SICU and TICU Critical Care Nutrition Guidelines

SICU and TICU Critical Care
Nutrition Guidelines
Revised 2010
Clinical judgment may supersede guidelines as patient circumstances warrant
Initial Nutrition Evaluation
• Resuscitation goals met?
o No  Continue resuscitation. Do not start nutrition provision
o Yes  Consult Nutrition Service and start enteral nutrition (see below, Enteral Nutrition)
 Ensure all patients should have nutrition regimen by day 2
 Enteral nutrition (EN) is preferred over parenteral nutrition (PN)(see protocols below)
• Protocols
o GI Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis – refer to unit specific protocol
o Antioxidant Protocol – given to all adult trauma ICU patients for 7 days
 Supplementation
• Ascorbic acid 1,000 mg PO/PT/IV q 8 hours
• α-tocopherol 1,000 IU PO/PT q 8 hours
• Selenium 200 mcg IV qd
 Excludes:
• Excludes pregnant patients (ascorbic acid & selenium= pregnancy category C)
• Excludes patients with creatinine > 2.5 mg/dL
o Lab Protocol
 Enter HEO SCC Nutrition Monitoring Order Set on all critically ill patient
• Obtain pre-albumin and CRP levels at day 2 if anticipated ICU stay is > 3 days.
• Repeat and re-assess every Monday/Thursday.
o Glucose Control – refer to protocol
o Wound Healing Protocol (for open abdomen, burns, large wounds, or fistulas):
 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) 500mg BID PO/PT/IV x 10 days
 Vitamin A 10,000 IU, PO/PT/IM x 10 days
 Zinc 220mg PO x 10 days PO or PT -50mg/10ml elemental oral solution
o Severe Cachexia/Malnourishment Protocol:
 Consider use of Oxandrolone 10mg po/pt twice daily
Enteral Nutrition (EN)
• Initiation of EN
o Start at 50% of goal (~25-30ml/hr) within 24 – 48 hours of admission
o Advance as tolerated to goal by day 5 with improvement of SIRS or critical illness
o If not at 60% of goal after 7 days, consider PN supplementation (refer to protocol)
• Withhold EN if hemodynamically unstable
• EN Access
o Placement
 Begin with blind bedside nasogastric feeding tube
 Consider bedside endoscopic, fluoroscopic, Cortrak, or intraoperative placement
 OGT and NGT placement confirmed by physical exam
 Small bore feeding tube placement confirmed by radiology
o Gastric access
 Short-term: OGT, NGT, small bore feeding tube
 Long-term: PEG (initiate TF at 6am post PEG placement)
o Post-pyloric access
 Short-term:
If placement unsuccessful after 2 attempts consider endoscopic placement of
PEG/J (long-term)
• Gastroparesis with persistent high (500ml) Gastric Residual Volume (GRV)
despite prokinetic agents or recurrent emesis
• Severe active pancreatitis (endoscopic placement for jejunal feeds)
• Open abdomen
• Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) > 15
Parenteral Nutrition (PN)
• If previously healthy, initiate PN only after the first 7 days of hospitalization if EN is not feasible.
• If protein-calorie malnutrition present and EN not feasible, start PN immediately after resuscitation.
• Weaning TPN when:
o TFs tolerated at 60% of goal
 Decrease TPN to ~half, d/c lipids and decrease dextrose/AA per PN team order
 Wean off TPN as TF rate advances to goal or per clinician judgment
o POs tolerated at 60% of meals consumed
 Decrease TPN to ~half, d/c lipids and decrease dextrose/AA per PN team order
 Weaned off TPN per clinician judgment
Nutritional Goals:
• Dosing Weight:
o Use IBW for height if actual body weight is > IBW
o Hamwi method:
 Men:106# (48kg)1st 5 ft, then add 6# (2.7kg) per inch >5ft, +/-10%
 Women: 100# (45kg)1st 5 ft, then add 5# (2.3kg) per inch >5ft, +/-10%
o Use actual body weight if weight is < IBW
• Caloric Goals:
o 25 – 35 kcal/kg dosing weight
o If BMI > 30, use 22 – 25 kcal/kg IBW
• Protein needs:
o General: 1.2 – 2.0 g/kg dosing weight
o Obesity
 BMI of 30 – 40, use > 2 g/kg IBW
 BMI > 40, use > 2.5 g/kg IBW
o Renal Failure (HD/CRRT): 1.2 – 2.5 g/kg dosing weight
o Hepatic Failure: 1.2 – 2.0 g/kg dosing weight
• Fluid Needs - 1 ml/kcal baseline
o Cover Additional losses – (ie. fever, diarrhea, GI output, tachypnea)
o Fluid restriction – CHF, renal failure, hepatic failure with ascites, CNS injury, and electrolyte
If LOS>7 days and pt has not consistently met near 100% needs consider nutritional provision from a
combination of PO/EN/PN routes.
