a correct stem shape.
of frost at the start of the
growing season. Normally
vines in the Orange district
would be pruned from June
to the end of August,
however, at Highland
Heritage the pruning does
not start until mid-July and
continues into the month of
September.
The pruning regime to
obtain the right crop loads
and achieve the correct
canopy structure is one of
the key tools to a successful
vintage.
Canopy management at
Highland Heritage look at
how the shoots are arranged
on the vine, striking a
balance between the crop
load, shoot length and the
overall vigour of the plant.
“We are aiming for a
canopy that is not too
vigorous,” Mr Pearce said.
This approach often sees
extra growth on the vines
trimmed to maintain the
correct shape of the stems
on the trellises that hold
them.
Early to mid-way through
the growing season, there is
a strict spraying program to
combat powdery mildew,
downey
mildew
and
botrytis.
This is done as a pre- or
early- flowering spray or in
some cases a specific
botrytiscide is used to stop
any latent outbreaks.
The vineyard also has a
frost protection system in
place. There are two
systems: an older sprinklerstyle network, which sprays
the water over the vines and
a newer system which
delivers a fine mist to stop
the damaging effect of
frosts.
“But it uses a lot of water,”
Mr Pearce said.
“You might get two or
three cold days, but if you
know the buds have not yet
burst, then you can save on
the water.
“The frost protection
system is critical for this
farm,” he said.
Another challenge for the
production of the grapes at
Highland Heritage Estate is
the high risk of botrytis.
Grapes affected by it can
have a sweeter fruit,
however, if the disease is
allowed to get away it will
cause the bunches to rot.
According to Mr Pearce,
the wines from these colder
vineyards
produce
a
different style of wine to
those
from
warmer
climates. ■
April 2005
SMALL FARMS PERSONAL PROFILES
Switching back
to the country
By Tim Byrne
Small Farms profiles
vineyard manager and
orchardist Ian Pearce, who
is one of a growing number
of people to reverse the
“brain drain” from the
bush. Together with his
family, he is operating a
successful fruit growing
and contract vineyard
management operation in
his home town of Orange,
in central NSW.
Ian completed his
Agricultural Science degree
at Sydney University in
1984 and began working
with
the
company
Agrisearch Services Pty Ltd.
After a few years, Ian
began working for Du Pont
Australia in its agricultural
products division, much of
it relating to the regulatory
matters with government,
before moving on to work
as
the
company’s
development coordinator.
However, Ian wanted to
work and live in the country
so in the mid-1990s he
returned to Orange, where
he had grown up on his
parents apple and stone
fruit orchard.
He began working with a
local consulting firm,
predominantly
working
with farmers in financial
difficulties
who
were
looking for strategic advice
on ways to address their
problems.
In late 1995 Ian bought a
46ha river block at
Canowindra, which is made
up of lucerne flats and
grazing country (currently
being leased to a lucerne
grower), together with
approximately 3 hectares of
early season cherries.
This month on Farm radio
There have been huge
genetic gains in the
Australian alpaca industry
over a short period of time
inspiring thousands of
small farmers to join the
industry. But improving
the national alpaca herd’s
genetics is now getting a
lot harder.
On Lifestyle Farmer this
month we look at the
program being put in place
to help small farmers keep
growing better animals and
ask
‘Could
alpaca
producers be their own
worst enemy when it
comes to improving their
own herds?’
Lifestyle Farmer is a free
monthly web-based audio
program full of interesting
topics aimed at small
farmers.
This month’s program
examines the Australian
April 2005
Alpaca Association’s across
herd genetic evaluation
program just getting
underway.
We speak to Alpaca
Association Vice President,
Bob Richardson, about the
new program which is
aimed at helping alpaca
farmers achieve their own
breeding objectives and
improve
the
genetic
performance of their herds.
It’s an important issue
for an industry that’s
already beginning to
experience some resistance
from farmers to the cost of
breeding from high quality
males,
preferring
to
embark
on
on-farm
breeding programs at the
possible
expense
of
improved genetics.
You can
visit the
Lifestyle Farmer site at
www.farmradio.com.au ■
Ian Pearce on his fruit growing property at
Orange, NSW.
apples with a smaller area of
Compared with growing
peaches.
cherries in Orange, the
Together, the two
period between the trees
properties
operate
as
flowering and picking the
Mirrabooka Farms and
fruit is less and the rainfall
produce a range of apple
of the region is lower,
varieties including Galaxy,
reducing the risk of the
Royal Gala, Red Jonathons,
cherries splitting - a major
Granny
Smith,
Red
risk any cherry grower.
Delicious and Pink Lady.
During this time he was
They also grow cherries and
introduced to the district’s
peaches, and a small area of
developing
viticulture
plums and pears.
industry and a year later was
Part of the marketing
working for Reynolds
approach for Mirrabooka
Wines as the vineyard
Farms is utilising farmers
manager at Little Boomey
markets and each month
at Molong, north-west of
they travel to Pyrmont, in
Orange, which had 507ha
Sydney, as well as regularly
of wine grapes on the 890ha
attending markets at North
property.
Sydney, Black Heath and
After seven years with
Mt Penang.
Reynolds
Wines,
an
“The most important
opportunity arose to buy
aspect of the farmers
the property next to his
markets is that the
parents’ orchard. Ian and
consumers and the growers
his wife Pru bought the
can interact,” he said.
34ha property “Stoneleigh”
“At these markets
which has about 25ha
consumers are able to
planted to apples and
obtain
better
quality
cherries, with a couple of
produce direct from the
rows of pear trees.
farm, and they can actually
Next door, Robbie and
talk to the grower. ■
Jean Pearce along with Ian’s
brother
Ross
run
■ For more information
“Mirrabooka”, a 36ha
contact Ian Pearce on (02)
property with about 20ha
6365 8671
planted to orchard - mainly
Small FARMS 35
HORSE REPORT - The low maintenance horse stud
Breeding for top
class Warmblood
With a background of
competitive riding under
their belts, David and
Amanda
Shoobridge
brought with them a
wealth of knowledge about
eventing horses when
establishing
their
Revelwood Warmblood
Stud.
The stud started eight
years ago on a 1.6ha
property at Terrey Hills, in
Sydney’s north before
relocating two years ago to
their 28ha property at
Somersby on the NSW
Central Coast. Amanda’s
mother still lives on the
Terrey Hills block where
Amanda began her riding
background.
During the time at Terrey
Hills,
Revelwood’s
broodmares were agisted at
Orange in central NSW
and Jilliby on the Central
Coast.
It was while the horses
were at Jilliby that David
and Amanda decided to
look at the Central Coast
for a permanent home for
Revelwood.
When they bought their
property it consisted of
pasture and trees.
“We developed a concept
(and) work and reworked
the plan to make it a low
maintenance
property,”
David said.
He said horse studs had a
tendency to be high
maintenance.
“We have to be able to run
this without staff,” he said.
Another factor influencing
the low maintenance aspect
of the operation is that
David and Amanda both
have jobs off the farm.
Amanda is a veterinarian
and David, who is currently
completing a Bachelor of
Business (Ag Commerce)
36 Small FARMS
degree, is a Rural Real
Estate Agent.
David’s background from
his family farm in Tasmania
also assisted with the
establishment
of
the
property at Somersby.
His family farmed 2020ha
at Fenton Forest, growing a
variety of crops like
poppies, raspberries, black
currants, cherries, cabbages
for seed production, peas,
garlic and onions, as well as
running beef cattle and
sheep for lambs and wool
production.
The property is generally
cleared with some good
stands of bush running
along the creek which runs
through the block.
David and Amanda have
undertaken
pasture
improvement with kikuyu
and clover, and are looking
to introduce some rye into
the mix to maintain some
winter substance.
However, generally they
find that the good rainfall of
the region means an
abundance of pasture,
which has to be slashed
regularly and is then
harrowed back into the soil.
The property features four
dams - one spring fed - a
water license from the
creek, a spring and a bore,
so they can always rely on a
good water supply.
They now have 20 brood
mares on site, breeding 15
foals a year, using proven
sires including General
Consent, Don Ramiro and
Ferrero Rocher.
According to Amanda, the
warmblood industry in
Australia is still young and
limited with its genetic
pool.
She said Revelwood had
secured a good genetic base
from German bred horses as
David and Amanda Shoobridge at Revelwood
Warmblood stud.
In Ireland David took
part of its breeding
Bronze in show jumping
platform.
while Amanda was placed
An advantage warmbloods
fourth in the dressage of the
have over thoroughbreds,
University Championships
according to Amanda, is the
where nine countries were
ability to ship chilled
represented.
semen. This means semen
David said their focus at
can be sent to the mare and
Revelwood was to be
a
local
veterinarian
industry leaders “but
undertake the procedure,
realising we are still a young
unlike the thoroughbred
stud”.
industry where the mare
“Our philosophy is to
and the stallion have to be
introduce new stock as well
brought together.
as vertical integration,”
“Cost of the owners of the
David said.
mare is reduced by having
“The vertical integration
the semen sent to the local
means breeding, veterinary
clinic and inseminated,”
services, breaking, training
Amanda said.
and competition as a
David and Amanda began
package offer.
breeding their own line of
“It also means being at the
warmbloods in an attempt
forefront of bringing in
to develop the perfect riding
unique bloodlines.”
horse.
He said they were keeping
“You must be passionate
in touch with the European
about your stock if you
lines and breeding trends in
want other people to want
that region to discover the
them too,” David said.
young horses that were
David and Amanda have
going to be the future talent
both competed riding
of the breed.
Warmbloods for many years
“It’s exciting. We’ve got a
and both have been
frozen semen tank with the
competitive at FEI dressage
semen of 10 international
on a range of horses up to
stallions,” he said.■
National level.
In 2004 they both travelled
■ For information visit
to Europe to compete in
www.revelwood.com.au.
eventing and showjumping.
April 2005
LIVESTOCK - HBM Alpaca Fiesta
Fiesta is a much
anticipated event
The
Hawkesbury/Blue
Mountains Region of the
Australian
Alpaca
Association will hold it’s
12th annual Alpaca Fiesta
and Auction on May 21
and 22, 2005 at the
Hawkesbury Racecourse,
Clarendon, opposite the
Richmond RAAF Base.
The Fiesta has become a
much-anticipated event in
the alpaca calendar for
enthusiasts all over Australia
with the weekend packed
with alpaca related activities
including mini educational
seminars, craft and spinning
workshops, a fashion parade
and alpaca husbandry and
shearing demonstrations.
There will be trade stalls
selling alpaca garments,
with
the
weekend
culminating in the drawing
of the raffle for an alpaca
female, and an auction of
ten top quality stud alpacas
on the Sunday afternoon.
“The Fiesta provides an
ideal opportunity for people
who are interested in
learning more about alpacas
to
speak
to
many
experienced breeders in one
location and get the facts
about alpacas first-hand,”
Bill Crosby, convener of this
year’s Fiesta, said.
“Over one hundred
alpacas will be displayed,
both suris and huacayas, in
all colours and ages.”
“We cater for all levels of
interest, from families who
just love alpacas, wanting to
see and feel these charming
animals, to the general
public whose interest is in
the stylish alpaca fashions
and accessories, to potential
alpaca farmers seeking
information, to existing
breeders looking to buy top
class genetics from the
Hawkesbury area.”
April 2005
The Saturday program
features the more structured
seminars and practical
demonstrations and the
Fashion Parade in the
afternoon. While many
alpacas will be for sale
during the whole weekend
by individual breeders, the
emphasis on Sunday will be
on the alpaca auction.
Auction animals will be
available for inspection all
weekend,
along
with
breeder displays and trade
stalls.
“This year our auction
showcases 10 alpacas who
have undergone a rigorous
selection
process
for
acceptance
into
the
auction,” region president
Graeme Dickson said. “On
offer are nine quality
females, with excellent
genetics
and
fleece
characteristics. Also in the
auction
is
Prestige
Valentino, a top performing
proven male, owned by Pam
and Barry Thomas of
Kurmond. Stud sires of this
calibre don’t often become
available on the open
market, and he is sure to
draw wide attention.”
Graeme also confirmed
that
a
Hawkesbury
member, Diana Rutter,
Keiana Lodge Alpacas,
Running Stream, has
donated a pregnant female
to launch the auction on
Sunday, the proceeds going
to Cystic Fibrosis NSW and
Children’s
Cochlear
Implants.
“We are also conducting
a raffle for a light fawn
female alpaca, Kurralea
Angelina, sired by Prestige
Valentino, on Sunday 22nd
May, just prior to the
auction commencement”.
If you are interested in
learning more about alpacas
The HBM Alpaca fiesta offers visitors a chance to
talk to many local breeders.
and alpaca farming, go
along to the Alpaca Fiesta.
Everyone is welcome.
Admission is free and there
is plenty of parking. For
public transport, the venue
is situated only a short walk
from Clarendon station. ■
Small FARMS 39
LIVESTOCK - HBM Alpaca Fiesta
It’s about getting
the knowledge
Alicia
Anderson
and
Cheryl Kostaris of Regal
House
Alpacas,
East
Kurrajong, will be out in
force at the Hawkesbury/Blue
Mountains
Alpaca Fiesta and Auction
this year.
Alicia said Regal House
will have a display of
animals at the Fiesta as well
as a number of animals
available for sale.
They will also be
assisting with some of the
Fiesta's demonstrations and
displays throughout the
action-packed weekend in
May.
The stud was started by
Alicia and Cheryl after the
pair had decided it was time
to leave suburban Sydney.
In 1995 they saw a show on
television
about
the
Australian
Alpaca
Association's national show
and sale in Sydney, so they
went to the event the next
day, however it took until
February 1996 before they
bought their first alpacas
and today are reaping the
benefits of their enterprise.
Alicia said one of the
exciting achievements for
the
stud
was
the
development of their young
stud sire, Regal House Mr
Darcy.
Mr
Darcy
is
by
Shanbrooke Accoyo Yavari,
from a dam sired by
Purrumbete El Dorado.
She said Mr Darcy's
dam, who has produced two
other good young stud
males, is an extra-fine
The Regal House Alpacas pen display at the HBM
Alpaca Fiesta last year.
female who, after four
offspring,
was
still
producing a 20 micron
fleece.
“We are looking forward
to Mr Darcy starting work,”
Alicia said.
She said the stud also had
some good young progeny
from Windsong Valley
Braveheart
and
were
expecting the first crias on
the ground in June from
their latest stud sire
Forestglen Plutach.
As well as operating their
stud, Alicia and Cheryl are
involved with other aspects
of the industry.
Both will be stewards at
this year's Sydney Royal
Show and Alicia said she is
hopeful of completing a
judging course if the
Australian
Alpaca
Association runs one this
year.
“It's all about gathering
knowledge,”
Alicia
explained.
And having gained it, she
is prepared to pass it on to
others.
As well as being involved
in the May Fiesta, Alicia
will also be offering her
services and knowledge at
the New Breeders Seminar
which is held at the
Clarendon Showgrounds
two weeks after the Fiesta.
Contact Alicia and
Cheryl at Regal House
Alpacas, East Kurrajong on
(02) 4573 1177 or visit
regalhousealpacas.com.au ■
A top auction line-up
Ten elite alpacas go under
the auctioneer’s hammer on
the Sunday of this year’s
Fiesta.
They are, in order of sale:
Sierra Maya, Sierra Alpacas;
“The Gorge Protege, The
Gorge Alpacas; Alpacandes
Rose Gold, Alpacandes
Alpacas; Rocky Hall Rahni,
Rocky
Hall
Alpacas;
40 Small FARMS
Prestige Valentino, Prestige
Alpacas; Forestglen Allegra,
Forestglen Alpacas; Dural
Magnolia Rose, Dural
Alpacas; Kurralea Arabella,
Kurralea
Alpacas,
Gunnamatta Rhiannon,
Gunnamatta Alpacas; and
Chachani
Anauari,
Chachani Alpacas. ■
April 2005
LIVESTOCK - HBM Alpaca Fiesta
A plan to export
quality alpacas
John and Rosemary Smith
of Sunnyvale Alpacas,
Cattai, will be taking a
number
of
pregnant
females for display and sale
to the Hawkesbury/Blue
Mountains Region of the
Australian
Alpaca
Association annual Fiesta
and Auction.
The Smiths have been
breeding alpacas for the past
five years and run between
30 and 40 animals on their
eight hectare property.
This includes two stud
males, as well as a stud male
which is agisted off the
property.
They
started
their
enterprise with seven
alpacas - six pregnant
females and one wether.
They still have the wether,
which Rosemary said is
possibly one of the oldest
wethers at age 15.
She said the wether was a
great asset, especially when
weaning the male crias.
Rosemary and John
became involved with the
breed while investigating a
viable “retirement” option.
John also works for a large
computer
company.
However, Rosemary said
the long term plan is to buy
more land and operate the
alpacas as a commercial
herd.
She said the long-term
plan was to develop alpacas
which are "homozygous"
for as many positive
qualitative traits as possible
while breeding a successful
herd of award winning
alpacas and making a
significant contribution to
Australia's fibre clip.
“We want to run an
efficient alpaca farm on
small acreage and be able to
export quality Australian
alpacas
worldwide,”
Rosemary said.
Apart from the pen sale
animals, Rosemary will take
fleece she has spun, to show
visitors the end product.
She is presently knitting
some small garments and
items for the display.
Contact
John
and
Rosemary Smith, Sunnyvale
Alpacas (02) 4572 8400 for
details. ■
Seeing the latest in Alpaca fashion is one of the
big drawcards of the Hawkesbury Blue Mountains
Alpaca Fiesta.
Fashions on the stage
One of the highlights of
the Alpaca Fiesta and
Auction will be the fashion
parade.
The parade is scheduled
to be held on Saturday,
starting at 3pm.
The half hour fashion
parade will feature a host of
great alpaca-based fashion
garments, highlighting the
value, beauty and versatility
of the fleece from these
unique animals.
According
to
the
Australian
Alpaca
Association there are several
Australian
companies
manufacturing
alpaca
garments
and
yarn.
Internationally, there is an
increasing interest in the
fibre among many fashion
houses. ■
Sunnyvale Alpacas
- Shear Value Developing alpacas which are homozygous for positive qualitative traits
*Quality Alpacas for Sale *Continued Training, Education & Support
*Packages for Small Farms & New Breeders
*Affordable Stud Services *Alpaca Knitting Yarns for sale
Located in the Hawkesbury Region of New South Wales
Inspections welcome by appointment
Phone: (02) 4572 8400 Email: [email protected]
or visit our website: sunnyvalealpacas.com
April 2005
Small FARMS 41
LIVESTOCK - HBM Alpaca Fiesta
A bright future
for alpacas
Graeme and Lyn Dickson
have been breeding alpacas
for more than thirteen
years at Warralinga Alpaca
Stud, a ten hectare
property at Glossodia, in
the farmlands of the
beautiful
Hawkesbury
Valley on the outskirts of
Sydney.
They
are
actively
involved in the alpaca
industry, with Graeme
currently the President of
the
Hawkesbury-Blue
Mountains Region of the
Australian
Alpaca
Association, and both Lyn
and Graeme volunteering
on AAA sub-committees. In
addition, they are involved
in teaching sections of the
Alpaca Production course at
Richmond TAFE.
“This is a very active
region,” said Graeme, “so it
can be a busy lifestyle, but
we thoroughly enjoy it, and
working with alpacas has
many rewards.
“We are running a herd
of about 100 alpacas, a
percentage of which are
agisted animals owned by
city-based alpaca breeders,”
said Lyn.
“At any given time, there
are also a number of visiting
females that come in for
mating to Warralinga stud
sires.”
These
senior
sires,
Purrumbete El Dorado (coowned by Forestglen Alpaca
Warralinga
Alpaca Stud
● Experienced breeders of show quality
alpacas
● Peaceful, secure stud farm located near
Windsor NSW in the picturesque
Hawkesbury Valley
● From time to time we have select quality
breeding stock for sale
● Full-time alpaca farming operation
● Superior sires standing at stud
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42 Small FARMS
CONTACT LYN & GRAEME DICKSON
Telephone
(02) 4576 5048 or
Fax (02) 4576 6152
Email:
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ALPACA
A024/04/17
Warralinga alpaca herd features fine or super fine
fleece from some 60 per cent of the animals.
Stud, Millthorpe NSW)
and Shanbrooke Accoyo
Yavari (co-owned with
Shanbrooke Alpaca Stud,
Yarra Glen Victoria and
Gorge Alpacas, Arcadia,
New South Wales), are both
high profile stud males with
internationally recognised
reputations.
Recently, the Dicksons
have also acquired a share in
the highly regarded proven
sire, Purrumbete Inti, who
will be available for limited
stud services at Warralinga
Stud.
“Fleece statistics from
our last years shearing are
showing around 60 per cent
of our total herd is now
either fine or superfine,”
commented Graeme.
“At Warralinga we’ve
achieved this through
selective
breeding
techniques.
“I believe the alpaca
industry can adapt and take
advantage of the many
advanced
technologies
available to the Merino
industry, and that the future
for alpaca fleece is brighter
than ever.”
For more information
contact Lyn and Graeme
Dickson, Warralinga Alpaca
Stud on (02) 4576 5048. ■
For the new breeders
Here’s a great way to learn
more about the alpaca
industry.
For those who are on the
information-gathering trail
for alpacas, the Hawkesbury
Blue Mountains Region of
the Australian Alpaca
Association follows up after
the Fiesta with an intensive
two day Seminar for New
Breeders on June 4 and 5 at
the
Hawkesbury
Showground at Clarendon,
near Richmond.
For further information
on either the Alpaca Fiesta
and Auction or the New
Breeders Seminar, please
contact Sandra Vella on
(02) 4578 2657, or email
[email protected] ■
April 2005
LIVESTOCK - HBM Alpaca Fiesta
A quality female
up for auction
Sue
Maynard
of
Gunnamatta
Stud,
Galston, will be hoping for
strong interest from buyers
at this year’s Hawkesbury/Blue
Mountains
Fiesta and Auction.
Sue has entered a yearling
female,
Gunnamatta
Rhiannon in the auction at
this year’s event.
Rhiannon, a super-fine
white female, is by Jilliby
Lodge Celtic Mist, a solid
white stud male by
Purrumbete Highlander.
Rhiannon’s dam is
Somerset
Peruvian
Rhapsody, a solid white
peruvian import.
Sue said she is a pretty
and compact young female
with good confirmation and
good bone structure.
Sue runs about 100
alpacas on their two hectare
property at Galston, in
Sydney’s west and their
160ha property at Running
Stream, between Lithgow
and Mudgee.
The Running Stream
property, “Oakleigh”, is
undergoing
an
improvement
program
including weed eradication
and improved fencing. Sue
became involved with
alpacas in 1993 after buying
one animal and agisting it
for a year before buying the
Galston property.
She said her aim is to
breed to improve the
fineness, lustre and density
of the fleece.
“By use of selective
breeding, I’m dedicated to
the development of superior
quality animals which
exhibit
the
desirable
characteristics of fleece
density, crimp, lustre and
fineness.” Sue said.
She said she was looking
for fleece evenness across
the body, from the saddle
down under the belly as
well as looking to breed
evenness into the neck
wool. Some breeders she
said, were concentrating on
Sue Maynard, Gunnamatta Stud, with two of her
stud animals.
colour,
especially
to
produce white fleece. At
Gunnamatta the focus is on
fibre quality, not colour.
Sue breeds mostly white
and fawn alpacas, but also
has a number of grey
alpacas in the herd.
She said these animals
produce a fleece that is of
interest to spinners and the
craft markets.
Contact Sue Maynard on
(02) 9653 2277. ■
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Alpacas, Galston
Is proud to offer Gunnamatta Rhiannon
For sale at the 2005
The 2005 Fiesta program
Alpaca Fiesta &
Auction May 21 & 22.
Saturday, 21st May...
10.00 am
All Day
10.30 - 11.30 am
12.00 - 12.30 pm
12.30 - 1.30 pm
1.30 - 2.30 pm
2.30 - 3.00 pm
3.00 - 3.30 pm
3.45 pm
5.30 pm
6.00 pm
Fiesta Opens - Lucky Door Prize
Breeder Pen Sales
Trade Stalls & Displays
Inspection of Auction Animals Spinning & Craft Workshops
Fleece Display & Classing Competition
Lectures:
Alpacas - the Easy Care Livestock
Basic costs of Alpaca farming
Demonstration: Basic Alpaca Care
Lunch - Shearing Demonstration
Lectures:
Alpaca Fibre, Types, Colour, Quality & Uses
Financial Considerations for Alpaca
Breeders
Demonstration: Alpaca Selection
Fashion Parade
Parade of Auction Animals
Close
Members Dinner and Fun Auction
Sunday, 22nd May...
10.00 am
All Day
Noon
12.30 pm
2.00 - 2.30 pm
2.30 pm
3.00 pm
4.30 pm
April 2005
Fiesta Opens - Lucky Door Prize
Breeder Pen Sales
Trade Stalls & Displays
Inspection of Auction Animals
Parade of Auction Animals
Lunch - with musical entertainment
Raffle Draw, Silent Auction close
Classing Competition Draw
Donated Animal Auction
Fiesta Alpaca Auction
Pen Sales
Close
Rhiannon is a pretty,
superfine white yearling
female with a solid
white pedigree. Her sire,
Jilliby Lodge Celtic Mist
(pictured) is the
champion son of the
legendary Purrumbete
Gunnamatta Stud offers:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
Stud services to quality white, fawn and grey sires
Breeding females and wethers for sale
Raw and carded fleece available
Full time management of agisted stock
Visitors welcome by appointment
“For quality and peace of mind, the choice is Gunnamatta”
Contact: Sue Maynard and John Hay
16 Mansfield Road Galston 2159
Telephone: (02) 9653 2277
Email: [email protected]
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ALPACA
MN3
A010/2004/09
web: www.gunnamattastud.com.au
Small FARMS 43
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - British White
British whites are
still going strong
British White cattle have
now been in Australia for
47 years. Mr and Mrs
Hordern imported the first
stock from England to
NSW, and from those,
along with a couple of
small imports a few years
later, the British White
breed has continued.
The national British White
Society is now 21 years of
age. British White breeders
are committed to increasing
the numbers of one of the
rarer breeds in existence in
Australia.
An excellent trait and
special characteristic of the
British White is its ease of
management and tender
and flavoursome meat.
British Whites have a
white coat for sun reflection
- a necessity in our hot
climate - and have black
skin under the white coat
providing further resistance
to the sun’s harmful effects.
Its black areas deter the
onset of sun cancer with
black around the eyes, black
ears, black teats and black
around the muzzle and the
muzzle itself. The breed is
also naturally polled,
thereby removing the need
for de-horning.
For those that like to have
house cows, milking a
straight-bred British White
or a British White cross
dairy breed means the
house cow will have soft
black teats that do not crack
in the winter!
The breed also features
hard, black hooves, ideal for
harsh rocky areas, wet
boggy areas and feedlots
where good, strong, hard
feet are desirable.
Another attribute of the
British White is the females’
mothering ability; they are
easy calvers under normal
circumstances
with
abundant milk production
following calving.
Cross-breeding with British
Whites is always beneficial
and although hybrid vigour
is usually an outcome of a
crossbreeding
program,
crossbreeding with British
Whites can provide some
‘extra’ benefits.