Authors: Beth Mills, MS, RD, CNSD and Bryan Collier, DO, FACS, CNSP
Bankhead R, Boullata J, Brantley S, Corkins M, Guenter P, Krenitsky J et al. Enteral nutrition practice recommendations. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral
Nutrition. 2009.
McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P et al. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult
critically ill patient. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2009; 33 (3): 277-316.
Critical Care Nutrition
Practice Management Guidelines
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Collier and Mills
Revised 2010
Combination Feeding (EN/PN) Protocol
Functional GI tract?
Patient able to take PO?
Patient previously healthy or malnourished?
Oral diet initiated.
Start with clear or full
liquid diet, advance
diet as tolerated.
EN initiated/continued.
Start EN at 25-30ml/hr
and advance EN to goal
as tolerated.
Tolerating diet?
Tolerating TF?
Monitor % meals consumed if
on combined PO diet & EN/PN
Patient consuming at least 60% of
meals provided for 48 hours?
1. Reduce PN/EN by ½ of goal
A. PN can be reduced by ½ of goal
(discontinue lipids and decrease dextrose)
or to less than 24 hour infusion time
B. EN can be cycled to 12 hour nighttime
cycle to encourage appetite during the day
2. Follow % meals consumed
> 7 days without
meeting 60% of
nutritional needs?
PN initiated/continued.
PN needed long term?
Total Enteral Nutrition Flow Diagram
Critical Care Nutrition
Practice Management Guidelines
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Collier and Mills
Revised 2010
Start EN within 24-48 hours of admission
Critically Ill Surgery, Burn or Trauma Patient
Pivot 1.5
Non-Critically Ill Post-Op Patient
Standard Formula
LOS > 10 days
Promote 1.0
Osmolite 1.2
Osmolite 1.5
Two Cal HN
(for the first 10 days)
Consider other
Consult RD for details to use disease specific formulas
Persistent Uncontrolled
Glucerna 1.2
ARDS (P/F <200)
ALI (P/F < 300)
Oxepa 1.5
Renal Failure
(On RRT / Cr > 2.5)
Nepro 1.8 (for IHD)
Promote (for CRRT)
Hepatic Failure
with Refractory
NutriHep 1.5
Acute Pancreatitis
(Moderate to
Vital 1.5
Vivonex RTF 1.0
MODS/Chyle Leak
Vivonex RTF 1.0
Critical Care Nutrition
Practice Management Guidelines
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Collier and Mills
Revised 2010
Pre-Operative Protocol for Enteral Nutrition
(EN) Feeding
For Protected Airway Patients
• Non-Abdominal Surgery
• Turn feeds off just prior to OR
departure or beside procedure.
• Gastric tube will be flushed
and aspirated.
• Abdominal Surgery
• Operative Intervention
requiring Prone Positioning
• Upper GI Endoscopy
• Turn feeds off 6 hours before
planned anesthesia
• Gastric tube will be flushed and
aspirated prior to OR departure
• Turn feeds off 1 hour prior to
elective endoscopy
• Place NGT tube to suction
Stop insulin infusion prior to OR transport
Alert anesthesiologist to perform Accucheck
perioperatively in OR if SQ insulin given within 2 hours
Restart feedings post surgery unless
orders to hold TF post surgery.
• For patient with confirmed post-pyloric feeding tube consider
perioperative continuous feeding by anesthesiologist and surgeon
• If patient is on insulin infusion, continue along with tube feedings.
Critical Care Nutrition
Practice Management Guidelines
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Collier and Mills
Revised 2010
Gastric Residual Volume (GVR) Protocol
Check Residuals Every 4 Hours After Initiating/Continuing TF
(Prior to starting TF – always check position of tube with KUB)
GRV > 500 ml
x 2 consecutive residuals
• Replace residuals
• Hold feeds
• Check residuals after 4 hours
GRV > 500 ml
GRV ≤ 500 ml
• Replace residuals
GRV ≤ 500 ml
Physical signs of intolerance present?
• Consider starting medication
o Prokinetic Agents
 Erythromycin 200 mg IV or per tube q6h x 3 days.
(If history of diabetic gastroparesis, continue on
erythromycin. Consider prolongation of QTc.
 Metoclopramide 10 mg IV q6h x 3 days
o Narcotic Antagonists
 Naloxone 8mg q 8hr, then 8mg q 6hr if needed
• Reduce risk of aspiration by elevating HOB to 30-45° and
switching to continuous infusion if receiving bolus
• Recheck residuals in 4 hours
GRV ≤ 500 ml
GRV > 500 ml
• Replace residual
• Restart feeds at 50% of goal
• Recheck residuals in 4 hours
GRV > 500 ml
GRV ≤ 500 ml
• Small bowel feedings if gastroparesis present
• TPN if > 7 days of not achieving 60% goal rate
of EN or ileus present