The extras can include fine
textured, flavoursome meat
with no excess fat after
long- term feeding (but
plenty enough to keep
carcasses
moist
in
refrigeration) and most
importantly, an excellent
saleable meat content ie:
British White Cattle
Society of Australia Ltd
For more information on this traditional
British Breed, ideal for Australian
conditions, please contact the secretary,
Lee Gore, on
Ph/Fax: (07) 4695 8561
Email: [email protected]
www.britishwhiteaustralia.com
44 Small FARMS
A mature British White bull with a purebred
British White cow at Finley, NSW.
meat to bone, with British
Whites achieving higher
meat to bone ratios.– ie:
more meat less bone.
There are many discerning
butchers in the industry
aware of the excellent eating
qualities of British Whites.
On the dairy front,
crossbreeding with Friesians
has
also
proved
advantageous.
The British White Friesian
steers finish much, much
sooner in feedlotting and
some Friesian dairies are
milking the female British
White Friesians to add a
little more fat content to
their milk.
Traditionally, before the
importation of Friesians to
the British Isles, the British
White was used as a dairy
breed.
In Northern Queensland,
where ticks and harsher
situations of drought and
heavy rains occur, cattle
breeders
have
been
overwhelmed with the
stamina of their British
White cross Bos-Indicus
type cattle.
The British White Cattle
Society of Australia Ltd is
very keen to hear from
anyone who may be
running British Whites or
breeding them in an effort
to keep track of all
registered
and
nonregistered cattle. With
commercial cattle of rarer
breeds, the cattle may get
lost along with the change
of
properties
and
cancellation
of
memberships.
If you are interested in
finding out more about
British Whites or have some
in your herd, the society
welcomes contact from you.
Society secretary, Lee Gore,
commented
that
commercial demand for
British White beef currently
outstrips breed numbers,
with the breed thereby
offering a viable commercial
return for cattle producers
choosing the British White. ■
■ For more information or
to join the British White
Cattle Society of Australia,
phone 07 4695 8561 or
visit the website at
www.britishwhiteaustralia.com
April 2005
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - British White
Strategy used for
breeding program
Mrs J.S. Grice has been
breeding British White
cattle since she and her late
husband retired in 1982.
The stud currently runs
about 100 head, with the
aim to increase the herd to
150.
Mrs Grice has been active
in showing her cattle at the
Sydney, Melbourne and
Adelaide shows and her
breeding program has
proved successful.
In recent times she has
collected a large stock of
semen from her top bulls
and has tried embryo
transfer with her breeders.
“During the drought I was
forced to cull heavily, but
since conditions have
improved I have started a
strategy to build numbers
by a breeding program
using Aberdeen Angus
females,” she said.
Finley High School
Agriculture teacher, Robyn
O’Leary, asked Mrs Grice if
she would be interested in
assisting the school with its
involvement
in
steer
competitions and Mrs Grice
agreed to provide three
steers for the school’s 12strong.
Robyn said the best result
for the group so far was a
steer that was judged second
on the hoof and second on
the hook in the class for
steers weighing 221-261kg
dressed weight, with eight
Purebred red pointed British White, 2nd on hoof
and 2nd on hook at the 2004 Melbourne Royal.
to 13mm of fat.
The steer was 440kg live
weight and dressed at
254.8kg,
returning
a
dressing yield of 57.9 per
cent and scoring an overall
87.5 from 100.
Robyn said the school
enjoys preparing the steers.
“The carcass is better than
you think, and they cut
better than they look with
more meat than you can
visualise,” ■
“Offering some of the best British White
genetics available in Australia today”
Now available from Ravenswood is a
semen bank from fullblood bulls
■ “Ravenswood Toreador”
■ “Ravenswood Romulus”
■ “Ravenswood Remus”
Also AP and A grade cows are
now available for those
genuinely interested in
furthering the breed.
Ravenswood Tolmacha with her Bull Calf at last year’s
Royal Melbourne Show
“British White, the ancient breed
suitable for today’s conditions”
Ravenswood Stud
Founded 1982
Contact Mrs J.S. Grice, Benalla, Victoria.
April 2005
Telephone: (03) 5768 2402
Small FARMS 45
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Devon
Exciting time for
Devon breeders
It is an exciting time for
Devon cattle breeders in
Australia,
with
an
international judge coming
to rank the breed at the
Sydney Royal and plans
starting to unfold for the
8th World Devon Congress
which is to be hosted by
Australia in 2008.
Devon Cattle Breeders
Society of Australia Ltd
director Craig Bloomfield,
said a highlight of the
Sydney judging would be
US cattleman Gerald Fry, a
founder
of
Bakewell
Reproductive Centre and
involved
with
the
development of grass-fed
cattle in the US.
Mr Fry has developed a live
animal evaluation system
using linear measurements
system. Mr Bloomfield said
it would be interesting to
see this system put into
practice at the Sydney Royal
show ring.
Mr Fry’s system allows
breeders to sort and rank
animals on qualities such as
reproductive
viability,
volume of retail product,
early
maturity,
and
economically
superior
performance on grass.
It works by looking at the
relationship of various
measurements on the
animal, including the top
line length, the length of
the neck and the length of
the body, the heart girth,
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P.O. Box 72, Gloucester, N.S.W. 2422.
Telephone/Fax: (02) 4994 7189
Email [email protected]
Web site: www.devoncattle.com
See us at ....
Tocal Field Days
29th April - 1st May
Upcoming sales...
Barnstaple Female Sale
Contact Graeme Barnes,
Barnstaple Devons, (02) 6743 5222
Buy Devons for excellent returns and performance
in the good times and for their renowned survival
abilities in the harder times.
Devon cows thriving in the drought at Gundooee
Poll Devon Stud at Coolabah, between Nyngan
and Bourke.
shoulder width rump length
as a percentage of the body
length, the flank girth
(circumference),
as
measured in front of the
udder and in front of the
hook bones, the rump
width and rump height. For
more details on Gerald Fry’s
system, visit the website
www.bakewellrepro.com ■
■ The Queensland branch
of the Devon Cattle
Breeders
Society
of
Australia is promoting the
benefits of Devon cattle in
the Queensland industry.
Many people are looking
to put back a Devon
influence into their beef
herds in Queensland and
the Society believes many
producers will pursue this
course.
Devon breeder and society
spokesman, Bevan Walker,
said with the varied terrain
and climate in Queensland
cattle producers are able to
prove the breed under a
wide range of conditions.
“The commercial beef
producers are seeing the
benefits of crossing using
Devons. We also find that
the commercial producers
are becoming aware of the
benefits of the Devon breed
to help boost the meat
quality of their commercial
herds.” ■
Devon Cattle Breeders QLD
Devons are widely distributed
throughout Queensland and are
performing well under a variety of
climatic conditions.
For availability of cattle
and further information contact:
Bevan Walker, “Jaibell Stud”
Ph: 07 4663 1260
46 Small FARMS
April 2005
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Devon
Bongalabi carries
on with tradition
The home of Bongalabi
Devons and Peter and
Margie Mullins, is situated
at Lake Bathurst, 30km
south of Goulburn.
Currently, Bongalabi
Devons run 250 breeders,
the majority of which are
registered and apart from
the traditional steer sales,
the main enterprise is the
sale of registered breeders
and bulls.
Due to the MN3 status
(bovine
jones
status)
Bongalabi Devons has been
a closed herd until recently,
but
the
incorporated
bloodlines are a genetic mix
of all significant national
herds.
Margie, who manages the
cattle, has selectively polled
the herd. She said in order
to maintain the bone and
size of the cattle, the polling
process has been slow.
“I don’t keep a beast
simply because it is polled,
it has to conform with all
the selection criteria,” she
said.
“Devon cattle have been a
passion of mine since my
father,
Sidney
Fry,
introduced them to western
Australia in 1952. He was
originally from Devon and
always thought the cattle
would do very well in
Australia, as of course did
out first settlers.”
Devon cattle came out
with the early fleets, chosen
for qualities including
temperament, mothering
qualities and dual purpose
efficiency.
“Added to the above, the
breed has now been
improved by dedicated
breeders to the point where
they can out-perform or
match
any
of
the
traditionally popular breeds
in weaning weights, meat
quality, marbling and
weight gains.” ■
■ The herd at Little
Manning Devons has been
in existence at the same
location for more than a
century and the stud is
owned by David, Grahame
and Brian Edwards in
conjunction with Neil and
Phyllis Edwards.
David, Grahame and Brian
are the 6th generation to
live on the 1620ha property
in the rugged country in the
north-west of Gloucester.
The current stud herd is 25
registered cows and 11
bulls. A herd of 150
commercials is also run on
the Gloucester property.
What cattle did the first settlers
choose to bring to N.S.W.?
Devons
This pure British breed had a reputation for milk, meat
and good mothering - and this was in the 1870’s !!!
Stock your property, improve your herd, with these
quiet drought resistant cattle.
◆ Polled or horned, registered or commercial.◆
Margie and Peter Mullins,
Bongalabi Devons, Lake Bathurst, NSW., 2580.
Tel: (02) 4849 4446 Fax: (02) 4849 4637
Grand champion bull, Brisbane Royal Show 2004 Palinga Buckeye, handled by owner Vic Edwards.
In years since the herd was
established the family has
not changed breeds.
“Sticking with the same
breed was not because the
family was against change,
it was because no real
evidence was ever presented
that a change would give a
better result.”
Other cattle have been
trialed and Neil believes
every cattle breed has its
place.
“But no breed is better
suited to the tough
conditions at Gloucester
than the Devon.” ■
LITTLE MANNING
DEVONS
Breeding Devons for Six Generations!
Bulls for Sale
Also offering quality cattle from
excellent bloodlines
Enquiries most welcome.
David, Grahame and Brian Edwards.
Neil and Phyllis Edwards
Ph/ Fax: (02) 6558 7596
306 Hunter Carter Road, Gloucester, NSW, 2422
Email: [email protected]
April 2005
Small FARMS 47
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Dexter
The small breed
with a big future
How and why have these
little cattle won so many
hearts and minds?
It may well be the Dexters'
temperament that evokes
the emotion in their
owners.
The obvious desire that
Dexters have to interact
readily with people and
other animals sets them
apart from other breeds.
The origin of the Dexter is
almost certainly responsible
for their friendly, curious
nature. Because of their
smaller size, these cattle
were cottage cattle in
Ireland, kept inside by
farmers with limited land
during the bitter Kerry
Mountains
winters.
Eventually the Irish and
English aristocracy began to
notice and admire Dexters.
Dexters today are now
established world wide, no
longer a rare breed but still a
minority specialist one.
The Irish heritage was a
big plus for the breed,
showing it is an old breed,
not a new, manufactured
breed of cattle.
Dexter are easy and regular
calvers and many Dexter
mothers are routinely
milking and calving into
their 20s.
Dexter milk has special
qualities and is rich, creamy
and high in protein, up
with the best of the dairy
cattle in most areas. Cheese
and butter makers among
the Dexter Cattle Australia
Inc membership have
enjoyed success with these
A naturally small breed, the Dexter’s docile nature
is also ideal for first time cattle producers
products. Dexter meat is
popular and almost every
breeder can find a ready
circle of buyers for any
steers that are produced,
hung
and
butchered
properly.
The Dexter breed was a
naturally small animal, not
a miniature of another
breed, therefore allowing it
to keep its natural
characteristics.
They are also “low
pressure” on the farm’s
infrastructure. They come
in three colours – black, red
and dun (brownish). ■
A Dexter or Two For You ?
● Highly fertile, early maturing with strong maternal ability and instinct.
● Dexters are easy on your land, easy to care for and very easy to love.
● Expert and enthusiastic foragers.
● These little cattle won’t knock your fences and gates, or you, around and
require minimal maintenance.
● Dexter cattle have a calm and quiet temperament and are a naturally
small breed (not miniaturised).
FURTHER INFORMATION IS FREELY AVAILABLE FROM: Dexter Cattle Australia Inc.
Agricultural Business Research Institute (ABRI) University of New England,
Armidale, NSW, 2351. Ring, write, email or fax Dexter Cattle Australia Inc on:
Ph: (02) 6773 3471 Fax: (02) 6772 1943, Email: [email protected]
48 Small FARMS
April 2005
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Welsh Black
Hardy breed and
a unique flavour
They say the proof is in the
eating, and if sales at
Morrison
Street
Continental Butchers in
Wodonga, Victoria, are any
indication, then the Welsh
Black
cattle
being
produced in the State’s
King Valley area have a
bright future.
Michael Frederick has
been sourcing Welsh Black
cattle from Winnie Jones,
‘Mt Bellevue’, Myrrhee who
operates the Silver Metal
Welsh Black Stud from a
440ha property.
Michael said the Welsh
Black was a very economical
beast for butchers and he
was achieving as much as 70
per cent carcass yield.
“That’s better than OK
and the quality is good; fine
texture, the colour is a bit
darker, but the customers
are enjoying the flavours.
“It has a different aroma
and taste to meat from a
Hereford or Murray Grey.
“Older steers are also
producing good marbling.”
Michael said the Welsh
Black is a very old and solid
breed and it is one of the
most popular in Britain.
The Welsh Black also fits
well
into
Michael’s
butchering business which
specialises in all natural
foods and also includes
producing his own range of
smallgoods.
They use no artificial
colours,
preservatives,
glutens or artificial MSG in
their products as they
promote pure food to their
customers.
He said the Welsh Black
gives his range a ‘gutsy
flavoured’ meat.
As well as supplying the
Welsh Black meat to his
retail customers, Michael
said the meat was attracting
good interest from a
number of restaurants he
also supplies.
He has also taken the
Welsh Black meat and value
added by making a Welsh
Black salami and sausages
based on the Welsh Black
meat with butter, leek and
walnut.
Because it bones out so
well and gives a high yield,
it means the meat can still
be competitive on price,”
Michael said.
Michael said Winnie was
very careful to ensure the
stock were delivered in the
best possible condition,
handling them quietly on
Supreme Exhibit in the Welsh Black section,
Melbourne Royal 2004, Silver Metal Delmi.
the farm and even
transporting them in a
specially padded truck, that
is never packed too tightly.
Winnie knew the value of
the Welsh Black when she
owned a farm in Wales, but
also knew that these cattle
would perform well on her
property in the King Valley
as it shared similar
characteristics to Wales.
“It is the type of country
where the Welsh Black
come to the fore and just
thrive,” she said.
“Apart from the fact that
the cattle have done so well
in the conditions, the most
exciting thing about them is
the fabulous acceptance
their meat has received from
local
butchers
and
restaurants,” Winnie said.
Welsh Black cattle are now
established throughout the
UK, and there are also herds
in the USA, germany,
Canada, New Zealand and
Australia.
These animals were first
imported into australia
from New zealand in 1984.
The majority of Welsh
Blacks are horned although
naturally polled cattle are
available in increasing
numbers in colours of red
and black.
This hardy animal has a
thick-hair coat that can
remain long or sleek
depending on the climate.
Because of their hardiness
they can thrive on diets and
in conditions that would
not maintain less welladapted breeds. ■
A true breed with plenty of performance...
...and plenty of emphasis on beef production
Welsh Black stud stock, bulls & semen for sale
Delivery can be arranged Australia wide
Contact: Winnie Jones or Mal Douglass, Mount Bellevue, Myrrhee, Moyhu, Victoria, 3732
Phone: (03) 5729 7539 Fax: (03) 5729 7521 Mobile: 0402 849 089 or 0428 895 116
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]
April 2005
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VC635
Small FARMS 49
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Galloway
Association for
Galloway cattle
It is a matter of historic
record that Galloway beef
tastes great as in his
writings of 1570, Hector
Boece says: “Ar mony fair
ky and oxin of quhilk”
which translates to “The
flesh is right delicious and
tender”.
Galloways are a beefproducing breed and with
the excellence of Galloway
beef acknowledged and
recorded hundreds of years
ago they stand as a relevant
breed in today’s demanding
beef market.
“We
are
seeing
sophistication in the beef
industry, new technologies
and innovation driving
competitive advantage.
“Still the excellence of the
ancient Galloway breed
shows
through
with
Galloways winning carcase
competitions and taste
tests,” Galloway Cattle and
Beef Marketing Association
president, Anthony Rowley,
said.
“Our breed’s success in
competition is out of all
proportion to their modest
numbers”.
Anthony explained the
name of the association
mirrors the three key
elements
of
their
operations.
“Galloway Cattle is the
maintenance of quality
straight-bred
Galloway,
Belted Galloway, and White
Galloway
seed-stock,
Miniature
Galloways,
GALLOWAYS
BLACK DUN BELTED
WHITE MINIATURE
AUSTRALIA’S SMALL FARM FAVOURITES
✔Easy Management ✔Hardy ✔Carcase Champions
Ideal for small holdings
Assistance and Advice Available
Meet the friendly, professional breeders
Phone: 02 6241 5474
Mobile: 0418 623 998
[email protected]
www.gallowaycattle.com.au
50 Small FARMS
Galloways come in a variety of colours. They are
also notable for their non-selective grazing habit.
successor breeds, and to
foster
performance
measurement
and
recording. Beef Marketing
is to promote Galloway beef
and to develop group
marketing strategies and
Association is to encourage
collaboration and shared
learning, and to provide
quality
systems
for
administration. Whatever
the production goal is the
Association seeks to assist
Galloway breeders to strive
to achieve”.
Mr Rowley commended
the association’s newsletters,
which are available free for
12 months.
The first Galloway
pedigrees were recorded in
the Polled Herd Book of
Great Britain published
about
1843
with
Galloway sharing the Polled
Herd Book with Aberdeen
Angus until 1867.
Galloways are long living,
very resistant to disease,
easy to manage and create
strong
hybrid
vigour
because of the purity of the
breed.
They have a unique double
coat of hair and with just a
one inch thicker coat, a cow
needs between 20 and 25
per cent less digestible feed
intake to maintain body
weight when it’s cold.
Because of the Galloway
double hair coat, carcasses
lack the extra layer of back
fat common to many other
breeds, helping Galloways
to dress out at 60 to 62 per
cent of live weight.
The Galloway cow is
noted for ease of caving, is a
protective mother, and has
an abundant supply of
milk.
The beef from Galloways
is low in total fat and in
saturated fat, which means
that it is less likely than beef
from other breeds to
contribute to the body’s
production of harmful
cholesterol.
Galloway breeds have been
proven to be superior feed
converters and in our tests
at Olds
Agricultural
College, Olds, Alberta,
over a 10-year period
Galloways used the least
feed per kilogram of weight
gain. These high feed
conversion rates are what
makes all three Galloway
breeds profitable year after
year.
Contact
association
secretary Lois Rowley (02)
6241 5474 or visit
www.gallowaycattle.com.au ■
April 2005
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Galloway
Producing a top
quality animal
Val and Barry Presland,
principals of Black Watch
Galloway Stud, are keen
promoters of the Galloway
breed with a main aim, of
producing top quality
calves and steers.
Val explained the success
of Galloway cross steers and
pure bred Galloway steers
in steer competitions has
still not convinced many
commercial breeders to try
Galloway Bulls to assist in
producing top steers.
“One of our neighbours
used one of our Galloway
Bulls as a follow up bull last
year and has produced great
calves from him.
“Because of this, he
decided to use our
Galloway bull as a follow up
once again.”
Val said they hoped this
was proof that will start to
convince other breeders to
make use of Galloway bulls
in the future.
“Since 1999 we are slowly
building up a herd of top
Galloway cattle on our
property, and in spite of the
continued
drought
conditions, major wins are
being achieved at various
shows,” Val said.
In 2004 they had success
at Quirindi Prime Stock
Show with a Galloway
Cross Steer shown by the
Calrossy Girls School,
getting a third place in the
light weight steer hoof and
hook class.
The school were also
showing
a
fullblood
Galloway steer with success
at
Tamworth
Show,
achieving
the
Grand
Champion Led Steer on the
hoof. This steer is going to
be shown at the Sydney
Royal in the hoof and hook
class.
“Once again in 2004 we
exhibited at Brisbane Royal
Show to defend our titles,
achieving this by winning
Champion Galloway Bull
with Black Watch St
Nicholas
W5
and
Champion Galloway Cow
or Heifer with Black Watch
Black Watch Stud’s, “Black Watch Electra Y8”,
Junior Champion Heifer, Canberra Royal, 2005
Winsome W1 and her calf,”
Val revealed.
This means they have
achieved champions at
Brisbane continuously in
Senior and Junior classes
since 2001.
“After a first place last year
at Canberra Royal Show,
this year Black Watch St
Nicholas W5 was judged
Supreme
Champion
Galloway Exhibit, Black
Watch Electra Y8 was
judged Junior Champion
Galloway Heifer.”
“Black Watch Liberty X9
was
judged
Reserve
Champion Galloway Cow
or Heifer.
“We were also judged
winners of the Galloway
Breeders Group.”
Val said their priority is to
continue producing quality
standard and miniature
Galloways and commercial
cattle at the property,
situated 25km east of
Tamworth at Dungowan.
NSW.
For information contact
Val and Barry Presland on
(02) 6769 4229. ■
BLACK WATCH GALLOWAY STUD
Home of
“Black Watch
St Nicholas W5”
Supreme Champion Galloway Exhibit,
Canberra Royal 2005
Black Standard & Miniature Galloways with a good choice
of cows, calves and bulls always available for sale.
Black Watch St Nicholas W5
April 2005
Contact: Barry & Val Presland,
“Rockdale”, Dungowan, NSW, 2340.
Ph: (02) 6769 4229, Fax: (02) 6769 4368
Email: [email protected]
Small FARMS 51
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Galloway
Studs building up
on the numbers
Jan and Robert Matheson
of
Honeypot
Farm
Miniature Galloways near
Canberra are looking
forward to seeing three of
their new calves develop.
The champion bull,
Garbstone Emilio, who has
been reserve small breeds
interbreed champion at
Melbourne Royal for the
past few years, has produced
three calves - two bulls and
a heifer.
Jan said the Emilio calves
were
looking
quite
promising.
Another development at
Honeypot Farm has been
the
introduction
of
miniature Belted Galloway
cattle.
In October 2004 five
Miniature Belted Galloway
cows and two Miniature
Belted Galloway heifers
were introduced to the
herd.
Presently the Mathesons
have 30 head of cattle
running on their 12ha
property, located 40km
north of Canberra, as well
as some agistment country
across the road.
Robert said there was a
further expansion planned
for the stud with the
purchase of 40ha at Rye
Park, near Boorowa, where
the commercial herd would
be run.
Cattle from
Honeypot Farm is displayed
at a variety of shows
throughout the district. ■
■ Canberra Royal Show
proved to be a successful
outing for Cathy Hansch
of Billyzon Miniature
Galloway
Stud
at
Bungendore.
Cathy exhibited Big Rock
Daisy X1 for the senior and
grand champion female,
supreme breed exhibit and a
third placing in the
interbreed judging.
Big Rock Daisy Y2 took
the
junior
champion
females, Big Rock Daisy Y1
as the reserve senior
champion female and
Nadinna Warwick which
was the senior and grand
champion bull and was
placed second in the
interbreed judging.
Honeypot Farm have now added Miniature Belted
Galloways to their breeding program at the stud.
Cathy has been breeding
Miniature Galloways for the
past year and has worked
with preparing cattle for
other breeders in and
around the Canberra
region.
While attending a function
she heard that a Miniature
Galloway herd was being
dispersed, so she bought
into the breed.
She now runs 12 registered
Miniature Galloways on
their 80ha farm, alongside a
herd
of
some
20
Charolais/Angus-cross cattle.
Cathy said she plans to
expand the herd as well as
promote
the
breed
throughout the Canberra
area.
She said the size of the
Miniature Galloways made
them ideal for people with
smaller acreages wanting to
run beef cattle.
Their double coat meant
they coped better with the
extreme conditions in the
region and Cathy said just
because they are small does
not mean they don’t
produce.
Her bull Warwick stood
119cm tall and tipped the
scales at 690kg, while a cow
she sold commercially at the
Moss
Vale
saleyards
weighed in at 518kg. ■
“Home of Galloway Champions”
Including....
“Garbstone Emilio”,
◆Supreme Champion Senior Bull, Miniature
Galloway Exhibit, Royal Canberra Show 2004
◆Reserve Champion Interbreed Bull,
Small Breeds, Royal Melbourne Show
2003 & 2004
“Garbstone Errin”,
◆Grand Champion Miniature Galloway Female,
Small Breeds, Royal Canberra Show 2003
◆Reserve Female, Small Breed Interbreed,
Royal Me.bourne Show 2003
“Garbstone Gregory”,
Semen Straws available
◆Junior Champion Miniature Galloway Bull,
Royal Canberra Show 2003
◆Reserve Senior Champion Miniature Galloway
Bull, Royal Canberra Show 2004
Now also breeding
Miniature Belted
Galloways
Visitors and enquiries welcome. Contact - Jan Matheson
Honeypot Farm Miniature Galloways, Phone (02) 6226 8254, Email: [email protected]
52 Small FARMS
April 2005
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Galloway
A breed that has
a lot to offer
Eve Cullen says that people
just don’t understand what
is under the coats of
Galloway cattle.
Eve and Paul have been
breeding Galloway and
Belted Galloway cattle for
the past 25 years at the
Hawkshead
Stud
at
Marulan,
north
of
Goulburn.
They started with some
animals imported from
New Zealand and now have
45 solid coloured Galloways
and 43 Belted Galloways,
which are all registered, as
well as a commercial herd
which stood at 120 head
before a heavy culling
program as a result of the
prolonged drought cut
numbers back to 60.
Mrs Cullen said they took
the decision to sell every
breeder that was over eight
years old, with the
exception of one which
lived to 23 years and
produced 20 calves for
Hawkshead Stud.
Mrs Cullen said the
Galloway’s ability to survive
and do well in drought
conditions was incredible
and their foraging ability
amazing.
“We run Limousine over
the commercial herd and
they have not coped as well
with the dry as the
Galloways,” she said.
“The Galloway’s ability to
convert rough feed is
amazing as is their
mothering ability and ease
of calving.”
“The Galloway’s natural
environment in Scotland
resulted in producing a
hardy animal, used to living
on barren hillsides with
little or no assistance.
“They also have a very
muscular carcase and carry a
gene for marbling.”
The Cullens sell most of
their stock direct to
butchers and Mrs Cullen
said they have established a
good niche market with
butchers situated in the
local area.
The Cullens have also had
their share of show ring
success having bred a steer
that was second in his class
on the hoof and then
champion on the hook to
take Grand champion steer
at the Sydney Royal three
years ago. At the recent
Canberra show they showed
Hawkshead Banda Tiffany
for the Grand Champion
Belted cow award. Four
years earlier, as a heifer,
Tiffany was the junior
Billyzon Stud’s Big Rock Daisy X1 and Billyzon
Daisy Zephyr, Interbreed Female, Melbourne
Royal, 2004.
champion, and Mrs Cullen
said she has not looked back
since.
“They are a remarkable
breed that is under graded
in the market place,”
“They have a lot to offer;
they are frugal to feed but
are a moderate sized animal
with cows coming in at
500-550kg and bulls 10001200kg.’ she said.
For information contact
Paul and Eve Cullen at
Hawkshead Galloway stud
on (02) 4884 1512. ■
Billyzon
Black/Dun/White Miniature Galloway cattle
Stud & Commercial stock for sale
RECENT WINNERS AT CANBERRA ROYAL SHOW 2005...
◆ SUPREME EXHIBIT MINIATURE GALLOWAY FEMALE
◆ CHAMPION BULL & COW
◆ JUNIOR CHAMPION MINIATURE GALLOWAY FEMALE
◆ BREEDERS GROUP
Contact: Kathy Hansch
285 Briars Road, Bungendore, NSW 2621
Ph: 02 62382422 Fax: 02 62382792
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.mobilemooservice.com.au
Hawkshead Galloway Stud
Black Dun Belted
Stud and Commercial - For True Quality
Breeders of multi-award winning show cattle
Visitors always very welcome
Contact: Paul & Eve Cullen
Hume Highway, Marulan, NSW, 2579
“Hawkshead Banda Penguin”
April 2005
Phone/Fax (02) 4884 1512
Small FARMS 53
BRITISH CATTLE BREEDS - Galloway
Temperament &
carcase factors
Galloway cattle have been
bred for both good
temperament and carcase
qualities on Greg and Chris
Stuart’s “Minto” property
at Yass, NSW for over 15
years.
The property is south of
Yass in hill country at an
elevation of 700m.
The Galloways are content
to do well on rough pasture
in either cold winter or hot
and windy summer weather.
Greg and Chris, members
of the Galloway Cattle and
Beef Marketing Association
Inc, breed Galloways that
produce excellent quality
meat.
This natural Galloway
ability is being directly
utilised by Greg and Chris,
in fact, the bulk of their
farm income now comes
from their sales of naturally
produced Galloway beef.
They are direct selling to
satisfied customers in the
Canberra Yass area as well as
supplying a local award
winning restaurant and
butcher.
Breeding cattle for their
beef properties continues to
underpin their show and
carcase
competition
successes.
Over the last two years
Minto Galloways have won
broad ribbons at Royal
Canberra Shows, Royal
Melbourne Show, local
regional shows and were
breed Champions at the
2004 Sydney Royal Easter
Minto
Galloways
Grand Champion Cow and Grand Champion Bull
at the Sydney Royal 2004, Minto Kirsty & Minto
Isaac.
Show. Greg and Chris are
also marketing beautiful,
winter skin, Galloway floor
rugs.
A limited number of stud
and commercial cattle are
available for sale.
Only cattle of 100%
Galloway breeding are
available as stud cattle so
that future breeders can be
assured of progeny with
only
Galloway
characteristics.
For further information
contact Greg and Chris
Stuart, Minto Galloways on
(02) 6230 2536 . ■
Small FARMS
BOOK SHOP
All prices include GST, Postage & Handling costs within Australia
$55.95
354 pages
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564 pages
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165 pages
$44.95
499 pages
Breeders of Champion
Galloways
Young stud & commercial bulls for sale
Visitors are most welcome
Greg and Chris Stuart,
“Minto”, Anchow Hill Rd
via Barton Hwy, via Yass, NSW, 2582
Tel: (02) 6230 2536
Fax: (02) 6230 9336
Email: [email protected]
54 Small FARMS
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Be quick, books available only while stocks last
You can also order books on line. See our range at
www.smallfarms.net
April 2005
CATTLE REPORT - Square Dinkum sale
A sale that is not
to be missed
By Glen Jackson
It all started by first
acknowledging a largely
ignored sector of the beef
industry, a sector that
received all the “leftover”
cattle. That sector was the
domestic beef market
which is approximately
40% of all beef produced
in Australia.
The local trade has
relatively
narrow
specifications to fulfil the
needs of its customers:
Yearling beef that is not over
fat, has smaller sized cuts
and above all, tasty and
tender. Why shouldn’t
Australian consumers have
quality beef on their plate?
The great Australian beef
product deserved a great
Australian beef cattle breed
to supply it and that animal
was grey . . . early maturing,
low birthweight, had great
pelvic structure for easy
calving, fast growing, easy
finishing, very efficient
grass converters. So it was
set about to produce this
product from the “original”
Murray Greys, shorter in
statue, long in body, wide
and muscular, very mobile
and super fertile.
A minimum and maximum
height restriction was put in
place to maintain the early
maturity of these beautiful
cattle and they were named
Square Meaters.
Now Square Meaters beef
cattle have come of age and
to mark this maturing the
first big sale of Square
Meaters cattle is being held
at Goulburn in May.
Some of the leading
seedstock breeders are
offering cattle at this multivendor sale - The Square
Dinkum Sale.
Registered and herd bulls,
registered A and B cows and
heifers, plus semen and
embryo packages. (‘B’ class
cows are not second rate in
the Square Meaters breed,
they simply measure above
the height restriction for ‘A’
class but are very useful
breeders in maintaining
stature in the breed, as it is
not a miniature breed but a
medium framed breed and
heifer calves that measure
within
the
height
restrictions from these cows
are registered as ‘A’ class
cattle.) This sale is not only
for those wishing to expand
or establish a seedstock herd
but also for those wishing to
breed quality beef with
commercial realities.
This is a commercially
viable beef breed firstly
because of its deep history
of producing quality beef in
Square Meaters cattle are now recognised as an
early maturing, medium frame, high yielding beef
breed.
beautiful softness needed in
Australia for many decades.
producing yearling cattle.
Secondly the breed
We call it a retrospecialises in producing
innovation
in
beef
only tasty tender yearling
production. When you are
beef for Australian foodies.
producing a single market
Thirdly, and most
product there is no
importantly these cattle are
ambiguity- only specifics- a
not miniature toys but
clear definition of what is
rather medium framed,
required; Square Meaters
highly fertile cattle that
are that clear definition in
produce calves to meet the
domestic beef production.
domestic
trade
There is no room for error,
specifications from weaning
you must do it very well and
to yearling age, and because
stay focused on the end
calves are sent to market
results, hence the Square
before the next drop of
Meaters slogan “No Ifs calves arrive, more cows can
Just Butts”. ■
be stocked, thus increasing
the number of calves sold
each year. Also they produce
■ Glen Jackson - SMCAA
a high yielding carcass with
Director NSW & Square
the aim of breeding long,
Dinkum Sale Co-ordinator.
well muscled cattle with a
Proudly supported by...
SQUARE DINKUM SALE
A Square Meaters Multi-vendor Sale
Saturday 7 May 2005 at Goulburn Saleyards - Inspections from 9 am - Sale at 12 noon
Catalogued for sale: 9 registered bulls, 14 registered A & B cows, 30 registered A & B heifers, 3 semen packages, 2 embryo
packages, 7 herd bulls, 4 young herd cows Square Meaters breeders: Brinsley - Cluskers - Gleannholme - Kelkette Rainbow - Sunrise Cottage - Thurloo Park - Woolaringa
Square Meaters Cattle Association of Australia Ltd 02 9834 4322. Sale coordinator 02 6543 1413
April 2005
Small FARMS 55
AQUACULTURE - Marron farming
Recognising the
marron potential
By Kathy Boladeras
It’s a little-known fact that
the marron is native to the
permanent river systems of
WA’s south-west.
The name may have
originated from the French
word for water chestnut
(due perhaps to its colour)
or from an Aboriginal term
meaning food or bread.
Left to grow to old age
they can reach weights of up
to 2kg and they have a
higher “tail with shell”
recovery rate (42%) than
other freshwater crayfish.
They are also good for youtheir body fat contains
omega-3 highly unsaturated
fatty acids which are
believed to have a positive
effect
on
lowering
cholesterol.
Over the last 25 years a
viable industry has evolved
in this State from the
controlled harvesting of
cherox tenuimanus, as
farmers came to recognise
the commercial potential of
their existing dams to
support
marron
populations. A successful
industry has also been
established
on
South
Australia’s Kangaroo Island.
The moderate climates of
these areas seem best suited
to marron production.
Jeff and Carol Proctor
dipped their toes in the
waters of the new growth
industry about 12 years ago,
when they applied for a
Restricted Farm Dam
Trappers License. Jeff ’s
family
came
to
Donnybrook, an area south
of Perth famous for its
apples, in 1945. In the
ensuing years the 90 ha
property has produced
potatoes, tomatoes, apples
and beef. In researching less
56 Small FARMS
labour intensive income
sources, Jeff began looking
in his own backyard.
“We always had some
marron in the dams, going
back at least 40 years so
about five years ago we
started to get serious about
harvesting
them
commercially,” Jeff said.
As their Restricted License
only allowed the sale of
produce to wholesalers the
next step was to upgrade to
an Aquaculture License
specific to marron.
The Proctors joined with
about forty other growers to
form
Pemberton
Aquaculture Producers, a
co-operative which buys all
their produce and on-sells
to markets in Europe and
Asia.
Shaun Whittaker from
Pemberton
Aquaculture
says there are 190 registered
marron growers in WA.
These fall into two
categories: semi-intensive,
farm dam operators who
produce over 50% of the
state’s output; and monoculture growers whose sole
income is generated from
marron production.
Jeff describes his operation
as non labour-intensive and
low cost - an ideal ‘semiretirement plan’. Apart
from the purchase of
juveniles from Pemberton
Aquaculture in 2000 to
replace stock lost from a
burst dam wall, the marron
population in his 22 dams
(constituting around 10 ha
of water) is self-sustainable.
This year he harvested
2000kg. At around $23/kg
that’s a pretty good return
when you consider his only
costs are grain pellets and
fuel for the aerating pumps.
Jeff and Carol add feed
pellets into the dams each
The aerator or paddle wheel operating on Bob and
Jill Wilson’s Marron farm.
week, and every two
baited double crab nets.
months they harvest around
They return anything
150kg of marron using
smaller than 200g to the
April 2005
AQUACULTURE - Marron farming
Females carrying eggs are called ‘berried’. Each
female can carry up to several hundred eggs but
normally only 100-200 juveniles hatch.
These marron are 3-4 years of age and weigh
between 166 to 519grams.
water to allow further
growth and development.
The catch is quickly
transferred to purging tanks
where water circulated
through a biofilter and kept
at 18 degrees Centigrade
washes the dam silt from
the crustaceans’ gills.
Each of the six tanks can
accommodate 50kg of
marron. After two days
they are packed into
polystyrene boxes and
freighted to Pemberton.
Jeff says he is fortunate to
April 2005
be located at the top of a
gully, so water flowing into
his dams is still fresh. To
promote optimum growth,
marron need oxygen in the
water at or above 8 parts per
million. To this end he has
installed electrically driven
paddle wheels and air
injectors
to
improve
aeration. The injectors
pump air down PVC pipe
to the deepest part of the
dam, forcing stagnant water
to the surface. Marron mate
in early spring when they
are 2-3 years old. The
female incubates 200-300
eggs under her tail for 1216 weeks, and in early
summer pre-juveniles are
released into the water.
Jeff cuts old car tyres in
half to form ‘donuts’, which
he places in the water to
provide shelter for the
developing juveniles.
Eventually the Proctors
would like to rely solely on
marron and his small beef
herd for their income.
They have already installed
two drainage ponds, with
plans for another four.
The ponds are compacted
clay, with drainage pipes
along the base so they can
be emptied periodically for
maintenance. At the other
end of the scale in this
industry are the big
commercial operators who
turn off ten times as many
tonnes of marron as do
some farm dam trappers,
although they supply less
than 50% of the total
market. Shaun Whittaker
says the start up capital and
ongoing labour costs are
substantial, and it is three
years before a return is
realised; the first twelve
months
to
build
infrastructure and then
another two years for
breeding stock to develop.■
■ Photographs kindly
supplied
by
Andreas
Frutiger,
Koonac
Enterprises.
Small FARMS 57
POULTRY - Squab meat pigeons
Making a living
farming pigeons
Thangool ●
By Stephanie Jackson,
When Sue and Frank
Phelan began their first
farming
venture
by
purchasing an established
pig farm at Thangool in
central
Queensland’s
Callide Valley, they knew
there would be good times
and bad, and were prepared
to put in plenty of hard
work. But after five years,
things were, Sue admits,
going from bad to worse.
With the supply of water
that is essential to maintain
a pig farm proving
inadequate, the cost of feed
rising while returns for their
product declined, and their
farm income subsequently
less than adequate, they
began, in 1998, to look for
an alternative lifestyle.
One option was to do
nothing
other
than
continue to work at their
off-farm jobs, and, once all
their pigs had been sold, to
leave the sheds that had
housed them empty. But
other farmers in the valley
had discovered a way to
supplement the often erratic
incomes they received from
growing crops or breeding
cattle. Neighbours were also
producing young meat
pigeons - squab and the
likes- so Sue and Frank
decided that would be the
path they too would take.
The pig sheds, with
58 Small FARMS
minimal work and expense,
were gutted and converted
into cages, and with 40
birds purchased from a local
producer, Sue and Frank
enthusiastically took their
first steps towards what they
were confident would be a
more prosperous future.
With additional birds
obtained from growers in
Cairns, it wasn’t long before
they were able to send a
small number of squab for
processing on a regular
basis.
The practical information
they would need to ensure
long-term success was often
hard to find, with the
internet providing limited
material of relevance to
Australian conditions, but
producers
who
had
established a regional
growers association were
eager to assist them.
As her knowledge of the
industry increased, Sue
became involved in the
process of transforming the
organisation into the
Callide Dawson Squab Cooperative that currently has
approximately 70 members.
Today at Sue and Frank’s
farm, a melody of contented
cooing emanates from the
cages that house 5-600
breeding pairs of pigeons.
The birds start to breed
when only 7-8 months old,
and usually lay two eggs at
each nesting, with both
parents incubating the eggs
until the squab hatch 16
days later.
When their young are
about two weeks old, the
adult birds lay again - in
another nest box - while
continuing to feed the first
pair of chicks.
An adequate amount of
food must be provided to
ensure that the breeding
birds
have
sufficient
amounts not only for
themselves, but also for
their young. Wel-fed squab
grow rapidly, and remain in
the nest until they are ready
for processing, which is
approximately 28 days after
hatching.
Wheat and corn are
essential ingredients to the
birds’ diet, together with
sorghum and a legume such
as mung bean or chickpea.
April 2005
POULTRY - Squab meat pigeons
The cages that house Sue and Frank Phelan’s
squab, are sheltered by the roof of the old pig
sheds.
An oil-based seed such as
sunflower, vitamins, and a
mineral supplement should
April 2005
also be included.
The use of pigeon pellets
eliminates the task of
A newly hatched chic that is ready for processing
approximately 28 days after hatching.
Mosquitos have also been
mixing feed, but with 1,500
cause for concern, with
birds devouring half a tonne
these carriers of pigeon pox
of pellets a week - in
infecting many of the birds
addition to the corn that
with a disease that can be
must also be provided fatal. And although birds
pellets, at around $650 a
can be vaccinated against it,
tonne, are an expensive
this additional cost, Sue
option. With all the grain
said, is rarely justified.
and other seeds the birds
Continual cleaning of the
require being grown in the
cages and nest boxes is
fertile Callide Valley,
essential to ensure the birds
traditional feed is, for Sue,
remain in optimum health.
the better option.
They must have a constant
The birds are fed twice a
supply of clean drinking
day, but in an effort to
water, and should be
reduce the workload in this
provided
with
large
highly labour intensive
containers of water for
form of farming, Frank has
bathing. This not only
built and installed selfhelps them to keep cool in
feeders in some of the cages.
the heat of summer, but
They worked well, Sue said,
also helps to control mites.
until a mouse plague
The sand covering the
erupted across the valley
concrete floors of the cages
during the winter. She
must be regularly raked and
recalls catching in excess of
cleaned, and the nesting
400 mice in a single night
boxes, constructed from old
in water traps, and was
plastic drums, are cleaned
forced to cut back on the
out once the squab have
birds’ feed and routinely
been removed.
empty all the self-feeders in
Culling of birds is also an
an effort to minimise the
essential part of an efficient
numbers of mice that were
operation, with only the
severely disrupting the
best birds - those with a
nesting birds.
Small FARMS 59
POULTRY - Squab meat pigeons
Sue inspects the development of some young squab in the nesting box.
large, short body, and that
nest 6-7 times a year to
produce 12-14 squab retained as Sue and Frank
strive
to
continually
60 Small FARMS
improve the quality of their
breeding stock.
Some 80-100 squab are
taken to the nearby abattoir
for processing each week,
but the ultimate goal, Sue
said, is to have 1,500
breeding pairs, which will
provide 250-300 squab
each week. On this scale,
they would be one of the
largest growers in the
region, with the additional
income enabling Frank to
give up his off-farm job to
work full time with the
birds.
The abattoir, operated at
Thangool by Queensland
Squab
Processors,
underwent
a
major
expansion in 2004, and is
now the largest squab
processing
facility
in
Australia, with 5,500-6,000
birds being processed each
week.
The frozen product is
currently being distributed
primarily
through
wholesalers in Sydney, but
with the process of gaining
export accreditation well
under way, Australian squab
could soon be on the dinner
table in Asian nations
including Japan, Thailand,
and Singapore.
One of the major benefits
of squab production,
according to Sue, is that it
provides a steady income
relatively quickly.
“Every fortnight you get
some income from it, but
it’s only as good as what you
put into it. If you start
cutting corners, you soon
know about it, and the
quality of your birds drops
off. And as in all rural
industries, a consistently
high quality product is
what is required by the
market.”
For top quality birds, with
a dressed weight of 350-400
grams, growers receive, on
average, $4.30 - $4.50.
“I think they (squab) have
a very strong future, as long
as we can keep sourcing
quality birds,” Graeme
Briese, of Queensland
Squab Processors said.
And Sue Phelan agrees:
“You’ll never get rich with
squab,” she said.
“But you can make a very
comfortable living if you
have enough birds”. ■
April 2005
HOW TO FARMING - Hanging a gate
Getting the hang
of the farm gate
By Tim Byrne
There are few worse things
than hanging a gate, only
to discover that it’s sagged
or does not swing quite the
was it was expected to.
Be it a three-metre
paddock gate or a small
one-metre access gate, the
principals of hanging the
gate are the same.
Small Farms recently
took a trip to the
Yarramalong Valley to help
fit a small, galvanised gate
to the entrance of a lunging
yard. In this application the
necessity to worry about the
gate dragging on the ground
was not there, as the gate
was swung higher up the
post than would normally
be the case with a paddock
gate hung on a strainer post.
Before starting it is
important to gather all the
necessary
tools
and
equipment to ensure the job
runs as smoothly as
possible.
Materials and equipment
will include a pre-fabricated
gate, hinges, hammer, latch
and catch, hinge blocks, a
spirit level, welding or
drilling equipment and
protective
equipment.
Depending on the type of
gate and hinges, a hacksaw
or grinder might also be
needed. In this instance, the
job at hand was to replace
some
weathered
and
deteriorating timber gates.
After removing the old
gates, the new gate was held
in position and posts
marked for the drilling
points for the new hinge
fittings- there should be an
even gap between the post
and the gate.
Larger gates need to be
set on blocks to ensure the
correct positioning of the
hinges is achieved.
62 Small FARMS
The gate should be able
to clear the ground without
scraping. To test this, tie the
gate to the post and check
that the gate will open and
close smoothly. Hinge
mountings
are
then
positioned accordingly.
In the lunging yard
exercise there was no need
to check for ground
clearance, but correct level
still had to be checked and
achieved. Bore holes in the
post and attach hinges and
gate to the post.
Adjustable hinges are
available to allow for easy
levelling of the gate. A
whole is drilled through the
post and the hinge can be
adjusted using the two nuts
that secure it to either side
of the post.
Catches and any chains
that are used to lock the
gate should be attached and
these should be long
enough to allow unlatching
from the back of a horse or
from the ground. Catches
should work smoothly and
not be loose and they
should be positioned so as
not to hurt livestock.
To avoid sagging and
ensure correct operation, it’s
important that gates are
swung on good quality
posts. Posts that are loose in
the ground will lean under
the weight of the gate and
this can cause the gate to
scrape. If the posts are old
and have rot in them any
coach bolts used to secure
the gate could work their
way loose and cause
operational problems and
sagging.
If you need assistance,
local hardware and farm
supply outlets will be able to
provide information about
swinging a gate and the best
materials to use for your
particular application. ■
1
The gate to be swung. Ensure all the necessary
tools and equipment are at hand.
2
Measuring the position for the upper fitting.
3
Mark the post, ensuing the levels and angels are
correct.
April 2005
HOW TO FARMING - Hanging a gate
4
Drilling for the lower hinge.
6
Drilling for the upper hinge fitting.
7
Adjusting the upper fitting.
5
Coachbolts are used to attach the lower hinge to
the post.
April 2005
8
Checking it is all level.
Thanks to John Marshall for assistance with the photographs.
Small FARMS 63
AROUND THE FARM - Feeding a poddy calf
Raising your
own poddy
Raising a poddy calf may be an
effective way for the new farmer to
learn some basics about cattle.
Initial feed and caring for the poddy
calf is essential if it is to grow and
thrive. Most poddies are taken from
their mothers after about a week or
less. One of the farm tasks for Andrew
Wake at Whittingham, NSW, is to
feed the poddies morning and
evening. When first taken from their
mothers the poddies are tethered by a
loose chain in a position where they
are close to the farm activity. This
means they become quieter by being
handled and fed. Poddies can be fed
with milk from a diary - if there is one
nearby - or with milk powder mixed
with water. Several powder products
such as Denkavit and Palastart are
available in bags. The new farmer
wishing to raise a poddy must make
the commitment to be available twice
a day for the feeding for a period of up
to three months. In addition to correct
feeding, the poddy raiser must also
watch for any sign of scouring and be
prepared to take action against this
problem immediately. Anti-scour
treatments come in both liquid and
powder form. ■
■ With thanks to Max, Robyn and
Andrew Wake, Beenleigh Brown Swiss
Stud, Whittingham, NSW. 02 6572 1396
5
5. Most young calves will feed using a teat like
these shown. They will feed from a bucket half
filled with milk and grip the teat in their
mouths and submerge it below the surface.
64 Small FARMS
1
1. Pour the mixed milk or natural milk, if
obtained from a dairy, into smaller buckets.
Ensure space is left in the bucket to allow the
addition of hot water.
3
3. Test the temperature of the milk with the
hand to ensure it is at a reasonable ‘body
temperature’ level.
6
6. The youngest and least experienced calves
will need assistance the first few times. Here
Andrew Wake holds the teat in position while
the calf does the sucking.
2
2. Carefully adding enough hot water to the
milk raises the temperature to the
approximate body temperature of a lactating
cow.
4
4. Some young calves will only drink from a
bottle where they can hold their head up in a
similar posture to natural feeding. Feeding
calves using a bottle takes time.
7
7. After some experience and persistence of
the handler the calves will hold the teat in their
mouths and suck without any human
assistance.
April 2005
AROUND THE FARM - Feeding a poddy calf
8
8. When feeding is finished you can coax the
calves into another pen using your fingers
dipped in the milk.
11
11. Scouring is a problem where calves
develop diahorrea. Keep various treatments on
hand to attack this problem as it occurs.
Treatments can be in a premix or powder form.
14
14. Once the correct measure of powder is
placed in the bucket, it is then diluted with cold
water and then some hot water to bring it to
the required body temperature.
April 2005
9
9. Right from the start, make additional feed
available to the poddy calves. Here Andrew
Wake is shown with calves at the pellet
feeding bin.
12
12. The premix liquid treatment can be applied
directly into the mouth using a simple plastic
syringe type injector.
15
15. The method of feeding the powder based
anti-scour treatment diluted with water is
similar to the method of feeding milk to the
poddy calves.
10
10. Provide supplementary fodder at the
earliest stage. Small calves will not eat much
at first but will start after a few days. Fodder
is needed to start their gut operating correctly.
13
13. The powder based treatment needs to be
mixed with water to the correct strength.
16
16. The results of a good feeding program with
milk, grain or pellets and fodder, and antiscour action where necessary is a healthy
poddy calf.
Small FARMS 65
SMALL FARMS WHATS NEW
Software to put
you in charge
A Northern Rivers business
based at Lawrence, NSW,
has released a computerbased farm management
simulation, FarmSim. The
computer software gives
prospective users the
chance of being in charge
of different types of
Australian
farming
property.
FarmSim developers,
Coastal Tourism Marketing,
identified a market for an
inter-active, user-friendly
farm
management
simulation relative to
existing
farmers,
agricultural
students,
people considering moving
to the bush or even city
dwellers with an interest in
agriculture. Thus came their
software
program
replicating the operation
and management of typical
farming properties in
Australia.
According to FarmSim
project manager, Allan
Sams, the software package
is a recreational yet
instructive
product
containing
agricultural
research and actual farming
scenarios in different areas.
“We have used professional
Microsoft
endorsed
programmers to develop the
software and the simulation
will be a powerful
modelling tool suitable for
senior school-age upwards,”
Mr Sams said.
“FarmSim is designed to
allow computer farmers the
virtual freedom to raise
finance, buy property,
purchase and sell stock and
crops and pasture improve
with a financial reporting
and tracking mechanism at
the end of each month,” he
added.
The product offers five
geographical areas to farmTropical and Western
Queensland, New South
Wales, Victoria and South
Australia (a West Australian
and Tasmanian version will
be developed by the end of
The FarmSim simulation program provides
virtual assistance with your farm management.
GST and will be released in
2006).
early April. Ordering, full
Random events like
descriptions and technical
drought, floods and insect
details are available now at
plagues will test users along
the FarmSim web site
the way, with assistance
www.farmsim.com.au.
from time to time; however
the player management skill
For more information
will
increase
with
contact Allan Sams (02)
experience.
6647 7100 ■
FarmSim retails at $85 inc
The all new Yamaha ‘Rhino’ sets the benchmark
With the combination of a
powerful 660cc engine and
an unrivalled off-road
chassis, the Rhino sets the
benchmark for side-by-side
vehicles.
Its liquid/oil-cooled 660cc
five-valve engine produces
huge amounts of torque via
Yamaha’s
exclusive
Ultramatic™
automatic
transmission- with industryleading all-wheel engine
brakingand
OnCommand™ push-button
2WD/4WD/4WD
Diff
Lock system. This means
Rhino’s driver can access full
traction at the flick of a
switch for true off-road
ability.
The drivetrain combines
with
a
four-wheel
April 2005
independent-suspended
chassis plus the highest
ground clearance in the
business to give the plushest
ride offered in a side-by-side.
An automatic V-belt
transmission
adds
to
simplicity of operation and
makes for an ultra-smooth
ride, while a reverse gear
increases the Rhino’s amazing
versatility.
Throw in triple-hydraulic
disc brakes, 32 litre fuel tank
and a large capacity dump
bed- and you’ve just invented
the perfect machine for work
or adventure. ■
■ Expect to see the new
Rhino in selected Yamaha
dealers from early April
2005.
The new ‘Rhino’ features simplicity of operation
and an ultra-smooth ride for driver and passenger.
Small FARMS 67
Here’s a look at some on-farm
stories Small FARMS magazine
has covered...
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Australis cattle
Alpaca
Almonds
Angus cattle
Angora goats
Apples
Arabian horses
Asparagus
Awassi sheep
Baby vegetables
Bamboo
Barramundi
Bazadais cattle
Beans
Beekeeping
Beetroot
Biodynamic farms
Bison
Black pigs
Black sheep
Boer goats
Bottled water
Braford cattle
Broombush
Buffalo
Bushfoods
Carob
Carrots
Charbray cattle
Charolais cattle
Cheese making
Cherries
Chestnuts
Cheviot sheep
Chianina cattle
Chillies
Chives
Clydesdale horses
Coffee
Companion pigs
Christmas trees
Cut flowers
Dairy calves
Damara sheep
Deer velvet
Devon cattle
Dexter cattle
Dorper sheep
Dried fruit and veg
Ducks
Eel
Eucalyptus oil
Farm Stays
Figs
Fingerlings
Finn sheep
Flowers
Game poultry
Garlic
Geese
Ginger
Ginseng
Goat fibre
Gold fish
Greyman cattle
Hairy melons
Hazelnuts
Herbs
Hereford cattle
Highland cattle
Hydroponics
Jojoba
Kalahari goats
Lavender
Limes
Limousin cattle
Llamas
Lowline cattle
Lucerne
Macadamia nuts
Marron
Meat rabbits
Meat pigeons
Medicinal herbs
Mohair
Murray Cod
Murray Greys
Mushrooms
Mussels
Mustard
Nashi fruit
Native foods
Neem trees
Olives
Onions
Organic oranges
Orchids
Organic beef
Organic lamb
Oysters
Parsley
Partridges
Paulownia
Prickley pear
Peppermint
Pheasants
Quail
Rabbit fibre
Rhubarb
Roses
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Shropshire sheep
Snails
Trout
Water chestnuts
Wiltshire horns
Wind farming
Viticulture
Yabbies and more
You can also
subscribe over
the phone on
(02) 4861 7778
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(02) 4861 7779
April 2005
SMALL FARMS PRODUCT REVIEW
Mahindra tractor
lands in Australia
Choices just got a whole
lot better down under as
Mahindra Tractors, a
leading farm equipment
manufacturer from India,
is entering the Australian
market with products
ranging from 20 - 65 HP.
Mahindra’s planned entry
into the Australian market
comes close on the heels of
a growing success story in
the US where the company
has
notched
up
considerable success in the
same horsepower category.
Mahindra also has the
enviable distinction of
being the only tractor brand
in the world to have secured
the ‘Deming Award’ for
quality,
a
universally
recognised accolade that
extends to all the offerings
from the Mahindra tractors
stable globally, including
the
machines
that
Mahindra plans to bring to
the Australian arena.
Mahindra has already
started setting up a
distribution network, which
will initially cover the states
of Queensland and NSW,
and move into other areas
in a phased manner.
The entire range of 2WD
and 4WD compact and
utility models is powered
with environment friendly
US TIER II engines, so the
outcome
is
reduced
emissions coupled with
increased fuel economy.
They also feature heavy and
sturdy three point linkages
to ensure stability and
safety. These are workhorses
Mahindra tractors can handle a wide range of
implements to make work on the farm easier.
designed to adapt to a
variety of applications.
Each Mahindra tractor can
handle a wide range of
implements that include
mowers, scrapers, bale
spears, front-end loaders,
posthole diggers, sprayers,
slashers, rotary hoses and
more.
■ For more information
visit the website at
www.mahindraaustralia.com
Small FARMS
BOOK SHOP
You can also order books on line. See our range at
www.smallfarms.net
$30.95
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135 pages
74 pages
146 pages
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We accept Bankcard, Mastercard, Visa and
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408 pages
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April 2005
All our prices include GST, Postage &
Handling costs within Australia
Be quick, books available only while stocks last
Small FARMS 69
SMALL FARMS COMING EVENTS
What’s coming up in your state
April 2005
1st WA Dairy Innovation
Day, WA.
1 - 2nd Moree Show,
NSW, 02 6752 4722.
1 - 2nd Stroud Show,
NSW, 02 4994 9080.
1 - 2nd Wauchope Show,
NSW, 02 6585 3023.
1 - 3rd Campbelltown
Show, NSW, 02 4633
8389.
2nd Batlow Show, NSW,
02 6949 1036.
2nd Bunyip Show, VIC,
03 5629 5267.
2nd Mendooran Show,
NSW, 02 6886 1111.
2nd Natimuk Show, VIC,
03 5382 0311.
2 - 3rd Mt Barker Show,
SA, 08 8391 3122.
5 - 6th Kempsey Show,
NSW, 02 6562 4178.
6 - 7th Goulburn Valley
Dairy Machinery Field
Day, VIC, 03 5857 2784.
8 - 9th Bonalbo Show,
NSW, 02 6665 3184.
8 - 9th Kalamunda Show,
WA, 08 9293 1030.
8 - 9th Macksville Show,
NSW, 02 6568 0206.
8 - 10th Bathurst Royal
Show NSW 02 6331 3175
8 - 10th Hawkesbury
Show NSW 02 4577 3591
8 - 10th Narrabri Show,
NSW, 02 6792 3857.
9th Brewarrina Show,
NSW, 02 6839 1801.
9th Williams Gateway
Expo, WA, 08 9885 8018.
10th Woodenbong Show,
NSW, 02 6635 1195.
12 - 13th Maclean Show,
NSW, 02 6645 1532.
13 - 16th Towoomba
Royal Show QLD 07 4634
7400.
13 - 19th Autumn Beef
Week, NSW.
April 2005
14 - 17th Farmworld,
VIC, 03 5626 1373.
15 - 16th Grafton Show,
NSW, 02 6642 2240.
15 - 17th Gunnedah
Show, NSW, 02 6742
1867.
16th Bourke Show, NSW,
02 6872 3054.
16th Gingin Expo, WA,
08 9575 3000.
17th
Yass Clydesdale
Show, NSW.
17 - 18th Nyngan Show,
NSW, 02 6833 4428.
19th Yeoval Show, NSW,
02 6846 4342.
20th Minyip Show, VIC,
03 5385 7618.
22 - 23rd Cobar Show,
NSW, 02 6836 2659.
22 - 23rd Wellington
Show, NSW.
22 - 24th Coffs Harbour
Show, NSW, 02 6652
3559
22 - 24th Wee Waa Show,
NSW, 02 6796 7211.
23rd Williams Gateway
Expo, WA, 08 9885 8016.
26 - 27th Gilgandra Show,
NSW, 02 6847 1000.
29 - 30th East Gippsland
Field Day VIC 03 5153
1398.
29 - 30th Kapunda Farm
Fair, SA, 08 8566 2006.
29 - 1 May Dubbo Show,
NSW, 02 6882 4364.
29 - 1 May North-West
Expo, WA, 08 9193 7008.
29 - 1 May Tocal Field
Days, NSW, 02 4939
8820.
30 - 1 May Bellinger River
Show, NSW, 02 6655
1115.
Field Day, VIC, 03 5032
3033.
5 - 6th National Vegetable
Expo, VIC, 0417 136 983.
5 - 7th Agfest Rural Trade
Fair, TAS, 03 6334 0262.
5 - 7th Agro-Trend, QLD,
07 4153 3955.
5 - 7th Warialda Show,
NSW, 02 6729 5752.
7th Gulargambone Show,
NSW, 02 6825 1136.
7 - 8th North Coast
Hacking
Champions,
NSW.
7 - 8th Walgett Show,
NSW, 02 6828 5252.
10 - 11th Swan HillMurray Downs Field
Days, VIC, 03 5032 3033.
13 - 14th Murrumbidgee
Farm Fair, NSW, 02 6962
0950.
14th Pickering Brook
Show, WA, 08 9293 8262.
14 - 15th Bingara Show,
NSW, 02 6724 1239.
16 - 17th Gosford Show,
NSW, 02 9985 9763.
16 - 17th Orange Show,
NSW, 02 6362 0535.
20 - 22nd Mungindi
Show, NSW, 02 6753
2356.
24 - 25th Mildura
Horticultural Field Days,
VIC, 03 5023 5174.
25 - 26th Cinivex, NSW,
02 9716 7391.
25 - 26th Cotton Trade
Show, NSW, 07 4659
3555.
Special Notice:
May 2005
Please confirm with
associations
before
attending any of these
events as dates may be
adjusted.
3 - 4th Coonamble Show,
NSW, 02 6822 1393.
3 - 4th Murray Downs
To list your event phone:
(02) 4861 7778 or fax us
on (02) 4861 7779
Tassie’s premier
agricultural event
Agfest, Tasmania's premier event,
will be held at Quercus Rural
Youth Park, near Carrick, May 5
- 7, 2005. Agfest is a significant
field day organised by volunteer
members of the Rural Youth
Organisation of Tasmania.
The first Agfest was held in
1983 and has since developed
into an event well supported by
the Tasmanian community and
thousands of visitors. Young
Rural Youth volunteers spend
thousands of hours working to
ensure that Agfest continues to be
successful and relevant.
Not only is Agfest a market
place for anything agricultural, it
is also a learning experience for
children, and adults, of all ages!
There are many features to enjoy
while attending Agfest, including
working displays of vintage
machinery, steam engines and a
blacksmith, while the Heritage
Area highlights the unique
history of rural Tasmania,
enabling patrons to step back in
time and appreciate the lifestyle
and hardships of our pioneers.
Over 150 of Australia's best
craft people come together at
Agfest to showcase the best of
country-craft
and
cottage
industries,
providing
the
opportunity to view and purchase
many unique items.
Patrons will not go hungry as
they can sample many culinary
delights at the Uniquely
Tasmanian Wine & Food centre,
or purchase good quality food
from one of the many
community catering outlets.
If visitors to Agfest have time
they can also investigate the
fashion parades, central arena
entertainment, sheep and yard
dog trials, farm machinery
demonstrations,
4WD
demonstrations, dairy expo
features and police displays.
Whether you're from the city or
the bush, you'll find fun, facts
and entertainment at Agfest
2005- an event that must be
included in any holiday plans!
For furthur information, go to
www.agfest.com.au ■
Small FARMS 71
SMALL FARMS LIFESTYLE
The Crossword
The Crossword
LAST MONTHS CLUES.......ACROSS
17. Joined together
Small FARMS 1. Pheasants,
partridge & grouse 19. Regulate
3. Fishermen use pots 20. Prepare for
Crossword
takeoff
to catch these
24. Flow-rate control
9. Most audible
SOLUTION
device
10. A major export
Book
reviews
Holistic Management
(Second Edition)
By Allan Savory
For those seeking to make
better decisions within their
business or community, this
practical guide to resource
management
considers
humans, their economies
and the environment. The author, a
former wildlife biologist, farmer and
politician, has developed a new approach
to decision making. With an aim to satisfy
the needs of the current generation,
without jeopardising future generations,
he works on the basis that humans, their
economies and the environment are
inseparable realities that require equal
attention when a decision is being made.
(616 pages, paperback)
Price $77.00 includes postage
The New Crop Industries
Handbook
Edited by Sue Salvin, Max
Bourke AM, and Tony Byrne
A very comprehensive
introduction to new crop
industries,
this
book
presents new research
findings drawing on the
practical experiences of experts in the
industry. A guide for farmers, investors,
advisors, bank managers and students, it
contains facts and figures, production
8. Animal doctor
1. Beef cattle breed
requirements, varieties, pest and disease
that originated in 13. ... bluefin tuna
control and harvest. It examines the
14. Confessed
Bavaria
16. Complication
2. Grain & cereal
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
18. Crop parasite with threats and highlights important areas that
crop pest,
bright yellow
sometimes in
require consideration before investing.
stem, ... Dodder
plague proportions
(543 pages, softcover)
4. Gain possession of 21. Fish with line
Price $60.00 includes postage
25. Long dry spell
market for
Australia’s primary 26. Cud-chewing
animal
produce
27. Round up
11. Scenery
(livestock)
12. Restricted
15. Take on (worker)
CLUES.....DOWN
5. Segments
6. Apparent
7. Disease of apples
& pears
Crossword supplied by...
April 2005
& hook
22. Six balls in cricket These books and more now available through
23. Male domesticated Small Farms Bookshop phone (02) 4861
pig
7778. Prices includes GST and postage &
handling costs within Australia. You can also
order
at
our
secured
website
www.smallfarms.net
Small FARMS 73
Stock
Small FARMS Magazine
Advertising available in this section at $49.
CATTLE
SQUARE MEATERS
Square Meaters Cattle Assoc.
Multi-Vendor Sale Goulburn
Saleyards Sat 7th May 2005
Inspections from 9am, Sale starts
12 noon 69 head on offer
For more information contact
PO Box 371
St Marys NSW 1790
MINTO GALLOWAYS
Home of Galloway Champions
Young registered full blood bulls and
commercial cows with calves for
sale at reasonable prices. All paddock
reared with drought
survival
qualifications. Ideal cross breeders,
they will assist removal of calving
problems, will remove horns and
provide a great carcase.
Beautiful Galloway long haired winter
hide floor rugs for sale
TEL: 02 9834 4322
FAX: 02 9834 4311
www.squaremeaters.com.au
“Home of Galloway
Champions”
Buy Devons for excellent
returns and
performance in the good
times and for their
renowned survival
abilities in the harder times.
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Devon Cattle Breeders Society
of Australia LTD
P.O. Box 72, Gloucester,
N.S.W. 2422.
“Minto”, Yass, NSW, 2582
Tel: (02) 6230 2536
Tel/Fax: (02) 4994 7189
Fax: (02) 6230 9336
Email: [email protected]
Web site: www.devoncattle.com
Dexter Cattle
Want to know more
about our
Beef Industry’s best
kept secret..
Email [email protected]
Yer r inbank
LOWLINE STUD
Galloways, Belted Galloways
& Miniature Galloways
Australian Galloway Assoc Inc
PO Box 531, Wodonga, VIC 3689
Ph: 02 6027 3361
Fax: 02 6027 3454
www.galloway.asn.au
[email protected]
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LOWLINE STUD
● Dexters are easy on your land, easy to
✔ Quality Stock For Sale
✔ Visitors and Enquiries
Welcome
Contact - Jan Matheson
Honeypot Farm
Miniature Galloways
Phone (02) 6226 8254
Email:
[email protected]
care for and very easy to love
●
Dexter cattle have calm and quiet
temperaments and are the true
miniature breed
●
Further Information is freely available
❖ Champion bulls and top quality seed stock
❖ Superior quality steers ❖ Efficient commercial cows
❖ Ideal bulls for dairy farmers and other breeds
❖ Sustainable farming on small acreages
Enquiry and inspection is welcome
John and Ann Rowe
Dexter Cattle Australia Inc.
32 Bark Lane, Kyneton Vic, 3444
ABRI, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351
Ph: (03) 54227038
Fax: (03) 5422 7041
Ring, write, email or fax Dexter Cattle Australia Inc on:
Would you like to know why Lowline
cattle appeal to so many first-time
small property owners, commercial
beef producers and dairy farmers?
Why they are one of the fastest
growing breed societies in Australia?
Information kit available.
Ph: (02) 6773 3471
Fax: (02) 6772 1943
Email: [email protected]
Ph: (07) 5466 7266 Laidley
Email: [email protected]
www.yerrinbanklowline.com
www.lowline.com.au
LITTLE MANNING
Miniature Galloway Cattle
This space
available at
DEVONS
Breeding Devons for
Six Generations
$49.
Hardy, Economical and Great Companions
Excellent for small and large acreage
Stud or Commercial
Blacks, Duns and Whites available
Excellent after sales service
Telephone
Small FARMS
magazine
Contact Kathy Hansch
(02) 4861 7778
285 Briars Road, Bungendore, NSW 2621
Ph: 02 62382422 Fax: 02 62382792
Email: [email protected]
74 Small FARMS
Bulls for sale
Also offering quality cattle
from excellent bloodlines
Enquiries most welcome.
David, Grahame and Brian Edwards.
Neil and Phyllis Edwards
Ph/Fax: (02) 6558 7596
306 Hunter Carter Rd,
Gloucester, NSW, 2422
April 2005
k TRADER
PICTORIAL DIRECTORY
CATTLE
GALLOWAYS
BLACK DUN BELTED
WHITE MINIATURE
AUSTRALIA’S SMALL
FARM FAVOURITES
✔Easy Management ✔Hardy ✔Carcase Champions
Ideal for small holdings
Assistance and Advice Available
Meet the friendly, professional breeders
Call 02 6241 5474
0418 623 998
gallowaycattle.com.au
BILLABONG
DOGS
Silverwerro
Anatolians
Breeders of fine working
Anatolian Shepherd dogs.
Aust. Ch. Berdina
Smokey standing at stud
Frozen Semen (Camelot method) available.
Alpacas For sale
PO Box 94 Bringelly NSW 2556
[email protected]
www.Silverwerro.com
02 4774 9904
Central Asian
Ovcharka
DEXTERS
Livestock guardians from Russia
Quality stock at very
reasonable prices.
Gentle with lifestock, their own
family, especially children; but
intolerant of all types of intruders.
Can transport Australia wide
All cattle dehorned/poll
and halter broken
Trish & Mick Cabassi
Ph/Fax: (08) 9525 4147
Mob: 0411 435283
Email: [email protected]
THURLOO PARK
SQUARE MEATER STUD
Stud & Commercial Females
and Bulls available
Stud Embryos and semen
available for sale
For further information
please contact
David & Julie Thompson
Ph: (02) 6943 2241
Fax: (02) 6943 2243
PO Box 393,
Cootamundra, NSW, 2590
Fully reg. & vacc. pups from
quality imported stock available.
Mardallin
BOER GOAT BREEDER’S
ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA
Alpaca Stud
Situated in the Macedon Ranges We Offer:
● Sales, Stud & Agistment
Services
● Alpacas for Breeding, Pets
and Guard Animals for Farms
● Information & Friendly Advice
● Visitors welcome
“Alpaca Phoo” The Best Nutrient around available now
New Alpaca Farm Shop
For Information please contact:
Mike & Helga Prior
* Literature & Information
* Membership Information
* Registration and Transfers
* Performance Recording
C/- ABRI, University of New England,
ARMIDALE NSW 2351
Ph: (02) 6773 5177
Fax: (02) 67221943
Email: [email protected]
Phone (03) 5789 1354
email [email protected]
B reeding Q uality
A lpacas fr om
Champion B loodlines
❖Sales ❖Agistment ❖Breeding
❖Customer Service ❖Excellent
Quality ❖Proven Winners
Alleena Alpaca Stud
POULTRY
LARADO
WYANDOTTE
STUD
6 Euroka Avenue
Murrumbateman,
NSW, 2582
Ph: (02) 6227 5680
Mob: 0408 631 984
Fax: (02) 6227 0060
Enquiries welcome: Alabai Stud
(02) 4573 6335 Elena
www.alabai.com.au
Ph: (02) 4576 3333
PIGS
LLAMA
SNAILS
PORKY’S PARADISE
“Serving the interests
of Llamas throughout
Australia and
New Zealand”
SNAILS
PETITE PET PIGS
MINIATURE PIGS
GREAT COMPANIONS, EASY TO TRAIN,
FULLY GROWN WILL WEIGH 50 KILOS
◆ PIGLETS FOR SALE ◆
✔Vaccinated ✔Wormed
✔De-sexed ✔Breeding Stock Available
For Info Sheet & Photos
Contact: Christine Wishart
Telephone: (02) 6928 8201
Mobile: 0411 482 801
E-Mail: [email protected]
April 2005
ALPACA
GOATS
[email protected]
MN3#A024/04/01
For further
information and a
list of breeders
please contact
the Secretary,
Nadine Kaminski
Email:
[email protected]
Phone: 03 5196 6137
Fax: 03 5176 1363
or visit our website:
http://www.llama.asn.au
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BON
APPETITE
Featuring SBA snail farming method,
business opportunity and grower
network. Be a part of this exciting new
industry.
Now on DVD & Video !
See us at Tocal Field Days
(good food section)
www.snails.com.au
Or phone: 02 4998 0030
office hours
Hunter Valley NSW
Small FARMS 75
TRADER
Classifieds
To p l a c e y o u r a d t e l e p h o n e ( 0 2 ) 4 8 6 1 7 7 7 8 o r fa x t o ( 0 2 ) 4 8 6 1 7 7 7 9 o r E m a i l s m a l l fa r m s @ b i g p o n d . c o m
REAL ESTATE
Under $300,000
Bathurst, NSW - 464 acres. Vacant land with spectacular
views, new shed - graze cattle/sheep/goats, huge fishing hole,
fossicking, horse riding, less than 3 hours from Parramatta.
Price $250,000. Contact Landmark 02 6331 3166.
Bigga, NSW - 40 acres 1/2 hour to Crookwell, minutes
from Bigga village with shop, golf club and hotel. Sealed
road access. Undulating to low hills at rear, scattered timbers
and granite boulders, dam and fenced. Magnificent views
over surrounding hills and mountains. Building approval.
Natural pastures and well sheltered. Price $150,000.
Contact Professionals Real Estate 02 4822 1411.
Binalong NSW – 63 acres fertile grazing, walking distance
to Binalong township. Views, fencing, 2 dams, permit to
build. Price $269,000. Contact Franklin Real Estate 0428
168 118.
Braidwood NSW – 25 to 100 acre vacant grazing &
recreational land, Shoalhaven River access, permit to build,
fencing, dams, views. Priced from $249,000 to $349,000.
Contact Franklin Real Estate 0428 168 118.
Echuca, VIC - 20 acres, dam, trees, well fenced. Close to
Murray River and Highway just km’s from Echuca. Very
private, quiet and sheltered. Price $220,000. Contact Elders
Real Estate 0428 168 567.
Mudgee, NSW - 472 acres. Cleared, hilly grazing country.
36km Sydney side of Mudgee. The farm has building
entitlement. 1km creek frontage and is all fenced. Price
$260,000. Contact Peter Druitt & Co 02 6372 2500.
Rhyanna NSW – 100 grazing acres, fencing, pasture
improved, 3 dams. Permit to build, power & phone
available. Price $295,000. Contact Franklin Real Estate on
0428 168 118.
RURAL SPECIALIST
Somersby, Peats Ridge, Central Mangrove,
Mount White, Calga, Yarramalong, Kulnura, Bucketty,
Cedar Brush Creek, Ravensdale
Michael Kidd
Property Sales Pty Ltd
George Downes Drive, Kulnura
(02) 4376 1440
76 Small FARMS
Shoalhaven, NSW - A rare opportunity to acquire a
wilderness block in an exclusive area. Just 2 hours from
Liverpool we are offering a pristine 125 acres with a large
diversity in flora and fauna. Undulating to low hill native
bush country with 2 sheltered pine glens, power available,
lock up garden shed and a secluded site for a weekender.
Price $175,000. Raine & Horne Goulburn 02 4821 9088.
REAL ESTATE
Over $300,000
Bilpin NSW – 50 private acres mixture of prime open
grazing and natural bush. Dams, large shed and stockyards.
$720,000. Contact Franklin Real Estate 0428 168 118.
Bungonia NSW – 100 recreational acres with large
machinery shed less than 15 mins Hume Highway, 2
caravans ready for your weekends, water tanks. Price
$379,000. Contact Franklin Real Estate 0428 168 118.
Caloundra area, QLD - 44 acre farm with house, water and
infrastructure. Professional horse spelling establishment
which backs onto the Stanley River. 3 b/r home with
stunning views to the Glasshouse Mountains. 7 stables and
tack room, 2 round yards and arena, 14 spelling paddocks,
huge farm shed, good fencing and 2 dams. 30 mins to
Caloundra and Caboolture. Ray White 07 5497 1150.
Canyonleigh NSW – 150 acres (40 cleared) and 3 bedroom
b/v home with timber and slate throughout. Stunning views,
privacy assured. Price $780,000. Contact Franklin Real
Estate 0428 168 118.
Strathbogie, VIC - 100 acres with permanent creek backing
onto native reserve, bitumen road frontage, power close,
small weekender shed. Under 2 hrs to Melbourne. Price
$350,000. Contact North Eastern Country Real Estate 03
5795 1444.
Wauchope/Port Macquarie, NSW - This highly regarded
300 acres of land will fatten your vealers or steers. With
mostly red soils & an abundance of kikuyu & rhodes grass.
Will comfortably carry 60-70 breeders. Watered by
permanent creek plus dams. Old 3 b/r home. Stockyards.
Price $312,000. Contact Wauchope Stock & Estate Agents
02 6585 2142.
Yarragon South, VIC - 76 acres, Approx 30 acres bushland
and 46 acres pasture. 4 stock dams. Yard, hayshed and
machine shed. 3-4b/r home with ensuite, air-conditioned
and solid fuel heating. Panoramic views to the north and
south. Sealed road frontage. 10 mins to Princes Freeway and
Yarragon. One hour to Eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Price
$425,000. Contact Jolly Real Estate 03 5633 1666.
April 2005
“The Country Property Specialists”
DIMARCO’S HIDEAWAY - Seclusion and Value
Where else could you find a comfortable 4 bedroom home on 100 secluded
rural acres under 1.5 hours from the southern suburbs of Sydney for this
price? Add to this the large 5 bay machinery shed (3 bays enclosed), sealed
road access and approximately 20 cleared acres and you have the perfect
family retreat or investment property. Modern inclusions, 3 way
bathroom, good water storage and biocycle just 3km from the Hume
Highway on sealed road access at Marulan in the major growth corridor
between Mittagong and Goulburn. Be quick to make an appointment - it
won’t last long at this price. $560,000
SHEPHERD’S HIDEAWAY - History & Views
100 fertile grazing acres with scattered gums for shade and shelter and the
timbered ridge with natural bush create that perfect combination for a
variety of agricultural and horticultural applications. Water catchment is
a feature with exceptional opportunity to harvest natural run-off. Choose
one of the many excellent homesites to capture the spectacular backdrop
of the Coastal Ranges and the Morton National Park. Pause a while by
the ruins of the old shepherd’s hut and sheep yards to remember our early
settlers. Rural holdings combining views, natural grazing, excellent water
and bushland like Shepherd’s Hideaway seldom become available. Enjoy
easy access only 15 minutes to Goulburn, 45 minutes to Bowral and 1
hour to Canberra. $295,000
Riverside Shearer’s Cottage - Abandoned Dream
Just outside the charming country village of Braidwood are 25 creekfront acres waiting for someone to move in and bring the old shearing
shed and quarters to life. Enjoy the crystal clear waters of
Jembaicumbene Creek, exceptional views over attractive farms to the
coastal ranges and a stroll down to the majestic Shoalhaven River. The
shearing shed has been renovated to accommodate horses or to use for
storage, and the old smoke room into a tack or feed shed. Add to this the
convenience of sealed road access, fencing, building permission and
power and phone available just 10 minutes from town, 1 hour to
Canberra and 45 minutes to the coastal beaches. $265,000 o.n.o.
Bunnerong - Grazing Acres
100 sought-after acres with scattered timber for shade and shelter, clean
fresh air and sealed road access conveniently located close to major
centres, well suited for a variety of agricultural or horticultural
applications. There are two good-sized dams, cattle yards and shed,
fencing, power and telephone available, and permission to build the
home of your choice on one of the many excellent home sites with views
across the attractive landscape. Located just 20 minutes from Goulburn
at Quialigo, 2 hours from Sydney, 1 hour to Canberra. $379,000
Buying or selling Country Property? Call Franklin Real Estate
“The Country Property Specialist” on 0428 168 118
14 Springrove Lane, Kurrajong, NSW, 2758
Office: (02) 4573 2758 Fax: (02) 4573 2761 Website: www.franklinrealestate.com.au
April 2005
Small FARMS 77